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Short stories ppt 2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Short Stories
  • 2. Elements of A Short Story
    • Plot
    • Character
    • Setting
    • Conflict
    • Foreshadowing
    • Suspense
    • Frame Story
    • Theme
    • Point of View
    • Irony
    • Symbolism
    • Allusion
    • Mood
    • Tone
    • Dialect
  • 3. Plot The series of related events that make up the story.
  • 4. Bare Bones of A Plot
    • Plots are built on four main parts:
      • Basic Situation (Exposition)
      • Complication
      • Climax
      • Resolution (Denouement)
  • 5. Plot Line Exposition Complications (Rising Action) Climax Falling Action Resolution
  • 6. Plot
    • Exposition - Opening of the story; characters and conflict are introduced.
    • Complication - Conflicts introduced; main character takes action to resolve conflicts. (Also known as rising action.)
    • Climax - Key scene of the story; tense, exciting or terrifying moment.
  • 7. Plot
    • Falling Action - Conflicts begin to resolve; story tapers off….
    • Resolution - Occurs at the very end of the story; conflicts are resolved. (Also called the denouement.)
  • 8. Character A person, animal, natural force or object in a story or play.
  • 9. Characterization The process of revealing the personality of a character is called characterization .
  • 10. Characterization
    • Direct Characterization - Writer tells the reader directly what kind of person the character is.
    • Indirect Characterization - Reader has to use his or her own judgement to identify personality traits of a character
  • 11. Characterization
    • Static – No change throughout story
    • Dynamic – Develops and grows over the course of the story
  • 12. Characterization
    • Round – Many different personality traits (good & bad)
    • Flat – Shows only one personality trait
    • Protagonist – Main character of a literary work
    • Antagonist – Character or force in conflict with the protagonist
  • 13. Characterization
    • Motivation – Reason that explains or partially explains why a character thinks, feels, behaves or acts in a certain way.
  • 14. Character
    • There are five considerations for creating a character:
      • Appearance
      • Speech
      • Thoughts
      • Actions
      • Other Characters’ feelings
  • 15. Point of View The vantage point from which the author has chosen to tell the story.
  • 16. First Person One of the characters is actually telling the story, using the pronoun “I.”
  • 17. Third Person Narrator is an outside storyteller. (can be “limited” or “omniscient” point of view.)
  • 18. Omniscient “All Knowing” Person telling the story knows everything there is to know about the characters and their problems.
  • 19. Limited Narrator only knows one character’s thoughts and feelings.
  • 20. Point of View The narrator is not always the author.
  • 21. Setting The time and place of a story or play.
  • 22. Setting
    • One purpose of setting is to provide background - a place for the characters to live and act in.
    • In some stories, setting provides the conflict.
    • Places where people live and make their homes can reveal a great deal about their characters.
  • 23. Setting
    • Setting can also provide atmosphere or mood - it affects the way a reader feels.
    • One of the oldest story plots in the world is the one in which a person fights against something in the physical world - a drought, a horde of ants, the heat of the desert, etc.
  • 24. Describing the Setting
    • What kind of place does the story take place in?
    • What is the season, climate, and time of day?
    • Are the characters in conflict with the setting?
  • 25. Describing the Setting
    • Does the setting help to understand their personalities?
    • What kind of atmosphere does the setting create?
  • 26. Conflict
    • A struggle or clash between opposing characters or forces.
      • External : Man v. Man, Man v. Nature, Man v. Society
      • Internal : Man v. Himself, Man v. Fate (God)
  • 27. Symbolism Anything that stands for or represents something else. Examples: Red rose American Flag
  • 28. Theme Central idea of a work of literature
  • 29. Theme
    • A theme makes some revelation about a subject.
    • The subject of the story is NOT THE SAME as the theme of the story.
    • The subject is simply the topic of the story.
    • Theme is not “love.” Ask yourself…what about “love”?
  • 30. Theme A theme is usually not stated directly in the story.
  • 31. Finding a Theme
    • Does the title signify something important about the story?
    • Does the main character change in the course of the story? Does he or she realize something he or she didn’t know before?
    • Are there any important statements about life or people made in the story - either by the narrator or the characters?
  • 32. Irony
    • A contrast between expectation and reality.
    • Between what is said and what is
    • really meant.
    • Between what is expected to happen
    • and what really happens.
    • Between what appears to be true
    • and what is really true.
  • 33. Types of Irony
    • Verbal - a writer or speaker says one thing but means another
    • Situational - what we expect to happen is different than what actually happens.
    • Dramatic - Audience or reader knows what is happening but the characters do not.
  • 34. Other Terms to Know
    • Foreshadowing – Clues to suggest events that have not happened yet in the story; creates suspense.
    • Suspense - The uncertain feeling about what is going to happen next in a story.
  • 35. Other Terms to Know
    • Mood – (Atmosphere) Feeling created in the reader by the piece of writing.
    • Tone - The way the writer feels about the story & the characters
  • 36. Other Terms to Know
    • Allusion – References in a piece of writing that refer to the Bible, a time in history or another work of literature or art.
    • Frame Story – Story within another story.
    • Dialect – Way a character speaks (directly related to setting & time period)