Birds do it. Bees do it. So do dolphins, monkeys, apes and humans. You know what I am talking about....communicate! That's right, all these animals can communicate. They can exchange information with one another. Although these animals can communicate, do they have LANGUAGE? Some scientists have argued that language is what sets humans apart from all other animals. Other researchers wonder if humans are really the only species with language . Certainly other animals communicate ...bees have the ability to communicate with other bees using their special "dance." However, human language is more than just communication. Humans use symbols that have meaning. http:/ /faculty.washington.edu/chudler/lang.html
Many people assume the physical basis of language lies in the lips, the tongue, or the ear. But deaf and mute people can also possess language fully. People who have no capacity to use their vocal cords may still be able to comprehend language and use its written forms. And human sign language, which is based on visible gesture rather than the creation of sound waves, is an infinitely creative system just like spoken forms of language. But the basis of sign language is not in the hand, just as spoken language is not based in the lips or tongue. There are many examples of aphasics who lose both the ability to write as well as to express themselves using sign-language, yet they never lose manual dexterity in other tasks, such as sipping with a straw or tying their shoes. Language is brain stuff--not tongue, lip, ear, or hand stuff. The language organ is the mind . More specifically, the language faculty seems to be located in certain areas of the left hemispheric cortex in most healthy adults . A special branch of linguistics, called neurolinguistics , studies the physical structure of the brain as it relates to language production and comprehension.
The average human brain weighs about 3 pounds. Removed from the skull, it looks a bit like a large pinkish-gray walnut. Divided down the middle lengthwise, the brain has two roughly identical halves -- the left and the right hemispheres.
Divided down the middle lengthwise, the brain has two roughly identical halves -- the left and the right hemispheres. The two hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum ("callous body"), seen here in a coronal section.
Broca's area is a region of the brain responsible for speech production . The importance of Broca’s area in producing language has been recognized since Paul Pierre Broca reported impairments in two patients he encountered. They had lost the ability to speak after injury to the posterior inferior frontal gyrus of the brain. [ Wernicke's area is a part of the human brain that forms part of the cortex . it is located in the left hemisphere , as the left hemisphere is specialized for language skills. Wernicke's area is named after Carl Wernicke, a German neurologist and psychiatrist who, in 1874, discovered that damage to this area could cause a type of aphasia that is now called Wernicke's aphasia or receptive aphasia. (French anthropologist and surgeon. He became the first to offer anatomical proof of the localization of brain functions when he discovered (1861) the center of articulate speech in the brain.)
To speak a word that is read, information must first get to the primary visual cortex. From the primary visual cortex, information is transmitted to the posterior speech area, including Wernicke's area. From Wernicke's area, information travels to Broca's area, then to the Primary Motor Cortex. To speak a word that is heard, information must first get to the primary auditory cortex. From the primary auditory cortex, information is transmitted to the posterior speech area, including Wernicke's area. From Wernicke's area, information travels to Broca's area, then to the Primary Motor Cortex.
Motor cortex is a term that describes regions of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary motor functions.
A number of researchers have noted that we all experience occasional difficulty in getting brain and speech production to work together smoothly.
sometimes called “spoonerism” after William Spooner, an Anglican clergyman at Oxford Univfersity, who was renowned for his tongue slips
Aphasia ("not speaking") is an impairment of language, affecting the production or comprehension of speech and the ability to read or write. Aphasia is always due to injury to the brain -- most commonly from a stroke, particularly in older individuals. But brain injuries resulting in aphasia may also arise from head trauma, from brain tumors, or from infections.
The two most famous types of aphasia result from injury to two specific areas of the brain, with dramatically different consequences. These areas and their aphasias are called Broca's and Wernicke's. A very general distinction is that Broca's aphasia limits speech, while Wernicke's aphasia limits comprehension.
http://www.gazzaro.it/g/Language%20in%20the%20brain.htm Broca's aphasia, involves damage to the front part of the left hemisphere of the brain. This results in labored, stilted speech in which the speaker drops words and can only speak in short sentences. It is most often named after Pierre-Paul Broca (1824-1880), a French surgeon and anthropologist who first described the syndrome and its association with injuries to a specific region of the brain. It is sometimes called disfluent or agrammatic aphasia.
Lesions causing Wernicke's aphasia usually occur in the auditory association area of the left temporal lobe or in the fiber tracts connecting it with other areas of the brain. It results in speech that uses the wrong words, nonsense words and the like. People with Wernicke's aphasia can speak as if fluently (no stopping, no labor), but the words often come out strange. People with this aphasia also have difficulty understanding the speech of others. It is named after the German neurologist Carl Wernicke (1848-1905).
This way of speaking has been called "word salad" because it appears that the words are all mixed up like the vegetables in a salad.
This way of speaking has been called "word salad" because it appears that the words are all mixed up like the vegetables in a salad.
There is the distinction between Acquisition and Learning (Krashen, 1982). Acquisition is a process by which children unconsciously acquire their native language Learning is a conscious knowledge of a second language, knowing the rules, being aware of them, and being able to talk about them. A cquisition is used to refer to the gradual development of ability in a language by using it naturally in communicative situations with others who know the language.
- it’s against the belief that consciously learning the grammar rules of a language will necessarily result in an ability to use the language
L earning applies to a more conscious process of accumulating knowledge of the features such as vocabulary and grammar of a language t ypically in an institutional setting
- a special branch of linguisticswhich studies the physicalstructure of the brain as itrelates to language productionand comprehension
So do dolphins, monkeys, apes and humans. Speaking Speakingthe Written Word the Heard Word
Dichotic Listening- an experimental techniquethat has demonstrated a lefthemisphere dominance forsyllable and word processing.
The tip of the tonguephenomenon - speakers generally have an accurate phonological outline of the word, can get the initial sound correct and mostly know the number of syllables in the word. - mainly occurs with uncommon words and names.
Example: fire distinguisher fire extinguisher transcendental medication transcendental meditation
Slips of the tongue- sometimes called“spoonerism” after WilliamSpooner- are often simply the resultof a sound being carried overfrom one word to another
Example:long shory stort long story shortuse the door to open the keyuse the key to open the doorloop before you leak look before you leap
Slips of the ear - this may provide some clues to how the brain tries to make sense of the auditory signal it receives
Example:great ape gray tapeDont cry for me, Marge and Tina’. ‘Don’t cry for me, Argentina’.Row, row, row your boat…Lifes abutter dream’. Row, row, row your boat…Life is a but a dream’.
Serious Disorders in Brain FunctionAphasia - an impairment of languagefunction due to localized braindamage that leads to difficultyin understanding and / orproducing linguistic forms
Common Cause:• stroke through traumatichead injuries from violenceor an accident or an mayhave similar effects• brain tumors• infections
Broca’s Aphasia • also called ‘motor aphasia’ • reduced amount of speech, distorted articulation and slow, often effortful speech • frequent omission of functional morphemes and inflections • often consists almost entirely of lexical morphemes
Example:I eggs and eat and drink coffeebreakfast.Ah ... Monday ... ah, Dad and Paul andDad ..went... hospital. Two ... ah,doctors ... and ah ... thirty minutes ...and yes ... ah ... hospital. And, er,Wednesday ... nine oclock. And erThursday, ten oclock ... doctors. Twodoctors ... and ah... teeth. Yeah,... fine.
Wernicke’s Aphasia• also known as ‘sensoryaphasia’• the type of languagedisorder that results indifficulties in auditorycomprehension
Example:Examiner: What kind of workhave you done?-- We, the kids, all of us, and I,we were working for a longtime in the... You know... itsthe kind of space, I meanplace rear to the spedawn...
Examiner: Excuse me, but Iwanted to know what kind ofwork you have been doing.-- If you had said that, we hadsaid that, poomer, near thefortunate, porpunate, tamppoo,all around the fourth of martz.Oh, I get all confused.
Conduction Aphasia• individuals suffering fromthis disorder sometimesmispronounce words, buttypically do not havearticulation problems
Example:velitision for televisionvaysse for basefosh for wash
First language AcquisitionLanguage acquisition is the study ofthe processes through whichlearners acquire language. By itself,language acquisition refers to firstlanguage acquisition, which studiesinfants acquisition of their nativelanguage.
Caregiver speech a- a characteristically simplifiedspeech style adopted by someonewho spends a lot of timeinteracting with a young child.- featured with the use ofquestion, often using exaggeratedintonation, extra loudness, and aslower tempo with longer pauses.
Cooing and Babbling-the earliest use of speech-likesounds has been described ascooing;- create sounds similar to theconsonants (k) and (g) andhigh vowels similar to (i) and(u)
-between six and eightmonths, the child is able toproduce a number ofdifferent vowels andconsonants such as ba-ba-baand ga-ga-ga which isdescribed as babbling.
One-word stage- is characterized by speechin which single terms areuttered for everyday objects.Example: milk cookie cat cup spoon
Two-word stage- this can begin around eighteento twenty months, as the child’svocabulary moves beyond fiftywords.Example: mommy come daddy sit baby eat
Telegraphic Speech- characterized by strings ofwords in phrases or sentencesExample: this shoe all wet cat drink milk daddy go bye-bye
Developing morphologyBy the time a child is two-and-a-half years old, he or she isincorporating some of theinflectional morphemes thatindicate the grammaticalfunction of the nouns and verbs.
Example: cat sitting mommy reading book foots mans goed comed
Developing syntax- young children are able touse syntactic structures ontheir own way.
Example:Adult: The owl who eats candyruns fast.Child: owl eat candy and herun fastAdult: Im having this littleone.Child: Mell have that.
Developing semantics One interesting feature of the young child’s semantics is the way certain lexical relations are treated.
Example: Hyponymy animal – dog – poodle plants – flowers – rose
I come it closer so it won’t fall. (bring it closer)Mommy, can you stay this open? (keep this open)
Second Language Acquisition- deals with acquisition ofadditional languages in bothchildren and adults.
Acquisition vs. Learning (Krashen)Acquisition is a process by whichchildren unconsciously acquire theirnative language.Learning is a conscious knowledgeof a second language, knowing therules, being aware of them, andbeing able to talk about them.
ApproachesGrammar-translation methodVocabulary lists and sets ofgrammar rules are used to definethe target of learning,memorization is encouraged, andwritten language rather thanspoken language is emphasized.
Audiolingual method It involved a systematic presentation of the structures of the L2, moving from simple to the more complex, in the form of drills that the student had to repeat.
Communicative approaches- it’s partially a reaction againstthe artificiality of ‘pattern-practice.’- it’s against the belief thatconsciously learning the grammarrules will necessarily result in anability to use the language
Communicative Competence- the general ability to use languageaccurately, appropriately, andflexibly.
Grammatical competenceConcentration on grammaticalcompetence only, however, willnot provide the learner withthe ability to interpret orproduce L2 expressionsappropriately.
Sociolinguistic Competence The ability to use appropriatelanguage.Strategic Competence The ability to organize amessage effectively and tocompensate, via strategies, forany difficulties.
Applied Linguistics- is an interdisciplinary fieldof study that identifies,investigates, and offerssolutions to language-relatedreal-life problems.