The Mughal era is a historic period of the Mughal Empire in South Asia (mainly Northern India, North Eastern Pakistan and Bangladesh). It ended in several generations of conflicts between rival warlords.
The imperial family directly descended from two of the world‘s greatest conquerors: Genghis Khan, founder of the largest contiguous empire in the history of the world; and the Amir, Taimurlong or Tamerlane the Great. The direct ancestors of the Mughal emperors, at one point or another, directly ruled all areas from Eastern Europe to the Sea of Japan, and
They also ruled some of the most powerful states of the medieval world such as Turkey, Persia, India and China. Their ancestors were further also credited with stabilizing the social, cultural and economic aspects of life between, Europe and Asia and opening the extensive trade route known as the Silk Road that connected various parts of
Due to descent from Genghis Khan, the family was called Mughal, or mogul, persianized version of the formers clan(people) name Mongol. The English word mogul (e.g. media mogul, business mogul) was coined by this dynasty, meaning influential or powerful, or a tycoon.
From their descent from Tamerlane, also called the Amir, the family used the title of Mirza, shortened Amirzade, literally meaning born of the Amir.
The Mughal Empire ruled the Indian subcontinent from about 1526 to 1757. At the height of their power in the late 17th and early 18th centuries, they controlled most of the subcontinent—extending from Bengal in the east to Baluchistan in the west, Kashmir in the north to the Kaveri basin in the south.
Its population at that time has been estimated as between 110 and 150 million, over a territory of more than 3.2 million square kilometers (1.2 million square miles). The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in pre-modern history and was the precursor to the British Indian Empire.
The Mughal Empire lasted for more than three centuries. The titles of the first of the six Mughal Emperors receive varying degrees of prominence in present-day Pakistan and India.
The burial places of the Emperors illustrate their expanding empire, as the first Emperor Babur, born in Uzbekistan is buried in Afghanistan, his sons and grandsons, namely Akbar the Great and Jahangir in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh respectively and later descendants, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb in Hindustan. The last Emperor, Bahadur Shah Zafar is buried
They were also a prominent influence of literature in Urdu, Hindi, and Bengali. Mughal rulers created a powerful empire in which military might and artistic culture flourished.
They have been continuously portrayed in many films, the most famous of which, multi-million dollar Mughal-e-Azam about Emperor Jahangirs love story; considered an Indian classic and epic film. The Bollywood film Jodhaa Akbar about Emperor Akbars (Emperor Jahangirs father) love story.
Emperor Jahangirs son was the Prince Khurram who later went on to become Emperor Shah Jahan and built one of the seven Wonders of the World, the famous Taj Mahal to memorialize his love for his wife.
Babur•Zahir-ud-din MuhammadBabur (February 14, 1483 –December 26, 1530;sometimes alsospelt Baber or Babar) was aconqueror from CentralAsia who, following a seriesof setbacks, finallysucceeded in laying thebasis for the Mughal Babur the first Mughaldynasty in the Indian
Zahir ad-Din Muhammad (Persian: also known by his royal titles as al- ṣultānu l-ʿazamwa l-ḫāqān al-mukkarram bādshāh-e ġāzī), is more commonly known by his nickname, Babur. According to Stephen Frederic Dale, the name Babur, means ―the tiger‖, which has been borrowed by Turkish languages of central Asia.
Babur was the eldest son of Amir Umar Shaykh Mirza, the son of Abu SaʿidMirza (and grandson of Miran Shah, who was himself son of Timur) and his wife Qutlugh Nigar Khanum, daughter of Younus Khan, the ruler of Moghulistan (and great-great grandson of Abhavh Timur, the son of Esen Buqa II, who was the great-great-great grandson of Chaghatai Khan, the second born son
Babur was a direct descendant of Timur through his father, and a descendant also of Genghis Khan through his mother; hence, he identified his lineage as Timurid and Chaghatay-Turkic. He was greatly influenced by Persian culture and this affected both his own actions and those of his successors, giving rise to a significant expansion of the Persianate ethos in
Although Babur hailed from the Barlas tribe which was of Mongol origin, his tribe had embraced Turkic and Persian culture, converted to Islam and resided in Turkestan and Khorasan. His mother tongue was the Chaghatai language(known to Babur as Turki, "Turkic") and he was equally at home in Persian, the lingua
Hence Babur, though nominally a Mongol (or Moghul), drew much of his support from the local Turkic and Iranian peoples of Central Asia, and his army was diverse in its ethnic makeup, including Tajiks(Sarts as called by Babur), Pashtuns, Arabs, as well as Barlas and Chaghatayid Turco-Mongols from Central Asia.
Baburs army also included Qizilbash fighters, a militant religious order of Shia Sufis from Safavid Persia who later became one of the most influential groups in the Mughal court. Babur is said to have been extremely strong and physically fit.
He could allegedly carry two men, one on each of his shoulders, and then climb slopes on the run, just for exercise. Legend holds that Babur swam across every major river he encountered, including twice across the Ganges River in North India. His passions could be equally strong.
He quit drinking alcohol before the Battle of Khanwa, only two years before his death for health reasons, and demanded that his court do the same. But he did not stop chewing narcotic preparations, and did not lose his sense of irony.
The Mughal Emperor Babur at hunting expedition alongside his troops.
After Babur fell seriously ill, Humayun was told of a plot by the senior nobles of Baburs court to bypass the leaders sons and appoint Mahdi Khwaja, Baburs sisters husband, as his successor.
He rushed to Agra and arrived there to see his father was well enough again, although Mahdi Khwaja had lost all hope of becoming ruler after arrogantly exceeding his authority during Baburs illness. Upon his arrival in Agra it was Humayun himself who fell ill, and was close to dying.
Babur is said to have circled the sick-bed, crying to God to take his life and not his sons. Babur treated by doctor during serious illness
The traditions that follow this tell that Babur soon fell ill with a fever and Humayun began to get better again. His last words apparently being to his son, Humayun, "Do nothing against your brothers, even though they may deserve it."
He died at the age of 47 on January 5, 1531, and was succeeded by his eldest son, Humayun. Though he wished to be buried in his favourite garden in Kabul, a city he had always loved, he was first buried in a mausoleum in the capital city of Agra.
His remains were later moved to Bagh-e Babur (Babur Gardens) in Kabul, Afghanistan. The Persian inscription on his tomb there translates as "If there is a paradise on earth, it is this, it is this, it is this!
Babur is considered a national hero in Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan, and is held in high esteem in Afghanistan. In October 2005 the Pakistan military developed the Babur (cruise missile), named in honour of him.
Humayun Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun was the second Mughal emperor. The second Mughal emperor Humayun
The Mughal Empire during the reign of Humayun.
Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun ( Full name: Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al- Mukarram, Jam-i-Sultanat-i-haqiqi wa Majazi, Sayyid al-Salatin, Abul Muzaffar Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun Padshah Ghazi, Zillullah.)
He was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled present day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early, but with Persian aid, he eventually regained an even larger one.
An image from an album commissioned by ShahJahan shows Humayun sitting beneath a tree in his garden in India.
On the eve of his death in 1556, the Mughal empire spanned almost one million square kilometers. He originally ascended the throne at the age of 22 and was somewhat inexperienced when he came to power.
Humayun lost Mughal territories to the Pashtun noble, Sher Shah Suri, and, with Persian aid, regained them 15 years later. Subsequently, in a very short time, Humayun was able to expand the Empire further, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar.
His peaceful personality, patience and non- provocative methods of speech earned him the title‘Insān-i-Kamil (‗Perfect Man‘), among the Mughals.
The Zamburak (Camel gun) was introducedfrom Persia as a major weapon in the Mughal Empire by Humayun.
Humayun was portrayed in the biography Humayun-nama written by his sister Gulbadan Begum, as being extraordinarily lenient, constantly forgiving acts which were deliberately aimed at angering him.
In one instance the biography records that his youngest brother Hindal killed Humayuns most trusted advisor, an old Sheikh, and then marched an army out of Agra. Humayun, rather than seek retribution, went straight to his mothers home where Gulbadan Begum was, bearing no grudge against his younger brother, and insisted he return home.
He was interested in poetry and fascinated by Astrology and the Occult. Upon his accession as Padishah (Emperor), he began to re-organize the administration upon mystically determined principles.
The public offices were divided into four distinct groups, for the four elements. The department of Earth was to be in charge of Agriculture and the agricultural sciences, Fire was to be in charge of the Military, Water was the department of the Canals and waterways while Air seemed to have responsibility for everything else.
His daily routine was planned in accordance with the movements of the planets, so too was his wardrobe. He refused to enter a house with his left foot going forward, and if anyone else did they would be told to leave and re-enter.
His servant, Jauhar, records in the Tadhkirat al-Waqiat that he was known to shoot arrows to the sky marked with either his own name, or that of the Shah of Persia and, depending on how they landed, interpreted this as an indication of which of them would grow more powerful.
Upon his succession to the throne, Humayun had two major rivals interested in acquiring his lands — Sultan Bahadur of Gujarat to the south west and Sher Shah Suri (Sher Khan) currently settled along the river Ganges in Bihar to the east.
Humayun‘s first campaign was to confront Sher Khan Suri. Halfway through the counter offensive Humayun had to abandon it and concentrate on Gujarat, where a threat from Ahmed Shah had to be squelched.
In this he succeeded and annexed Gujarat and Malwa. Champaner and the great fort of Mandu followed next. During the first five years of Humayuns reign, these two rulers were quietly extending their rule, although Sultan Bahadur faced pressure in the east from sporadic conflicts with the Portuguese.
Humayun was made aware that the Sultan of Gujarat was planning an assault on the Mughal territories with Portuguese aid. Showing an unusual resolve, Humayun gathered an army and marched on Bahadur.
The MughalEmperor Humayun,fights BahadurShah of Gujarat,in the year 1535.
His assault was spectacular and within a month he had captured the forts of Mandu and Champaner. However, instead of pressing his attack and going after the enemy, Humayun ceased the campaign and began to enjoy life in his new forts. Bahadur, meanwhile escaped and took up refuge with the Portuguese.
Shortly after Humayun had marched on Gujarat, Sher Shah saw an opportunity to wrest control of Agra from the Mughals. He began to gather his army together hoping for a rapid and decisive siege of the Mughal capital.
Upon hearing this alarming news, Humayun quickly marched his troops back to Agra allowing Bahadur to easily regain control of the territories Humayun had recently taken. A few months later, however, Bahadur was dead, killed when a botched plan to kidnap the Portuguese viceroy ended in a fire-fight which the Sultan lost.
Whilst Humayun succeeded in protecting Agra from Sher Shah, the second city of the Empire, Gaur the capital of the vilayat of Bengal, was sacked. Humayuns troops had been delayed while trying to take Chunar, a fort occupied by Sher Shahs son, in order to protect his troops from an attack from the rear.
Sher Khans Army, under the command of Khulas Khan Marwat, then established a monarchy in Delhi with Sher Khan ruling under the title Sher Shah Suri; he ruled from 1540 to 1545.
Sher Shah Suri consolidate hi realm from Punjab to Bengal (he was the first conqueror to enter Bengal since Ala-ud-din Khilji; more than two centuries earlier). He is credited with having organized and administered the government and military in such a manner that future Mughal kings used it as their own models.
He also added to the fort in Delhi , first started by Humayun, and now known as the Purana Qila (Old Fort). The Masjid Qila-i-Kuhna inside the fort is a masterpiece of the period, though only parts of it have survived.
Sher Shah Suri died from a gunpowder explosion during the siege of Kalinjar fort on May 22, 1545 fighting against the Chandel Rajputs. His charred remains were interred in a tomb at Sasaram (in present day Bihar), midway between Varanasi and Bodh Gaya.
Although rarely visited, future great Mughal builders such as Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan would emulate the architecture of this tomb. The massive palace-like mausoleum stands at 37 metres and three stories high.
Sher Shah‘s son Islam Shah held on to power until 1553 but following his death the Sur dynasty lost most of its influence due to strife and famine.
Humayun was a keen astronomer, and in fact was killed after falling down the stairs of his own library in 1556. Thus Humayun ruled in India for barely ten years and died at the age of forty-eight, leaving behind the then only thirteen-year-old Akbar as his heir.
As a tribute to his father, Akbar later built a tomb in Humayuns honour in Delhi (completed in 1571), from red sandstone. Humayuns Tomb would become the precursor of future Mughal architecture.
Akbar‘s mother and Humayun‘s wife Hamida Banu Begum personally supervised the building of the tomb in his birthplace.