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  1. 1.  A conjunction is a joiner, a word that connects (conjoins) parts of a sentence. There seem to be three basic types of conjunctions. They are: coordinating conjunctions used to connect two independent clauses , subordinating conjunctions used to establish the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest of the sentence, and correlative conjunctions which always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal.
  2. 2.  Thedevelopmental order of acquisition for the main types of conjunctions is: coordinating - subordinating - correlative. An attempt (see below) has also been made to order the specific conjunction lexicon within each of the main conjunction types.
  4. 4. The simple, little conjunctions are called coordinating conjunctions . Coordinating conjunctions may join single words, or they may join groups of words, but they must always join similar elements: e.g. subject + subject , verb phrase + verb phrase, sentence + sentence. The seven coordinating conjunctions in English are:
  5. 5.  FOR - is to introduce the reason for the preceding clause AND - joins two similar ideas together NOR - The conjunction nor is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as often as the other conjunctions. Its most common use is as the little brother in the correlative pair, neither-nor BUT - joins two contrasting ideas together OR - joins two alternative ideas
  6. 6. YET - is very similar to but as it also joins two contrasting ideas togetherSO - shows that the second idea is the result of the firstAn easy way to remember these six conjunctions is to think of the word FANBOYS. Each of the letters in this somewhat unlikely word is the first
  7. 7.  letter of one of the coordinating conjunctions. Among the coordinating conjunctions, the most common, of course, are AND, BUT and OR. note(It may help you remember these conjunctions by recalling that they all have fewer than four letters. Also, remember the acronym FANBOYS:
  8. 8. For-And-Nor-But-Or-Yet-So. Be careful of the words then and now; neither is a coordinating conjunction, so what we say about coordinating conjunctions roles in a sentence and punctuation does not apply to those two words.)
  9. 9.  When a coordinating conjunction connects two independent clauses, it is often (but not always) accompanied by a comma: Ulysses wants to play for Conn , but he has had trouble meeting the academic requirements. When the two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction are nicely balanced or brief, many writers will omit the comma: Ulysses has a great jump shot but he isnt quick on his feet.
  10. 10.  The comma is always correct when used to separate two independent clauses connected by a coordinating conjunction. See Punctuation Between Two Independent Clauses for further help. A comma is also correct when and is used to attach the last item of a serial list, although many writers (especially in newspapers) will omit that final comma: Ulysses spent his summer studying basic math, writing , and reading comprehension. When a coordinating conjunction is used to connect all the elements in a series, a comma is not used:
  11. 11.  Presbyterians and Methodists and Baptists are the prevalent Protestant congregations in Oklahoma. A comma is also used with but when expressing a contrast: This is a useful rule, but difficult to remember. In most of their other roles as joiners (other than joining independent clauses, that is), coordinating conjunctions can join two sentence elements without the help of a comma. Hemingway and Fitzgerald are among the American expatriates of the between-the- wars era.
  12. 12.  Hemingway was renowned for his clear style and his insights into American notions of male identity. It is hard to say whether Hemingway or Fitzgerald is the more interesting cultural icon of his day. Although Hemingway is sometimes disparaged for his unpleasant portrayal of women and for his glorification of machismo, we nonetheless find some sympathetic, even heroic, female figures in his novels and short stories.
  13. 13.  Beginning a Sentence with And or But A frequently asked question about conjunctions is whether and or but can be used at the beginning of a sentence. This is what R.W. Burchfield has to say about this use of and: There is a persistent belief that it is improper to begin a sentence with And, but this prohibition has been cheerfully ignored by standard authors from Anglo-Saxon times onwards. An initial And is a useful aid to writers as the narrative continues. Among the coordinating conjunctions, the most common, of course, are and, but, and or. It might be helpful to explore the uses of these three little words. The examples below by no means exhaust the possible meanings of these conjunctions.
  14. 14.  To suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another: "Tahoma sent in her applications and waited by the phone for a response." To suggest that one idea is the result of another: "Willie heard the weather report and promptly boarded up his house." To suggest that one idea is in contrast to another (frequently replaced by but in this usage): "Juanita is brilliant and Shalimar has a pleasant personality.
  15. 15.  To suggest that one clause is dependent upon another, conditionally {usually the first clause is an imperative}: "Use your credit cards frequently and youll soon find yourself deep in debt." To suggest a kind of "comment" on the first clause: "Charlie became addicted to gambling — and that surprised no one who knew him." To suggest an element of surprise (sometimes replaced by yet in this usage): "Hartford is a rich city and suffers from many symptoms of urban blight."
  16. 16.  To suggest a contrast that is unexpected in light of the first clause: "Joey lost a fortune in the stock market, but he still seems able to live quite comfortably." To suggest in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way {sometimes replaced by on the contrary}: "The club never invested foolishly, but used the services of a sage investment counselor." To connect two ideas with the meaning of "with the exception of" {and then the second word takes over as subject}: "Everybody but Goldenbreath is trying out for the team."
  17. 17.  To suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the other: "You can study hard for this exam or you can fail." To suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives: "We can broil chicken on the grill tonight, or we can just eat leftovers. To suggest a refinement of the first clause: "Smith College is the premier all-womens college in the country, or so it seems to most Smith College alumnae." To suggest a restatement or "correction" of the first part of the sentence: "There are no rattlesnakes in this canyon, or so our guide tells us."
  18. 18.  To suggest a negative condition: "The New Hampshire state motto is the rather grim "Live free or die." To suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative {see use of and above}: "They must approve his political style or they wouldnt keep electing him mayor."
  19. 19.  The conjunction NOR is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as often as the other conjunctions, so it might feel a bit odd when nor does come up in conversation or writing. Its most common use is as the little brother in the correlative pair , neither-nor (see below): He is neither sane nor brilliant. That is neither what I said nor what I meant. It can be used with other negative expressions like :
  20. 20.  That is not what I meant to say, nor should you interpret my statement as an admission of guilt. It is possible to use nor without a preceding negative element, but it is unusual and, to an extent, rather stuffy: Georges handshake is as good as any written contract, nor has he ever proven untrustworthy. The word YET functions sometimes as an adverb and has several meanings: in addition ("yet another cause of trouble" or "a simple yet noble woman"), even ("yet more expensive"), still ("he is yet a novice"), eventually ("they may yet win"), and so soon as now ("hes not here yet"). It also functions as a coordinating conjunction meaning something like "nevertheless" or "but." The word yet seems to carry an element of distinctiveness that but can seldom register.
  21. 21.  John plays basketball well, yet his favorite sport is badminton. The visitors complained loudly about the heat, yet they continued to play golf every day. In sentences such as the second one, above, the pronoun subject of the second clause ("they," in this case) is often left out. When that happens, the comma preceding the conjunction might also disappear: "The visitors complained loudly yet continued to play golf every day." Yet is sometimes combined with other conjunctions, but or and. It would not be unusual to see and yet in sentences like the ones above. This usage is acceptable. The word FOR is most often used as a preposition, of course, but it does serve, on rare occasions, as a coordinating conjunction. Some people regard the conjunction for as rather highfalutin and literary, and it does tend to add a bit of weightiness to the text. Beginning a sentence with the conjunction "for" is probably not a good idea, except when youre singing "For hes a jolly good fellow. "For" has serious sequential implications and in its use the order of thoughts is more important than it is, say, with because or since. Its function is to introduce the reason for the preceding clause:
  22. 22.  John thought he had a good chance to get the job, for his father was on the companys board of trustees. Most of the visitors were happy just sitting around in the shade, for it had been a long, dusty journey on the train. Be careful of the conjunction SO. Sometimes it can connect two independent clauses along with a comma, but sometimes it cant. For instance, in this sentence, Soto is not the only Olympic athlete in his family, so are his brother, sister, and his Uncle Chet. where the word so means "as well" or "in addition," most careful writers would use a semicolon between the two independent clauses. In the following sentence, where so is acting like a minor-league "therefore," the conjunction and the comma are adequate to the task: Soto has always been nervous in large gatherings, so it is no surprise that he avoids crowds of his adoring fans. Sometimes, at the beginning of a sentence, so will act as a kind of summing up device or transition, and when it does, it is often set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma: So, the sheriff peremptorily removed the child from the custody of his parents.
  23. 23. A subordinating conjunction joinsa subordinate clause to a main clause.
  24. 24.  After  As thought until  Because As  Even if If  Even thought Although  Though As long as  That As much as  Than Unless  So that Before  Since As soon as  provided
  25. 25.  Whenever  Till When  Til Where  How While  If Whenever  In as much Since  In order that So that Now that least
  26. 26.  The subordinate conjunction has two jobs. First, it provides a necessary transition between the two ideas in the sentence. This transition will indicate a time, place, or cause and effect relationship. Here are some examples: Louisa will wash the sink full of her dirty dishes once her roommate Shane cleans his stubble and globs of shaving cream from the bathroom sink. We looked on top of the refrigerator, where Jenny will often hide a bag of chocolate chip cookies. Because her teeth were chattering in fear, Lynda clenched her jaw muscle while waiting for her turn to audition.
  27. 27.  Subordinating conjunctions also join two clauses together, but in doing so, they make one clause dependent (or "subordinate") upon the other. A subordinating conjunction may appear at a sentence beginning or between two clauses in a sentence. A subordinate conjunction usually provides a tighter connection between clauses than a coordinating conjunctions does. Loose: It is raining, so we have an umbrella. Tight: Because it is raining, we have an umbrella.
  28. 28.  When the dependent clause is placed first in a sentence, use a comma between the two clauses. When the independent clause is placed first and the dependent clause second, do not separate the two clauses with a comma.
  29. 29. Some conjunctions combine with other words to form what are called correlative conjunctions. They always travel in pairs, joining various sentence elements that should be treated as grammatically equal.
  30. 30.  both . . . and not only . . . but also not . . . but either . . . or neither . . . nor whether . . . or as . . . as
  31. 31.  Correlative conjunctions always appear in pairs -- you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are "both...and," "either...or," "neither...nor,", "not only...but also," "," and "whether...or." {Technically correlative conjunctions consist simply of a co-coordinating conjunction linked to an adjective or adverb.} The highlighted words in the following sentences are correlative conjunctions: Both my grandfather and my father worked in the steel plant .In this sentence, the correlative conjunction "both...and" is used to link the two noun phrases that act as the compound subject of the sentence: "my grandfather" and "my father".
  32. 32.  Bring either a Jelly salad or a potato scallop . Here the correlative conjunction "either...or" links two noun phrases: "a Jelly salad" and "a potato scallop." Corinne is trying to decide whether to go to medical school orzo go to law school . Similarly, the correlative conjunction "whether ... or" links the two infinitive phrases "to go to medical school" and "to go to law school." The explosion destroyed not only the school but also the neighboring pub . In this example the correlative conjunction "not only ... but also" links the two noun phrases ("the school" and "neighboring pub") which act as direct objects. Note: some words which appear as conjunctions can also appear as prepositions or as adverbs.
  33. 33.  Summer days are hot and sunny. In Summer, I like to sail because the weather is nice. Sailing in Summer is great, but I dont have a sailing boat.
  34. 34. Punctuation RulesThe Special Case of ConjunctiveAdverbs  Rule : A semicolon and a comma are used together when a conjunctive adverb separates two main clauses.
  35. 35. exampleI wanted to go; however, I was too busy. Here is a list of common conjunctive adverbs. accordingly accordingly furthermore moreover Similarly also hence namely
  36. 36. stillanywayhoweverNeverthelessthenbesidesIncidentallynextThereafterCertainlyindeednonethelessTherefore
  37. 37. now thus finally likewise Otherwise undoubtedly further meanwhile.
  38. 38.  The conjunctive adverbs such as however, moreover, nevertheless, consequently, as a result are used to create complex relationships between ideas. Refer to the section on Coherence: Transitions Between Ideas for an extensive list of conjunctive adverbs categorized according to their various uses and for some advice on their application within sentences (including punctuation issues).
  39. 39. Choose the correct conjunction.I need to work hard so that I can pass the exam. Although he was the best qualified party candidate, he didnt win the elections. When you come back from your trip, well meet to discuss the problem. They said that the movie was fantastic, so I watched it.
  40. 40.  Although he was very ill, he didnt take any medicine. I dont know where I can buy a pair of jeans. She went to the shops but couldnt find anything she liked. Everybody likes him because he is nice and helpful. Since he was angry with her, he didnt utter a word. Keep quiet or go out.
  41. 41. [1] Things were different _____ I was young. WHEN[2] I do it _____ I like it. BECAUSE[3] Let us wait here _____ the rain stops. UNTILL[4] You cannot be a lawyer _____ you have a law degree. UNLESS[5] That was years _____ years ago. END
  42. 42. [6] She has not called _____ she left last week. SINCE[7] I saw him leaving an hour _____ two ago. OR[8] This is an expensive _____ very useful book. BUT[9] We were getting tired _____ we stopped for a rest. SO[10] He was angry _____ he heard when happened. WHEN
  43. 43. [11] Walk quickly _____ you will be late. OR[12] He had to retire _____ of ill health. BECAUSE[13] We will go swimming next Sunday _____ its raining. UNLESS[14] I heard a noise _____ I turned the light on. SO[15] Would you like a coffee _____ tea? OR
  44. 44. [16 ]Do you know _____ she will arrive? WHEN[17] _____ the car is old it still runs well. ALTHOUGH[18] Do you want a pen _____ a bit of paper? AND[19] I would like to go _____ I am too busy. BUT[20] She will die _____ the doctors operate immediately. UNLESS
  45. 45. Conjunctions: and, but, or, so We will visit Australia ......... New Zealand during our next vacation. (a) and(b) but(c) so My teeth were hurting ......... I made an appointment to go the dentist.o (a) or(b) so(c) but
  46. 46. • Have you seen ......... heard the latest musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber? (a) but(b) so(c) or I wanted to go to the rock concert ......... all the tickets were already sold.o (a) so(b) but(c) and I wanted to eat sushi for dinner ......... I went to a Japanese restaurant. (a) but(b) so(c) or
  47. 47.  I wanted to eat fish for lunch ......... the fish and chip shop had closed for the day. (a) or(b) but(c) so I am going to do my homework ......... take a shower when I get home from school. (a) and(b) but(c) so My father wanted to watch a soccer match on television ......... my mother was already watching another program.o (a) but(b) so(c) or
  48. 48.  My brother wanted to buy a novel ......... he went to the book store after he finished work. (a) so(b) or(c) but I wanted to visit my grandmother last week ......... she had an accident and had to be taken to hospital. (a) but(b) or(c) so
  49. 49. ABCBBBAAAA
  50. 50.  Frogs can hop, but they cant fly. Peter has a fever and a terrible headache. You have to speak louder because he cant hear well. Tom studied hard,but he failed the test. They like to watch soap operas and films on TV. Jim is happy because he won the race.
  51. 51. For each sent ence, choose t he best w d or phr ase t o or com et e t he gap f r om t he pl choi ces bel ow. ---- - - - - all the students had arrived, we started the weekly revision test. once You will be able to get into the cinema ------- you arrive before the film starts. As long as -------- the large amount of food at the party, Shohei couldnt find anything he wanted to eat. despite At one point in the lesson it looked ------ the teacher was going to give us some chocolate but then he took the chocolate away at the end of the lesson.
  52. 52.  Peter decided to pay extra for a flat near the school,--------- have to walk a many miles every morning from a cheaper but more distant location. Rather than I enjoyed the movie because of the great story, fantastic soundtrack and ---------- . Believable characters In England we have short daylight hours in winter and very long daylight hours in summer ------ the days are always the same length in Singapore. Where as Our teacher always brings a bar of chocolate to class on test days in case one of the students ---- one hundred percent. gets