Imperialism and America


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A quick examination of U.S. imperialism.

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Imperialism and America

  1. 1. Imperialism and America Beginning in 1867 and continuing through the century, global competition caused the United States to expand.
  2. 2. Global Competition <ul><li>Imperialism – the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories </li></ul><ul><li>European nations had been establishing colonies for centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Japan was also imperialistic </li></ul>
  3. 3. Reasons (Factors) for American Imperialism <ul><li>Desire for military strength </li></ul><ul><li>Thirst for New Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in cultural superiority </li></ul>
  4. 4. Desire for Military Strength <ul><li>Need for large military to keep pace with other powerful nations </li></ul><ul><li>Alfred T. Mahan (admiral in U.S. navy) advised government officials to build up American naval power </li></ul><ul><li>Nine steel-hulled cruisers were built between 1883 and 1890 (modern battleships like the USS Maine led to U.S. having 3 rd largest naval power) </li></ul><ul><li>Today, the U.S. has the largest navy in the world (since WWII) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Thirst for New Markets <ul><li>American farmers are producing more and more because of new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Americans could not consume all farmers were producing </li></ul><ul><li>New Markets (customers) were needed to buy our farm goods and manufactured goods </li></ul>
  6. 7. Belief in Cultural Superiority <ul><li>Social Darwinism + racial superiority of Anglo-Saxons </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. had responsibility to spread Christianity and “civilization” to the world’s “inferior peoples” </li></ul>
  7. 10. The U.S. acquires… <ul><li>Alaska </li></ul><ul><ul><li>William Seward (Sec. of State under Lincoln and Johnson) arranged for the U.S. to buy Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A hard sell… known as Seward ’s Icebox, Seward’s Folly  in 1959 it becomes state… not such a bad idea </li></ul></ul>
  8. 14. The U.S. acquires… <ul><li>Hawaii </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economically valuable to American merchants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American-owned sugar plantations accounted for about ¾ of the island ’s wealth in mid 1800s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1900, immigrants to Hawaii outnumbered Hawaiians about 3-1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually, to have better trade with the U.S., white planters wanted the U.S. to annex it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$$$ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pearl Harbor military base </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed American territory on August 12, 1898 after non-violent fight over power in Hawaii (white run government or Hawaiian throne)  annexed in 1959 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 15. The Spanish-American War (1898) In 1898, the U.S. went to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain. <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. had a long time interest in Cuba (location, location, location) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After slavery ended in Cuba in 1886 – American capitalist began investing in Cuba ’s sugar industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jose Marti (Cuban poet/journalist) led a revolution in 1895  guerrilla tactics, wanted U.S. support but public opinion was split </li></ul></ul>
  10. 16. The Spanish-American War (1898) In 1898, the U.S. went to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain. <ul><li>Tensions Rise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1896 Spain sent General Valeriano Weyler to Cuba to restore order (used concentration camps  thousands died of hunger and disease) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President McKinley did not want war with Spain and worked on diplomatic efforts but was publically called weak in the de Lome letter </li></ul></ul>
  11. 17. “ Besides the ingrained and inevitable bluntness with which is repeated all that the press and public opinion in Spain have said about Weyler, it once more shows what McKinley is, weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd besides being a would-be politician who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.” - Oh, no he didn ’t.
  12. 18. The Spanish-American War (1898) In 1898, the U.S. went to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain. <ul><li>WAR IS ON (like Donkey Kong) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>February 15, 1898 - the explosion of the U.S.S. Maine gave William Randolph Hearst something to write about! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensational journalism or yellow journalism fueled the American desire for war  &quot;Remember the Maine , to hell with Spain.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First battle takes place in Philippines under leadership of Commodore George Dewey  victory. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 21. Battle of Manila Bay
  15. 22. <ul><ul><li>Then to Cuba… T.R. and the Rough Riders take San Juan Hill – made a hero of the war. </li></ul></ul>Theodore scoffs at your inferior manliness. And lack of mustache.
  16. 23. The Spanish-American War (1898) In 1898, the U.S. went to war to help Cuba win its independence from Spain. <ul><li>Result of the war: the treaty (Treaty of Paris August 12, 1898) awarded independence to Cuba, held Spain responsible for the Cuban debt, ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States, and sold the Philippines to the United States for $20 million. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress divided: Imperialist vs. Anti-imperialist </li></ul>
  17. 24. Foreign Policies of T.R., Taft, and Wilson <ul><li>Theodore Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mediated end of Russo-Japanese War (received Nobel Peace Prize) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panama Canal is negotiated and built (opened Aug. 14, 1914) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roosevelt Corollary = “Speak softly and carry a big stick.”  Europe… we still believe in the Monroe Doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. will intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries in order to prevent European powers from intervening, especially over economic matters like owing money to Europe. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 26. Foreign Policies of T.R., Taft, and Wilson <ul><li>William Taft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dollar Diplomacy” - the policy of using the U.S. govt to guarantee loans made to foreign countries by American business people </li></ul></ul>
  19. 27. Foreign Policies of T.R., Taft, and Wilson <ul><li>Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gave Monroe Doctrine a “moral tone” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexican Revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Refused to recognize Huerta govt (overthrew Diaz govt with which the U.S. govt was friendly) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually recognized new government after brush with war and mediation from Argentina, Brazil, and Chile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata wanted land reform and while Villa had been friendly with the U.S. he was charged with murdering American engineers  Wilson responded by sending John J. Pershing after Villa  almost led to war again </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intervention in Mexico represented U.S. imperialism </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 28. New Territories <ul><li>Puerto Rico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foraker Act (1900) – set up civilian government appointed by the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1917 – Puerto Ricans get U.S. citizenship and elect their own legislature. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 29. New Territories <ul><li>Cuba </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American military provided food, clothing, and put people back to work after war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped eliminate diseases through improved sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Platt Amendment to the Cuban constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuba could not make treaties might limit its independence or give other countries power over it. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. could intervene in Cuba </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuba could not go into debt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The U.S. could buy or lease land for naval stations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuba essentially becomes a client state or a protectorate of the U.S. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect American business investment in Cuban sugar, tobacco, and mining </li></ul></ul>
  22. 30. New Territories <ul><li>Philippines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emiliano Aguinaldo led fight for independence from U.S. after Treaty of Paris 1898 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He kinda got stabbed in the back </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolt occurred and U.S. used same practice as Spain to put down the uprising and many African-American soldiers sided with the Filipinos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independence was granted on July 4, 1946 after the U.S. had set up a democratic government </li></ul></ul>
  23. 31. New Territories <ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Hays Open Door notes and the Open Door Policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Free trade into China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carve China up into spheres of influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boxer Rebellion – Chinese killed thousands of missionaries and other foreigners as well as Chinese converts to Christianity  took international force to stop it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern American foreign policy is born (see pg. 357) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact – most Americans were for Imperialism… but some were not </li></ul>
  24. 32. LGGD – Imperialism: Good or Bad? <ul><li>Prepare by reading primary source and answering the questions </li></ul><ul><li>Making a pros/cons list of imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready to make your case in a LGGD tomorrow </li></ul>