24.1 - South Asia Landforms and Resources


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A look at South Asia and its landforms and resources, focusing on the Himalayas.

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24.1 - South Asia Landforms and Resources

  1. 1. South Asia: Landforms and Resources
  2. 2. South Asia:
  3. 3. <ul><li>Mountains and Plateaus </li></ul><ul><li>The most noticeable terrain feature of the subcontinent is the Himalaya Mountains. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>The Himalayas were formed about 50 million years ago. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Back when Pangaea broke apart, India would charging to the north and rammed into Asia. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>That’s one reason it’s sometimes called the subcontinent, because it’s like a continent in itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When India hits Asia, the Indian plate subducts beneath the Eurasian plate, but the crust is forced upwards, producing the Himalayas, the world’s tallest mountain chain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In fact, the Himalayas are still growing at about 5 mm per year because the Indian plate is pushing in at about 67 mm per year. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 9. <ul><li>The Himalayas, of course, are where Mt. Everest is. </li></ul>It’s 29,035 feet high – that’s 5.5 miles.
  7. 10. <ul><li>Hindu Kush Mountains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Along the western end of the Himalayas. Provide a barrier between Afghanistan and Pakistan. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. Former Taliban and possibly even Osama bin Laden hang out in the Hindu Kush.
  9. 12. <ul><li>Khyber Pass is here which is a traditional route of invasion for everybody from Alexander the Great to the British. </li></ul><ul><li>At its narrowest, it’s just 15 yards wide. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Khyber Pass, looking from Afghanistan to Pakistan
  11. 14. <ul><li>Other mountain ranges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vindhya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western and Eastern Ghats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The arid Deccan Plateau lies in the middle. It’s arid because the mountains block moisture. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Rivers, Deltas, and Plains </li></ul><ul><li>South Asia has three main rivers: the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra. </li></ul>Indus Brahmaputra Ganges
  13. 16. <ul><li>The rivers carry a great deal of alluvial soil (silt) that gets deposited on the alluvial plains and makes for an exceptionally fertile area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These plains support a massive population. Most of India’s 1 billion people live around here. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Offshore Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quite tropical, with a mountain chain in the center and rivers flowing from them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sri Lanka is its own country and not part of India. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>The Maldives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A collection of 1,200 islands that make up an archipelago (a collection of islands). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The islands are actually the tops of volcanoes surrounded by coral to make up smaller atolls. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They’re short too. The highest point of the island country is 7.5 feet above sea level. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The total land area is only 115 square miles, but has 400 miles of coastline. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Of the 1,200 islands, only about 200 are inhabited. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><ul><li>A better look at the atolls. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 25. <ul><li>Natural Resources </li></ul><ul><li>There’s a lot that’s dependent on water and soil. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those rivers and their soil provide for a lot of irrigation and rich farmland. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That makes for a lot of agriculture as well as river-based products like fish in addition to sea fishing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The navigable rivers and the coastlines are good for transportation. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 26. <ul><li>Forests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The timber industry is big. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rain forests produce sal, teak, bamboo, and sandalwood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highland forests produce pine, fir, and others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation is a big problem, however. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 27. <ul><li>Minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plenty of ‘em. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal, iron, uranium, diamonds, rubies, sapphires. </li></ul></ul>