1.1 - 5 Themes Of Geography


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The five themes of geography: location, place, region, human-enviornment interaction, and movement.

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1.1 - 5 Themes Of Geography

  1. 1. The Five Themes of Geography
  2. 2. Geography <ul><li>The study of the distribution and interaction of physical and human features on the earth (p.5) </li></ul><ul><li>Term comes from Greek roots ‘ge’ meaning ‘earth’ and ‘graphein,’ which means to write or describe </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Five Themes of Geography <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location can be described in two different ways… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Absolute Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To find absolute location, geographers use a system of imaginary lines crisscrossing the earth called lines of latitude and lines of longitude. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines of latitude run east-west across the globe. They are all parallel to each other and so are sometimes called ‘parallels.’ </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Note that the Equator is the 0 o point. Every line north of the equator is designated as x o N. Every line south of the equator is designated as x o S. </li></ul><ul><li>Note too that there are 90 degrees of latitude per hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Each degree is broken up into 60 minutes and each minute is broken up into 60 seconds. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><ul><li>Longitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lines of longitude run north-south and they meet at the north and south poles. These are also called ‘meridians.’ </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The 0 o longitude is called the prime meridian and it runs through Greenwich, England. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every meridian to the east of it is called x o E and every meridian to the west of it is called x o W. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why Greenwich? Because astronomers decided on it in 1884. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>As the earth is a spherical object (it’s not a perfect sphere, mind you), there are a total of 360 o of longitude with 180 o in each of the two hemispheres, the eastern hemisphere and the western hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Just like with latitude, there are 60 minutes in each degree and 60 seconds in each minute. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>To help remember the difference between latitude and longitude, think of latitude as being like a ladder. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>When describing the absolute location of a particular spot on the globe, you say the latitude first and then the longitude. </li></ul><ul><li>So you’d say, it’s at 48 degrees 12 minutes 45 seconds south latitude and 89 degrees 54 minutes 1 second east longitude. This is written as 48 o 12’45”S 89 o 54’1”E </li></ul><ul><li>About where is this? </li></ul><ul><li>How about you? Where are you now? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Friendswood
  13. 13. Ah, there you are… sitting comfortably at about 29 o 30’45”N 95 o 12’31”W
  14. 14. <ul><li>Relative location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where something is relative to something else around it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In relation to Friendswood, Houston is to the north. In relation to Conroe, however, Houston is to the south. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago is on Lake Michigan </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is it like? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This includes the physical features and cultural characteristics of a location that set it apart from other locations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the climate? Dry, rainy, temperate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the terrain? Mountains, plains? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s the vegetation? Lush, sparse? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are there highways, houses, etc.? </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are places similar or different? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about a particular area unites it with similar characteristics? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be physical, political, economic, or cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions are categorized in three ways </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Formal Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regions defined by a limited number or related characteristics, e.g. a specific climate, vegetation, and land use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Such regions include East Asia, South Asia, the U.S. and Canada, and Latin America </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Functional Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized around a set of interactions and connections between places. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There’s usually a hub that links other places. The Houston metro area is a functional region that includes Houston proper as the hub and all the suburbs, e.g. Conroe, Clear Lake, Friendswood. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Perceptual Regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A region that people perceive as being connected by certain characteristics, but individuals differ on the characteristics. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Human-Environment Interaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do people relate to the physical world? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People interact with their environment in different ways and for different purposes. Houstonians interact with their environment far differently in January than do folks in Anchorage, Alaska, for example. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do people interact with their surroundings? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do people, goods, and ideas move from one location to another? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Linear distance: How far must something travel? What affects the distance (mountains, rivers, etc.)? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time distance: How much time does it take for something to travel from point to point? What affects this? Improved locomotion, better roads, etc.? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological distance: How far away do we perceive things to be, why do we perceive it this way, and how does it affect our choices? </li></ul></ul></ul>