Suprasegmental The term suprasegmental was invented to refer to aspects of sound that did not seem to be properties of individual segments (i.e. the vowels and consonants of which speech is composed).
Pitch, Loudness, Length Pitch is the auditory property of a sound that enables us to place it on a scale that ranges from low to high. Pitch is usually noticeable in sonorous sounds. Pitch is divided into two types: tone and intonation
Tone and Intonation The combination of the tensed vocal folds and greater air pressure results in higher voice pitch on vowels and sonorants consonants, while less tense vocal folds and lower air pressure result in lower voice pitch. Two kinds of controlled pitch movement found in human language called tone and intonation.
Tone A language is said to have tone or be a tone language when differences in word meaning are signalled by differences in pitch. Not all of the languages have tone languange, for example in English. English doesn’t have tone language coz when a speaker says a cˊar ? with a rising pitch, the word car doesn’t mean anything different from the same form pronounced in lower pitch.
Tone There are two kind of tone in language.1. Register tones: tone shows at only certain pitch levels that signals meaning differences.2. Contour tones: moving pitches that signal meaning differences.
We can find tone language in Mandarin Chinese. for example: ma [mˋa] falling pitch means ‘scold’ ma [mˊa] rising pitch means ‘hemp’. Some tone languages show tones at only certain pitch levels. as in Athapaskan language (canadian province of Alberta) has tone heard at high, mid, and low. H M L association line [mil] ‘moth’ [mil] ‘snare’ [mil] ‘sleep’
Contour tones H MLH[ma] mother high tone [ma] horse fall riseMH HL[ma] hemp mid rise [ma] scold high fall
Intonation Pitch movement in spoken utterances that is not related to differences in word meaning. for example: there is no difference in meaning when English says seven whether it is pronounced with a rising pitch or a falling pitch. Intonation serve to convey information of a broadly meaningful nature. For example, the falling pitch we hear at the end of the statement signals that the utterance is complete.
Length When vowels and consonants whose articulation is held longer relative to that of other vowels and consonants. Length is indicated in phonetic transcription by the use of a colon [:] placed after the long segment. Some languages that show long and short vowels are Italian, Hungarian, German, Cree, Yap and Finnish.
Yap language Example in Yap (Island of Yap in the Western Pacific) Short and long vowels in Yap [θis] to topple [θi:s] (a) post [pul] to gather [pu:l] moon
Italian Short and long consonants in Italian fato [fatɔ] fate fatto [fat:ɔ] fact fano [fanɔ] grove fanno [fan:ɔ] they do casa [kasa] house cassa [kas:a] part of lagoon.
Stress Stress is a cover term for the combined affects of pitch, loudness, and length. In general, English stressed vowels are higher in pitch, longer and louder than unstressed ones.
INTONATION Intonation means when, why, and how a speaker chooses to raise or lower or sustain the pitch of her or his voice at particular points while speaking.
What intonation does? Intonation is the tools for achieving at least five important aims: A. expressing new information B. showing contrast Expressing meaning Showing pronunciation Showing mood or personality
1. Expressing new information Expressing new information is the starting point of standard intonation. In standard English, it consider that the nouns carry the weight of a sentence. Dogs eat bones Dogs eat bones. They eat them
2. CONTRAST Contrast intonation indicates argumentative or bad tempered. Bob studies English Bob studies English, but he doesn’t use it.
3. MEANING Change the meaning of a sentence by stressing on of the word in a sentence.1. I didn’t say he stole the money.2. I didn’t say he stole the money.3. I didn’t say he stole the money.4. I didn’t say he stole the money.5. I didn’t say he stole the money.6. I didn’t say he stole the money.7. I didn’t say he stole the money.
1. I didn’t say he stole the money, someone else said it.2. I didn’t say he stole the money, that’s not true at all3. I didn’t say he stole the money, I only suggested the possibility.4. I didn’t say he stole the money, I think someone else took it.5. I didn’t say he stole the money, maybe he just borrowed it.6. I didn’t say he stole the money, but rather some other money.7. I didn’t say he stole the money, he may have taken some jewelry.
4. PRONUNCIATION Intonation and pronunciation have two areas of overlap. A. The first is the pronunciation of the letter T. when a T is at the beginning of a word, it is a clear sharp /t/ sound. when T is in the middle of a word, between two vowels, or in unstressed position, it turns into a softer /d/ sound. Betty bought a bit of better butter. B. the second overlap has to do with the syllable that receive the prominence of stress and pitch.
5. MOOD AND PERSONALITY This in an extremely important aspect of intonation, as it goes beyond what you are trying to say. Intonation determines if you will be considered charming or rude, confident or nervous, or informed or unfamiliar.
STRESS The word stress means loudness. Stress is a term that we apply to words in isolation which have more that one syllable. It refers to the property that certain syllables carry which makes them stand out from the rest of the word.
The Importance of Stress The job of stress is to create contrast.a) Boundary markingb) Additional contrast verb noun convert /kən’vɜ:t/ /’kɒnvət/
RULES OF STRESS Word Stress Patternsa) Monosyllabic words monosyllabic words do not have stress patternsb) Bi-syllabic wordsc) Multi-syllabic words
Bi-syllabic words1. If the second syllable of the bi-syllabic verb contains a long vowel or diphthong, then the second syllable is stressed. Take the following examples: increase /ɪŋ’kri:s/2. If the bi-syllabic verb ends with more than one consonant, then the second syllable is stressed. Take the following examples: collapse /kə’læps/ condense /kən’dens/
3. If the final syllable contains a short vowel and one or no final consonant, then usually, the first syllable will be stressed. Take these examples: open /’əʊpən/ envy /’envɪ/Bi-syllabic nouns generally follow a different stress placement pattern.1. If the second syllable contains a short vowel, then the stress usually comes on the first syllable. Take these examples: labrum /’leɪbrəm/ chimney
2. If the bi-syllabic noun does not go by rule 1, its stress will have to be placed on the second syllable. Nouns that fall in this category are very rare. Take this example: increase /ɪŋ’kri:s/
Multi syllable words1. Prefixes and the adverbial suffix -ly (used to make adverbs) usually do not change the pattern of stress. Take the following examples: capitulate /kə’pɪʧəleɪt/ recapitulate /ˌri:kə’pɪʧəleɪt/ moderate /’mɒdərət/ moderately /’mɒdərətlɪ/
2. Verbs that end in –ate or –ize receive stress on their antepenultimate (i.e., last but two, or the third from right) syllables. Notice that the endings are pronounced as /eɪt/ and /aɪz/ respectively. Take the following examples: conviscate /’kɒnfɪskeɪt/ demonstrate /’demənstreɪt/ recognize /’rekəgnaɪz/
3. Verbs that end in –ify usually take stress on the syllable prior to the –ify ending. Take the following examples: beautify /‘bju:təfaɪ/ testify /’testəfaɪ/
4. Other verbs usually take stress on their last syllables, unless when the last syllable contains a short vowel. Take the following examples: intervene /ˌɪntə’vi:n/ intercede /ˌɪntə’si:d/
5. Adjectives that end in –ate receive stress on their antepenultimate syllable (like verbs) but the –ate ending is pronounced as /ət/. Take the following examples: moderate /’mɒdərət/ elaborate /ɪ’læbərət/
6. Adjectives that end in –ese usually receive stress on the syllable containing –ese. Take the following examples: japanese /ˌʤæpə’ni:z/ javanese /ˌʤævə’ni:z/
7. Adjectives which end in –ious, -uous, - eous, -ieous, -ic, -ical, -ian, -ible, –ial, or -ive (except for those ending in -tive) usually receive stress on the syllable prior to these endings. There are a few exceptions in connection to the ending – ic (e.g., Arabic, lunatic, and rhetoric). Take the following examples: impressive /ɪm’presɪv/ public /’pʌblɪk/ spontaneous /spən’teɪnɪəs/ comprehensible /ˌkɒmprə’hensɪbəl/
8. Adjectives that end in –able, -al, and – ous usually take stress on their antepenultimate syllables (i.e., the third from right). Take these examples: corporal /’kɔ:pərəl/ admirable /’ædmərəbl/
9. Nouns that end in –ity, -ety, -al, -ion, - ence, -ance, -acy, and –ian usually take stress on the syllable prior to these endings. Take the following examples: piety /’paɪətɪ/ ability /ə’bɪlɪtɪ/ proposal /prə’pəʊzəl/ historian /hɪs’tɔ:rɪən/
10.Other heavy nouns usually receive stress on their antepenultimate syllables. Take these examples: photography /fə’tɒgrəfɪ/ democrat /’deməkræt/
11.The endings –ist, and –ism do not change stress. Take the following examples: organ /’ɔ:gən/ organism /’ɔ:gənɪzəm/ physics /’fɪzɪks/ physicist /’fɪzɪsɪst/
12.Nouns ending in –ee usually receive stress on the ending itself; there are some exceptions though. Often the exceptions are those nouns that include double consonants prior to the –ee ending (e.g., committee, coffee, etc.). Take the following examples: referee /ˌrefə’ri:/ absentee /ˌæbsən’ti:/
13.–ly does not change stress. Therefore, for adverbs ending in –ly, the easiest way is to ignore the –ly ending and to identify the stressed syllable of the adjective. –ly in adverbs is usually pronounced as /lɪ/.