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Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
Short stories ppt 2
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Short stories ppt 2

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  • 1. Short Stories
  • 2. Elements of A Short Story <ul><li>Plot </li></ul><ul><li>Character </li></ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Foreshadowing </li></ul><ul><li>Suspense </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Story </li></ul><ul><li>Theme </li></ul><ul><li>Point of View </li></ul><ul><li>Irony </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolism </li></ul><ul><li>Allusion </li></ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul><ul><li>Tone </li></ul><ul><li>Dialect </li></ul>
  • 3. Plot The series of related events that make up the story.
  • 4. Bare Bones of A Plot <ul><li>Plots are built on four main parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Situation (Exposition) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolution (Denouement) </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. Plot Line Exposition Complications (Rising Action) Climax Falling Action Resolution
  • 6. Plot <ul><li>Exposition - Opening of the story; characters and conflict are introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Complication - Conflicts introduced; main character takes action to resolve conflicts. (Also known as rising action.) </li></ul><ul><li>Climax - Key scene of the story; tense, exciting or terrifying moment. </li></ul>
  • 7. Plot <ul><li>Falling Action - Conflicts begin to resolve; story tapers off…. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution - Occurs at the very end of the story; conflicts are resolved. (Also called the denouement.) </li></ul>
  • 8. Character A person, animal, natural force or object in a story or play.
  • 9. Characterization The process of revealing the personality of a character is called characterization .
  • 10. Characterization <ul><li>Direct Characterization - Writer tells the reader directly what kind of person the character is. </li></ul><ul><li>Indirect Characterization - Reader has to use his or her own judgement to identify personality traits of a character </li></ul>
  • 11. Characterization <ul><li>Static – No change throughout story </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic – Develops and grows over the course of the story </li></ul>
  • 12. Characterization <ul><li>Round – Many different personality traits (good & bad) </li></ul><ul><li>Flat – Shows only one personality trait </li></ul><ul><li>Protagonist – Main character of a literary work </li></ul><ul><li>Antagonist – Character or force in conflict with the protagonist </li></ul>
  • 13. Characterization <ul><li>Motivation – Reason that explains or partially explains why a character thinks, feels, behaves or acts in a certain way. </li></ul>
  • 14. Character <ul><li>There are five considerations for creating a character: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Characters’ feelings </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Point of View The vantage point from which the author has chosen to tell the story.
  • 16. First Person One of the characters is actually telling the story, using the pronoun “I.”
  • 17. Third Person Narrator is an outside storyteller. (can be “limited” or “omniscient” point of view.)
  • 18. Omniscient “All Knowing” Person telling the story knows everything there is to know about the characters and their problems.
  • 19. Limited Narrator only knows one character’s thoughts and feelings.
  • 20. Point of View The narrator is not always the author.
  • 21. Setting The time and place of a story or play.
  • 22. Setting <ul><li>One purpose of setting is to provide background - a place for the characters to live and act in. </li></ul><ul><li>In some stories, setting provides the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Places where people live and make their homes can reveal a great deal about their characters. </li></ul>
  • 23. Setting <ul><li>Setting can also provide atmosphere or mood - it affects the way a reader feels. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the oldest story plots in the world is the one in which a person fights against something in the physical world - a drought, a horde of ants, the heat of the desert, etc. </li></ul>
  • 24. Describing the Setting <ul><li>What kind of place does the story take place in? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the season, climate, and time of day? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the characters in conflict with the setting? </li></ul>
  • 25. Describing the Setting <ul><li>Does the setting help to understand their personalities? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of atmosphere does the setting create? </li></ul>
  • 26. Conflict <ul><li>A struggle or clash between opposing characters or forces. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External : Man v. Man, Man v. Nature, Man v. Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal : Man v. Himself, Man v. Fate (God) </li></ul></ul>
  • 27. Symbolism Anything that stands for or represents something else. Examples: Red rose American Flag
  • 28. Theme Central idea of a work of literature
  • 29. Theme <ul><li>A theme makes some revelation about a subject. </li></ul><ul><li>The subject of the story is NOT THE SAME as the theme of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>The subject is simply the topic of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Theme is not “love.” Ask yourself…what about “love”? </li></ul>
  • 30. Theme A theme is usually not stated directly in the story.
  • 31. Finding a Theme <ul><li>Does the title signify something important about the story? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the main character change in the course of the story? Does he or she realize something he or she didn’t know before? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any important statements about life or people made in the story - either by the narrator or the characters? </li></ul>
  • 32. Irony <ul><li>A contrast between expectation and reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Between what is said and what is </li></ul><ul><li>really meant. </li></ul><ul><li>Between what is expected to happen </li></ul><ul><li>and what really happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Between what appears to be true </li></ul><ul><li>and what is really true. </li></ul>
  • 33. Types of Irony <ul><li>Verbal - a writer or speaker says one thing but means another </li></ul><ul><li>Situational - what we expect to happen is different than what actually happens. </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic - Audience or reader knows what is happening but the characters do not. </li></ul>
  • 34. Other Terms to Know <ul><li>Foreshadowing – Clues to suggest events that have not happened yet in the story; creates suspense. </li></ul><ul><li>Suspense - The uncertain feeling about what is going to happen next in a story. </li></ul>
  • 35. Other Terms to Know <ul><li>Mood – (Atmosphere) Feeling created in the reader by the piece of writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Tone - The way the writer feels about the story & the characters </li></ul>
  • 36. Other Terms to Know <ul><li>Allusion – References in a piece of writing that refer to the Bible, a time in history or another work of literature or art. </li></ul><ul><li>Frame Story – Story within another story. </li></ul><ul><li>Dialect – Way a character speaks (directly related to setting & time period) </li></ul>

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