60's and Such 2


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  • Castro succeeds in his revolution over Batista Castro engages in all the usual things that happen when communism takes over: killing of political enemies, gulag, collectivization, poverty, oppression, elimination of rights and freedom. You know, the usual.
  • He takes over American business interests (of which there were plenty in Cuba).
  • Castro succeeds in his revolution over Batista The Soviets didn’t take JFK all that seriously at first. He was young, hadn’t done all that much, and didn’t win by a very big margin in the election.
  • The Soviets didn’t take JFK all that seriously at first. He was young, hadn’t done all that much, and didn’t win by a very big margin in the election.This resulted in Krushchev testing Kennedy’s resolve several times. The first was the Bay of Pigs. JFK’s failure here emboldened Krushchev to make more aggressive tests later, e.g. Berlin and Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • By 1960, Eisenhower authorizes covert action to overthrow Castro.Bay of Pigs wasn’t the first choice for invasion. Other better options were examined, but this was chosen because of its airfield among other reasons.The Cuban military was better equipped and more loyal fighters than what U.S. planners had expected and the Cuban people weren’t interested in revolting.The operation was poorly planned, poorly led, poorly researched, and finally, the lack of air support doomed it.JFK gets the blame and the U.S. looks incompetent for failing in an invasion on a small country in its backyard.
  • The failure of the Bay of Pigs invasion encouraged Khrushchev to go further, thinking JFK was weak. The failed invasion also drove Castro more into Khrushchev’s loving arms.Khrushchev also thought JFK could be a bit of military extremist, what with the invasion and that whole missile gap thing.
  • The Cubans were noticing these large missile parts suddenly coming in and being driven around… ones that were too large for normal defensive missiles.These rumors got back to Miami and then to the CIA, which worried the agency.U2 flights over Cuba confirmed the missile sites on 10/14/62
  • Once they’re spotted, JFK calls together EXCOMM (Executive Committee of the National Security Council).
  • These are from low-level flyovers.
  • JFK’s options:No action.Diplomacy: Use diplomatic pressure to get the Soviet Union to remove the missiles.Warning: Send a message to Castro to warn him of the grave danger he, and Cuba were in.Blockade: Use the U.S. Navy to block any missiles from arriving in Cuba.Air strike: Use the U.S. Air Force to attack all known missile sites.Invasion: Full force invasion of Cuba and overthrow of Castro.
  • The military and some members of EXCOMM supported immediate invasion and overthrow.They figured the USSR wouldn’t stop us. Kennedy wasn’t so sure.There was also the worry that attacking Cuba would justify the USSR in taking over all of Berlin.
  • The decision is to set up a quarantine zone around Cuba… a blockade. No ships can reach Cuba until they’ve been inspected to make sure they aren’t carrying missile parts or bombers.So far, the Soviets are denying there are any offensive weapons on the island at all. Only defensive weapons.
  • Some ships try to run the blockade. Others, especially the ones carrying stuff, turn back. 16 turn around in all.
  • Things escalate. JFK has American bombers put on 15 minute alerts. ICBMs are readied. If war starts, it starts here.A U2 is shot down by a Soviet officer acting independently. Nearly starts the war right there.JFK had previously decided that such an act of hostility would be an act of war. Decides to hold back for now.Khrushchev issues orders not to shoot any more damn missiles.
  • Said that he was tireless (20 hour days), had no real leisure hobbies, and even had biographies on other senators so he knew how best to sway them.
  • 60's and Such 2

    1. 1. Military JFK was every bit the Cold Warrior.  Strong defense.  Build up of conventional arms.  Flexible Response to avoid winding up in nuclear war.
    2. 2. Cuba Castro communism takes over in Cuba. Batista Castro (amazing he succeeded with that terrible beard)
    3. 3. Cuba Westsid Castro communism takes over in Cuba. e!!
    4. 4. Cuba Castro gets Soviet support from Khrushchev. And together, they find out what love is.
    5. 5. Bay of Pigs Castro communism takes over in Cuba. Khrushchev: “Kennedy? Pssshhhh… whatev.”
    6. 6. Bay of Pigs Cuban exiles were secretly trained by the CIA for a secret invasion of Cuba, with the goal of overthrowing Castro. Operation begun and prepped under Eisenhower. JFK greenlights three months into presidency. Disaster. Embarrassment.
    7. 7. Seriously?
    8. 8. Cuban Missile Crisis, Oct. 1962 As close as we ever came to nuclear war. And it was pretty close. Russia: Kennedy weak, a dangerous extremist, or both?
    9. 9. Cuban Missile Crisis Russia like  Missiles in Cuba counteract the medium range American missiles in Turkey.  Medium range missiles are also more plentiful than the ICBMs.  Improve global strategic position. Cuba like  Missiles in Cuba will act as a deterrent against further invasion attempts by the U.S.
    10. 10. Cuban Missile Crisis Rumors of missiles. U2 Confirmation.
    11. 11. Cuban Missile Crisis
    12. 12. Cuban Missile Crisis
    13. 13. Cuban Missile Crisis
    14. 14. Cuban Missile Crisis
    15. 15. Cuban Missile Crisis
    16. 16. Cuban Missile Crisis
    17. 17. Cuban Missile Crisis
    18. 18. Cuban Missile Crisis
    19. 19. Cuban Missile Crisis
    20. 20. Cuban Missile Crisis
    21. 21. Cuban Missile Crisis
    22. 22. Cuban Missile CrisisAdlai Stevenson goes before the UN and presents the evidencethe U.S. has, proving that the USSR has missiles in Cuba.
    23. 23. Cuban Missile Crisis
    24. 24. Cuban Missile Crisis Brinksmanship
    25. 25. The New Frontier Close election = weak mandate = trouble pressing agenda Economy  Higher government spending (Keynesian).  Lower taxes (supply-sider).  Whoa.
    26. 26. The New Frontier Peace corps.
    27. 27. The New Frontier Moon.  Race with the Russians.
    28. 28. Saturn V Stats  363 ft tall  33 ft diameter  6.5 million lbs.  Payload of 260,000 lbs.  7.5 million lbs. of thrust at liftoff.  Max speed (once in space) of around 25,000 mph.  Guidance computer ran at 1mhz and had 2k of memory.
    29. 29. Assassination Kennedy assassinated 11/22/63. Controversy.
    30. 30. Great Society LBJ (Lyndon Baines Johnson)  Takes over after JFK’s assassination.  One of the best politicians in American history.  (That’s both a complement and an insult)  Now known as the Master of the Senate.  Was very good at badgering and persuasion and knew how to get his way.
    31. 31. The Great Society The Johnson Treatment
    32. 32. The Great Society The Johnson Treatment
    33. 33. The Great Society The Johnson Treatment
    34. 34. Great Society Early Policies  Continues JFK’s work on tax cuts (supply-side!) and civil rights action.  Then moves to his own policy priorities, especially after the 1964 election that handed the Democrats a sizable Congressional majority.  Dems picked up two seats in the Senate, giving them a 68-32 advantage and 37 seats in the House, giving them a 295-140 advantage.  They could run the table.
    35. 35. Great Society
    36. 36. $1,200.000$1,000.000 $800.000 $600.000 Total Federal Spending Total Revenue $400.000 $200.000 $0.000 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968
    37. 37. $4,500.000$4,000.000$3,500.000$3,000.000$2,500.000$2,000.000 Total Federal Spending$1,500.000 Total Revenue$1,000.000 $500.000 $0.000 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008