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Trends and future of C++: Evolving a systems language for performance - by Bjarne Stroustrup
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Trends and future of C++: Evolving a systems language for performance - by Bjarne Stroustrup

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Bjarne Stroustrup presentation at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, march 18 2011 on : …

Bjarne Stroustrup presentation at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, march 18 2011 on :
- The design of C++0x
- C++: Machine model and resource management

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  • 1. Trends and future of C++ Bjarne Stroustrup Texas A&M University http://www.research.att.com/~bs• Machine, Abstraction, and Resources• The Design of C++0x
  • 2. C++:Machine, Abstraction, and Resources Bjarne Stroustrup Texas A&M University http://www.research.att.com/~bs
  • 3. Overview• “The gap:” systems programming• C++• Mapping to the machine• Low-overhead abstraction• Resource management Stroustrup - Madrid11 4
  • 4. Infrastructure• Bridging the abstraction gap Application Application Application Application “The gap” Foundation/Infrastructure Systems programming hardware hardware hardware Stroustrup - Madrid11 5
  • 5. Infrastructure – Examples• .Net• JVM• Model driven development environments• Browser• Scripting engine• Game engine• Some aspects of enterprise architectures• Some aspects of operating systems• Embedded systems architectures• … Stroustrup - Madrid11 6
  • 6. Infrastructure• Is a platform – Differentiates corporations, communities, organizations• Expensive to – Build , port , and maintain• Designed, built, and maintained by expert developers – Differ from application developers in attitude and skills• Critical for applications – Ease of development – Stability over time (sometimes decades) – Maintenance – Portability across hardware – Performance Stroustrup - Madrid11 7
  • 7. Systems Programming• Not just bit-fiddling – Not even mostly bit-fiddling• Classical systems programming – Demanding on designers and programmers• High complexity – Layering, Modularity• Hardware differs and matters – Some code must differ even on different processors of the same architecture• Concurrency – Memory architecture, Multi-cores, Physical distribution• High reliability requirements – Typically 24/7• Large programs/libraries/systems – N*100K lines Stroustrup - Madrid11 8
  • 8. Programming languages• A programming language exists to help people express ideas – Programming language features exist to serve design and programming techniques – The real measure of value is the number, novelty, and quality of applications Stroustrup - Madrid11 9
  • 9. Programming Languages Domain-specific abstraction General-purpose abstraction Fortran Simula Java Cobol C++ C++0x Direct mapping to hardware C#Assembler BCPL C 10 Stroustrup - Madrid11
  • 10. ISO Standard C++• C++98: ISO standard since 1998 – Millions of programmers – Billions of lines of code deployed – Massive support• C++0x: next ISO standard – Probably 2011 • We have a “Final Committee Draft” – Many language features already available • GCC, Microsoft, IBM, Apple, etc. – Standard libraries widely available Stroustrup - Madrid11 11
  • 11. Ideals• Work at the highest feasible level of abstraction – More correct, comprehensible, and maintainable code• Represent – concepts directly in code – independent concepts independently in code• Represent relationships among concepts directly – For example • Hierarchical relationships (object-oriented programming) • Parametric relationships (generic programming)• Combine concepts – freely – but only when needed and it makes sense Stroustrup - Madrid11 12
  • 12. C++ maps directly onto hardware• Mapping to the machine – Simple and direct – Built-in types • fit into registers • Matches machine instructions• Abstraction – User-defined types are created by simple composition – Zero-overhead principle: • what you don’t use you don’t pay for • What you do use, you couldn’t hand code any better Stroustrup - Madrid11 13
  • 13. Memory modelMemory is sequences of objects addressed by pointers Stroustrup - Madrid11 14
  • 14. Memory model (built-in type)• char• short• int• long• (long long)• float• double• long double• T* (pointer)• T& (implemented as pointer) Stroustrup - Madrid11 15
  • 15. Memory model (“ordinary” class)class Point { int x, y; p12: 1 // …}; 2// sizeof(Point)==2*sizeof(int) p:Point p12(1,2); Heap infoPoint* p = new Point(1,2); 1// memory used for “p”:sizeof(Point*)+sizeof(Point)+Heap_info 2 Stroustrup - Madrid11 16
  • 16. Memory model – class hierarchyclass Base { int b; x: b};class Derived : public Base { int d: y: b}; d Base x; Derived y; Stroustrup - Madrid11 17
  • 17. Memory model (polymorphic type) Shape* p = new Circle(x,20);class Shape { public: Heap virtual void draw() = 0; info virtual Point center() = 0; p->draw(); vptr // … }; vtbl: Circle’s draw() draw center Circle’s center() Stroustrup - Madrid11 18
  • 18. Not all memory models are that direct • Consider a pair of coordinates – class Coord { double x,y,z; /* operations */ }; – pair<Coord> xy= { {1,2,3}, {4,5,6} };C++ layout: xy: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Likely size: 6 words (2*3 words)“pure object-oriented” layout: reference: references: 4 5 6 Likely minimal size: 15 words (1+(2+2)+2*(2+3) words) 1 2 3 Stroustrup - Madrid11 19
  • 19. But does it matter?• Memories are infinitely large (almost )• Processors are infinitely fast (almost )• We can use infinitely many processors (almost ) insert: 5Ordered sequence: 1 2 9 15 19 22• For which size of sequence is a list faster than a vector? Stroustrup - Madrid11 20
  • 20. But does in matter? (it does)• “Let them eat cache!” – Compactness of vector vs. list – Streaming vs. Random access – Details are very architecture dependent Stroustrup - Madrid11 21
  • 21. Abstraction• Simple user-defined types (“concrete types”) – classes • Amazingly flexible • Zero overhead (time and space)• Hierarchical organization (“abstract types”) – Abstract classes, virtual functions • Fixed minimal overhead – Class hierarchies, virtual functions • Object-oriented programming • Fixed minimal overhead• Parameterized abstractions (“generic types and functions”) – Templates • Generic programming • Amazingly flexible Stroustrup - Madrid11 22 • Zero overhead (time and space)
  • 22. A class – definedclass vector { // simple vector of doublepublic: // interface: // a constructor establishes the class invariant (acquiring resources as needed): vector(); // constructor: empty vector vector(initializer_list<double>); // constructor: initialize from a list ~vector(); // destructor for cleanup double& operator[](int i); // range checked access const double& operator[](int i) const; // access to immutable vector int size() const; // copy and move operationsprivate: // representation: Think of vector as a resource handle int sz; double* p;}; Stroustrup - Madrid11 23
  • 23. A generic class – used• “Our” vector is just an ordinary type used like any other type vector v1; // global variables vector s2 = { 1, 2, 3, 4 }; void f(const vector& v) // arguments and local variables { for (int i = 0; i<v.size(); ++i) cout << v[i] << ‘n’; vector s3 = { 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 }; // … } No explicit resource management struct S { vector s1; // class members vector s2; Stroustrup - Madrid11 24 };
  • 24. A class - implementedclass vector { // simple vector of doublepublic: vector() :sz(0), elem(0) { } vector(initializer_list<double> il) :sz(il.size()), elem(new double[sz]) { uninitialized_copy(il.begin(), il.end(), elem); } ~vector() { delete[] elem; } double& operator[](int i) { if (i<0||sz<=i) throw out_of_range(); return elem[i]; } const double& operator[](int i) const; // access to immutable vector int size() const { return sz; } // copy and move operationsprivate: No run-time support system “magic” int sz; double* elem;}; Stroustrup - Madrid11 25
  • 25. A class – made generictemplate<class T> class vector { // simple vector of Tpublic: vector() :sz(0), elem(0) { } vector(initializer_list<T> il) :sz(il.size()), elem(new T[sz]) { uninitialized_copy(il.begin(), il.end(), elem); } ~vector() { delete[] elem; } T& operator[](int i) { if (i<0||sz<=i) throw out_of_range(); return elem[i]; } const T& operator[](int i) const; // access to immutable vector int size() const { return sz; } // copy and move operationsprivate: No overheads compared to the non-generic version int sz; T* elem;}; Stroustrup - Madrid11 26
  • 26. A generic class – used• “Our” vector is used just like any other type, taking its element type as an argument – No fancy runtime system – No overheads (time or space) compare to hand coding vector<int> vi; vector<double> vd = { 1.0, 2, 3.14 }; // exactly like the non-parameterized version vector<string> vs = {"Hello", "New", "World" }; vector<vector<Coord>> vvc = { { {1,2,3}, {4,5,6} }, {}, { {2,3,4}, {3,4,5}, {4,5,6}, {5,6,7} } C++0x }; Stroustrup - Madrid11 27
  • 27. In real-world code• We use the standard-library vector – Fundamentally similar to “our” vector • same mapping to hardware • Same abstraction mechanisms – More refined that “our” vector – As efficient (same map to hardware) • or better• Or we use an industry, corporation, project “standard” container – Designed to cater for special needs• Build our own – Using the same facilities and techniques used for the standard library• There are tens of thousands of libraries “out there” – But no really good way of finding them Stroustrup - Madrid11 28
  • 28. Maintaining abstraction close to the hardware• Compile-time resolution – Templates – Overloading• Inline functions – Saves time and space for tiny functions – Requires use of values (minimize the use of pointers/indirections)• Constant expression evaluation Stroustrup - Madrid11 29
  • 29. Abstraction is affordable• Read and sort floating-point numbers – C: read using stdio; qsort(buf,n,sizeof(double),compare) – C++: read using iostream; sort(v.begin(),v.end()); slow #elements C++ C C/C++ ratio 500,000 2.5 5.1 2.04 5,000,000 27.4 126.6 4.62• How? fast – clean algorithm – inlining(Details: May’99 issue of C/C++ Journal; http://www.research.att.com/~bs/papers.html) Stroustrup - Madrid11 30
  • 30. Engine example• MAN – B&W marine diesel engine – Up to 132,340Hp – Has been deployed in very large ships for a couple of years Stroustrup - Madrid11 31
  • 31. Engine exampleStatusType<FixPoint16> EngineClass::InternalLoadEstimation( const StatusType<FixPoint16>& UnsigRelSpeed, const StatusType<FixPoint16>& FuelIndex){ StatusType<FixPoint16> sl =UnsigRelSpeed*FuelIndex; StatusType<FixPoint16> IntLoad = sl*(PointSevenFive+sl*(PointFiveFour-PointTwoSeven*sl)) - PointZeroTwo*UnsigRelSpeed*UnsigRelSpeed*UnsigRelSpeed; IntLoad=IntLoad*NoFuelCylCorrFactor.Get(); if (IntLoad.GetValue()<FixPoint16ZeroValue) IntLoad=sFIXPOINT16_0; return IntLoad;} Stroustrup - Madrid11 32
  • 32. What is a “resource”?• A resource is something Handle – You acquire (local) – You use – You release/free – Any or all of those steps can be implicit• Examples – Free store (heap) memory Resource (shared over time) – Sockets – Locks – Files – Threads Stroustrup - Madrid11 33
  • 33. Managing Resources// unsafe, naïve use (common in all languages):void f(const char* p){ FILE* f = fopen(p,"r"); // acquire // use f fclose(f); // release } Stroustrup - Madrid11 34
  • 34. Managing Resources// naïve fix:void f(const char* p){ FILE* f = 0; try { f = fopen(p, "r"); // use f } catch (…) { // handle every exception if (f) fclose(f); throw; } if (f) fclose(f); } Stroustrup - Madrid11 35
  • 35. Managing Resources// use an object to represent a resource (RAII ==“resource acquisition is initialization”)class File_handle { // belongs in some support library FILE* p;public: File_handle(const string& s, const char* r) // constructor: acquire { p = fopen(s.c_str(),r); if (p==0) throw File_error(s,r); } ~File_handle() { fclose(p); } // destructor: release // copy and move operations // access functions};void f(string s){ File_handle f(s, "r"); // simpler than “naïve use” // use f Stroustrup - Madrid11 36}
  • 36. Simplified conventional locking• A lock represents local ownership of a resource (the mutex) std::mutex m; int sh; // shared data void f() { // ... std::unique_lock<mutex> lck(m); // grab (acquire) the mutex // manipulate shared data: sh+=1; } // implicitly release the mutex C++0x Stroustrup - Madrid11 37
  • 37. Summary• Focus on mapping from “high-level” applications to hardware – One critical focus among many – The complexity of this mapping is easily underestimated• Work at the highest feasible level of abstraction – For correctness, maintainability, portability, and performance• A programming language can help – A suitable programming language – In the hands of competent programmers – Good language use is essential (IMO) • Rely on libraries – Define and rely on explicit abstractions – Represent resources directly • Stay type safe Stroustrup - Madrid11 38
  • 38. C++ for safety-critical usesGeneral strategy: Use a subset of superset C++ JSF++MISRA C (a subset of C) C• JSF++ (a subset of a superset of C++) – Stricter than any C subset (and far more flexible) – Type safe Stroustrup - Madrid11 39
  • 39. More C++ information• My home pages – Papers, FAQs, libraries, applications, compilers, … • Search for “Bjarne” or “Stroustrup”• C++0x: – The ISO C++ standard committee’s site: • All documents from 1994 onwards – Search for “WG21”• Design and evolution of of C++ – My HOPL-II and HOPL-III papers – The Design and Evolution of C++ (Addison Wesley 1994) – The Computer History Museum • Software preservation project’s C++ pages – Early compilers and documentation, etc. » http://www.softwarepreservation.org/projects/c_plus_plus/ » Search for “C++ Historical Sources Archive” Stroustrup - Madrid11 40
  • 40. Thanks!• C and Simula – Brian Kernighan – Doug McIlroy – Kristen Nygaard – Dennis Ritchie – …• ISO C++ standards committee – Steve Clamage – Francis Glassborow – Andrew Koenig – Tom Plum – Herb Sutter – …• C++ compiler, tools, and library builders – Beman Dawes – David Vandevoorde – …• Application builders Stroustrup - Madrid11 41
  • 41. The Design of C++0x Bjarne Stroustrup Texas A&M University http://www.research.att.com/~bs
  • 42. Overview• Aims, Ideals, and history• C++• Design rules for C++0x – With examples• Case study – Initialization Stroustrup - Madrid11 44
  • 43. Programming languages• A programming language exists to help people express ideas• Programming language features exist to serve design and programming techniques• The primary value of a programming language is in the applications written in it• The quest for better languages has been long and must continue Stroustrup - Madrid11 45
  • 44. Programming Languages Domain-specific abstraction General-purpose abstraction Fortran Simula Java Cobol C++ C++0x Direct mapping to hardware C#Assembler BCPL C Stroustrup - Madrid11 46
  • 45. Ideals• Work at the highest feasible level of abstraction – More general, correct, comprehensible, and maintainable code• Represent – concepts directly in code – independent concepts independently in code• Represent relationships among concepts directly – For example • Hierarchical relationships (object-oriented programming) • Parametric relationships (generic programming)• Combine concepts – freely – but only when needed and it makes sense Stroustrup - Madrid11 47
  • 46. C with Classes –1980• General abstraction mechanisms to cope with complexity – From Simula• General close-to-hardware machine model for efficiency – From C• Became C++ in 1984 – Commercial release 1985 • Non-commercial source license: $75 – ISO standard 1998 – C++0x: Final Draft Standard 2010 • 2nd ISO standard 200x (‘x’ is hex ) Stroustrup - Madrid11 48
  • 47. C++ ISO Standardization• Slow, bureaucratic, democratic, formal process – “the worst way, except for all the rest” • (apologies to W. Churchill)• About 22 nations (5 to 12 at a meeting)• Membership have varied – 100 to 200+ • 200+ members currently – 40 to 100 at a meeting • ~60 currently• Most members work in industry• Most members are volunteers – Even many of the company representatives• Most major platform, compiler, and library vendors are represented – E.g., IBM, Intel, Microsoft, Sun• End users are underrepresented Stroustrup - Madrid11 52
  • 48. Design?• Can a committee design? – No (at least not much) – Few people consider or care for the whole language• Is C++0x designed – Yes • Well, mostly: You can see traces of different personalities in C++0x• Committees – Discuss – Bring up problems – “Polish” – Are brakes on innovation Stroustrup - Madrid11 53
  • 49. Overall goals for C++0x• Make C++ a better language for systems programming and library building – Rather than providing specialized facilities for a particular sub- community (e.g. numeric computation or Windows-style application development) – Build directly on C++’s contributions to systems programming• Make C++ easier to teach and learn – Through increased uniformity, stronger guarantees, and facilities supportive of novices (there will always be more novices than experts) Stroustrup - Madrid11 54
  • 50. C++0x• ‘x’ may be hex, but C++0x is not science fiction – Every feature is implemented somewhere • E.g. GCC 4.6: Rvalues, Variadic templates, Initializer lists, Static assertions, auto, New function declarator syntax, Lambdas, Right angle brackets, Extern templates, Strongly-typed enums, constexpr, Delegating constructors (patch), Raw string literals, Defaulted and deleted functions, Inline namespaces, noexcept, Local and unnamed types as template arguments, range-for – Standard library components are shipping widely • E.g. GCC, Microsoft, Boost – The last design points have been settled • We are processing requests from National Standards Bodies Stroustrup - Madrid11 55
  • 51. Rules of thumb / Ideals• Integrating features to work in combination is the key – And the most work – The whole is much more than the simple sum of its part• Maintain stability and compatibility• Prefer libraries to language extensions• Prefer generality to specialization• Support both experts and novices• Increase type safety• Improve performance and ability to work directly with hardware• Make only changes that change the way people think• Fit into the real world Stroustrup - Madrid11 56
  • 52. Maintain stability and compatibility• “Don’t break my code!” – There are billions of lines of code “out there” • 1 billion == 1000 million – There are millions of C++ programmers “out there”• “Absolutely no incompatibilities” leads to ugliness – We introduce new keywords as needed: auto (recycled), decltype, constexpr, thread_local, nullptr – Example of incompatibility: static_assert(4<=sizeof(int),"error: small ints"); Stroustrup - Madrid11 57
  • 53. Support both experts and novices• Example: minor syntax cleanup vector<list<int>> vl; // note the “missing space”• Example: get type from initializer auto v = 7.2; // v is a double (because 7.2. is a double)• Example: simplified iteration for (auto x : v) cout << x <<n;• Note: Experts don’t easily appreciate the needs of novices – Example of what we couldn’t get just now string s = "12.3"; double x = lexical_cast<double>(s); // extract value from string Stroustrup - Madrid11 58
  • 54. Prefer libraries to language extensions• Libraries deliver more functionality• Libraries are immediately useful• Problem: Enthusiasts prefer language features – see library as 2nd best• Example: New library components – std::thread, std::future, … • Threads ABI; not thread built-in type – std::unordered_map, std::regex, … • Not built-in associative array Stroustrup - Madrid11 59
  • 55. Prefer generality to specialization• Example: Prefer improvements to abstraction mechanisms over separate new features – Inherited constructor template<class T> class Vector : std::vector<T> { using vector::vector<T>; // inherit all constructors // … }; – Move semantics supported by rvalue references template<class T> class vector { // … void push_back(T&& x); // move x into vector // avoid copy if possible };• Problem: people love small isolated features Stroustrup - Madrid11 60
  • 56. Not a reference Move semantics • Often we don’t want two copies, we just want to move a value vector<int> make_test_sequence(int n) { vector<int> res; for (int i=0; i<n; ++i) res.push_back(rand_int()); return res; // move, not copy } vector<int> seq = make_test_sequence(1000000); // no copies • New idiom for arithmetic operations: – Matrix operator+(const Matrix&, const Matrix&); – a = b+c+d+e; // no copies Stroustrup - Madrid11 61
  • 57. Increase type safety• Approximate the unachievable ideal – Example: Strongly-typed enumerations enum class Color { red, blue, green }; int x = Color::red; // error: no Color->int conversion Color y = 7; // error: no int->Color conversion Color z = red; // error: red not in scope Color c = Color::red; // fine – Example: Support for general resource management • std::unique_ptr (for ownership) • std::shared_ptr (for sharing) • Garbage collection ABI Stroustrup - Madrid11 62
  • 58. Improve performance and the ability to work directly with hardware• Embedded systems programming is very important – Example: address array/pointer problems • array<int,7> s; // fixed-sized array – Example: Generalized constant expressions (think ROM) constexpr int abs(int i) { return (0<=i) ? i : -i; } // can be constant expression struct Point { // “literal type” can be used in constant expression int x, y; constexpr Point(int xx, int yy) : x{xx}, y{yy} { } }; constexpr Point p1{1,2}; // must be evaluated at compile time: ok constexpr Point p2{p1.y,abs(x)}; // ok?: is x is a constant expression? Stroustrup - Madrid11 63
  • 59. Make only changes that change the way people think• Think/remember: – Object-oriented programming – Generic programming – Concurrency – …• But, most people prefer to fiddle with details – So there are dozens of small improvements • All useful somewhere • long long, static_assert, raw literals, thread_local, unicode types, … – Example: A null pointer keyword void f(int); void f(char*); f(0); // call f(int); f(nullptr); // call f(char*); Stroustrup - Madrid11 64
  • 60. Fit into the real world• Example: Existing compilers and tools must evolve – Simple complete replacement is impossible – Tool chains are huge and expensive – There are more tools than you can imagine – C++ exists on many platforms • So the tool chain problems occur N times – (for each of M tools)• Example: Education – Teachers, courses, and textbooks • Often mired in 1970s thinking (“C is the perfect language”) • Often mired in 1980s thinking (“OOP: Rah! Rah!! Rah!!!”) – “We” haven’t completely caught up with C++98! • “legacy code breeds more legacy code” Stroustrup - Madrid11 65
  • 61. Areas of language change• Machine model and concurrency Model – Threads library (std::thread) – Atomics ABI – Thread-local storage (thread_local) – Asynchronous message buffer (std::future)• Support for generic programming – (no concepts ) – uniform initialization – auto, decltype, lambdas, template aliases, move semantics, variadic templates, range-for, …• Etc. – static_assert – improved enums – long long, C99 character types, etc. – … Stroustrup - Madrid11 66
  • 62. Standard Library Improvements• New containers – Hash Tables (unordered_map, etc.) – Singly-linked list (forward_list) – Fixed-sized array (array)• Container improvements – Move semantics (e.g. push_back) – Intializer-list constructors – Emplace operations – Scoped allocators• More algorithms (just a few)• Concurrency support – thread, mutex, lock, … – future, async, … – Atomic types• Garbage collection ABI Stroustrup - Madrid11 67
  • 63. Standard Library Improvements• Regular Expressions (regex)• General-purpose Smart Pointers (unique_ptr, shared_ptr, …)• Extensible Random Number Facility• Enhanced Binder and function wrapper (bind and function)• Mathematical Special Functions• Tuple Types (tuple)• Type Traits (lots) Stroustrup - Madrid11 68
  • 64. Template What is C++? meta-programming! A hybrid language A multi-paradigm programming languageBufferoverflows It’s C! Embedded systems Too big! programming language Supports generic programming Low level! An object-oriented A random collection programming language Stroustrup - Madrid11 of features 69
  • 65. C++0x• It feels like a new language – Compared to C++98• It’s not just “object oriented” – Many of the key user-defined abstractions are not objects • Types • Classifications and manipulation of types (types of types) – I miss “concepts” • Algorithms (generalized versions of computation) • Resources and resource lifetimes• The pieces fit together much better than they used to Stroustrup - Madrid11 70
  • 66. C++Key strength: Building software infrastructures and resource- constrained applications A light-weight abstraction programming language Stroustrup - Madrid11 71
  • 67. So, what does “light-weight abstraction” mean?• The design of programs focused on the design, implementation, and use of abstractions – Often abstractions are organized into libraries • So this style of development has been called “library-oriented”• C++ emphasis – Flexible static type system – Small abstractions – Performance (in time and space) – Ability to work close to the hardware Stroustrup - Madrid11 72
  • 68. Case studies• Initialization – “language maintenance” • Simplification through generalization• Concurrency – “a necessity” • Design under severe constraints Stroustrup - Madrid11 73
  • 69. Case study: Initializers• The problems – #1: Irregularity – #2: Lack of adequate variable-length list mechanism – #3: Narrowing• Constraints – About 35 years of history• The bigger picture – Uniform initialization syntax and semantics needed• The solution – { } uniform initialization • Uniform syntax • Uniform semantics Stroustrup - Madrid11 74
  • 70. Problem #1: irregularity• There are four notations – int a = 2; // “assignment style” – int aa[] = { 2, 3 }; // “list style” – complex z(1,2); // “functional style” – x = Ptr(y); // “functional style” for conversion/cast/construction• No notation can be used everywhere – p = (new int = 2); // error: no = initialization for free store objects – complex z{1,2}; // error: complex has a constructor – int aa[](2,3); // error: an array doesn’t have a constructor – x = Ptr{3}; // syntax error: you can’t cast from a list Stroustrup - Madrid11 75
  • 71. Problem #1: irregularity• Sometimes, the syntax is inconsistent/confusing int a(1); // variable definition int b(); // function declaration int b(foo); // variable definition or function declaration• We can’t use initializer lists except in a few cases string a[] = { "foo", " bar" }; // ok: initialize array variable vector<string> v = { "foo", " bar" }; // error: initialize vector variable void f(string a[]); f( { "foo", " bar" } ); // error: initializer array argument Stroustrup - Madrid11 76
  • 72. Is irregularity a real problem?• Yes, a major source of confusion and bugs• Violates a fundamental C++ design principle: – Provide uniform support for types (user-defined and built-in)• Can it be solved by restriction? – No existing syntax can be used in all cases int a [] = { 1,2,3 }; // can’t use () here complex<double> z(1,2); // can’t use { } here struct S { double x,y; } s = {1,2}; // can’t use ( ) here int* p = new int(4); // can’t use { } or = here – No existing syntax has the same semantics in all cases typedef char* Pchar; Pchar p(7); // error (good!) Pchar p = Pchar(7); // “legal” (ouch!) Stroustrup - Madrid11 77
  • 73. Problem #2: list workarounds• Initialize a vector (using push_back) – Clumsy and indirect template<class T> class vector { // … void push_back(const T&) { /* … */ } // … }; vector<double> v; v.push_back(1); v.push_back(2); v.push_back(3.4);• Violates a fundamental C++ design principle: – Support fundamental notions directly (“state intent”) Stroustrup - Madrid11 78
  • 74. Problem #2: list workarounds• Initialize vector (using general iterator constructor) – Awkward, error-prone, and indirect – Spurious use of (unsafe) array template<class T> class vector { // … template <class Iter> vector(Iter first, Iter last) { /* … */ } // … }; int a[ ] = { 1, 2, 3.4 }; // bug vector<double> v(a, a+sizeof(a)/sizeof(int)); // hazard• Violates a fundamental C++ design principle: – Provide uniform support for types (user-defined and built-in) Stroustrup - Madrid11 79
  • 75. C++0x: initializer lists• An initializer-list constructor – defines the meaning of an initializer list for a type template<class T> class vector { // … vector(std::initializer_list<T>); // initializer list constructor // … };vector<double> v = { 1, 2, 3.4 };vector<string> geek_heros = { "Dahl", "Kernighan", "McIlroy", "Nygaard ", "Ritchie", "Stepanov"}; Stroustrup - Madrid11 80
  • 76. C++0x: initializer lists• Not just for templates and constructors – but std::initializer list is simple – does just one thing well void f(int, std::initializer_list<int>, int); f(1, {2,3,4}, 5); f(42, {1,a,3,b,c,d,x+y,0,g(x+a),0,0,3}, 1066); Stroustrup - Madrid11 81
  • 77. Uniform initialization syntax• Every form of initialization can accept the { … } syntax X x1 = X{1,2}; X x2 = {1,2}; // the = is optional X x3{1,2}; X* p2 = new X{1,2}; struct D : X { D(int x, int y) :X{x,y} { /* … */ }; }; struct S { int a[3]; S(int x, int y, int z) :a{x,y,z} { /* … */ }; // solution to old problem }; Stroustrup - Madrid11 82
  • 78. Uniform initialization semantics• X { a } constructs the same value in every context – { } initialization gives the same result in all places where it is legal X x{a}; X* p = new X{a}; z = X{a}; // use as cast f({a}); // function argument (of type X) return {a}; // function return value (function returning X) …• X { … } is always an initialization – X var{}; // no operand; default initialization • Not a function definition like X var(); – X var{a}; // one operand • Never a function definition like X var(a); (if a is a type name) Stroustrup - Madrid11 83
  • 79. Initialization problem #3: narrowing• C++98 implicitly truncates int x = 7.3; // Ouch! char c = 2001; // Ouch! int a[] = { 1,2,3.4,5,6 }; // Ouch! void f1(int); f1(7.3); // Ouch! void f2(char); f2(2001); // Ouch! void f3(int[]); f3({ 1,2,3.4,5,6 }); // oh! Another problem• A leftover from before C had casts!• Principle violated: Type safety• Solution: – C++0x { } initialization doesn’t narrow. • all examples above are caught Stroustrup - Madrid11 84
  • 80. Uniform Initialization• Example Table phone_numbers = { { "Donald Duck", 2015551234 }, { “Mike Doonesbury", 9794566089 }, { "Kell Dewclaw", 1123581321 } };• What is Table? – a map? An array of structs? A vector of pairs? My own class with a constructor? A struct needing aggregate initialization? Something else? – We don’t care as long as it can be constructed using a C-style string and an integer. – Those numbers cannot get truncated Stroustrup - Madrid11 85
  • 81. Concurrency support• Memory model – To guarantee our usual assumptions• Support for concurrent systems programming – Atomic types for implementing concurrency support features • “Here be dragons” • Lock-free programming – Thread, mutex, lock, … • RAII for locking • Type safe• A single higher-level model – async() and futures Spring11 Stroustrup 86
  • 82. What we want• Ease of programming – Writing correct concurrent code is hard – Modern hardware is concurrent in more way than you imagine• Uncompromising performance – But for what?• Portability – Preferably portable performance• System level interoperability – C++ shares threads with other languages and with the OSs Stroustrup - Madrid11 87
  • 83. We can’t get everything• No one concurrency model is best for everything• We can’t get all that much – C++0x is not a research project – WG21 has very few resources (time, people) – “Don’t break my code!”• “C++ is a systems programming language” – (among other things) implies serious constraints Stroustrup - Madrid11 88
  • 84. Memory model• A memory model is an agreement between the machine architects and the compiler writers to ensure that most programmers do not have to think about the details of modern computer hardware. // thread 1: // thread 2: char c; char b; c = 1; b = 1; c: b: int x = c; int y = b; x==1 and y==1 as anyone would expect (but don’t try that for two bitfields of the same word) Stroustrup - Madrid11 89
  • 85. Atomics (“here be dragons!”)• Components for fine-grained atomic access – provided via operations on atomic objects (in <cstdatomic>) – Low-level, messy, and shared with C (making the notation messy) – what you need for lock-free programming – what you need to implement std::thread, std::mutex, etc. – Several synchronization models, CAS, fences, … enum memory_order { // regular (non-atomic) memory synchronization order memory_order_relaxed, memory_order_consume, memory_order_acquire, memory_order_release, memory_order_acq_rel, memory_order_seq_cst }; C atomic_load_explicit(const volatile A* object, memory_order); void atomic_store_explicit(volatile A *object, C desired, memory_order order); bool atomic_compare_exchange_weak_explicit(volatile A* object, C * expected, C desired, memory_order success, memory_order failure); // … lots more … Stroustrup - Madrid11 91
  • 86. Threading• You can – wait for a thread for a specified time – control access to some data by mutual exclusion – control access to some data using locks – wait for an action of another task using a condition variable – return a value from a thread through a future Stroustrup - Madrid11 92
  • 87. Concurrency: std::thread#include<thread>void f() { std::cout << "Hello "; }struct F { void operator()() { std::cout << "parallel world "; }};int main(){ std::thread t1{f}; // f() executes in separate thread std::thread t2{F()}; // F()() executes in separate thread} // spot the bugs Stroustrup - Madrid11 93
  • 88. Concurrency: std::threadint main(){ std::thread t1{f}; // f() executes in separate thread std::thread t2{F()}; // F()() executes in separate thread t1.join(); // wait for t1 t2.join(); // wait for t2}// and another bug: don’t write to cout without synchronization Stroustrup - Madrid11 94
  • 89. Thread – pass arguments• Use function object or bind() void f(vector<double>&); struct F { vector<double>& v; F(vector<double>& vv) :v{vv} { } void operator()(); }; int main() { std::thread t1{std::bind(f,some_vec)}; // f(some_vec) std::thread t2{F(some_vec)}; // F(some_vec)() t1.join(); t2.join(); } Stroustrup - Madrid11 95
  • 90. Thread – pass arguments• Use bind() or variadic constructor void f(vector<double>&); struct F { vector<double>& v; F(vector<double>& vv) :v{vv} { } void operator()(); }; int main() { std::thread t1{std::bind(f,some_vec)}; // f(some_vec) std::thread t2{f,some_vec}; // f(some_vec) t1.join(); t2.join(); Stroustrup - Madrid11 96 }
  • 91. Thread – pass result (primitive)void f(vector<double>&, double* res); // place result in resstruct F { vector& v; double* res; F(vector<double>& vv, double* p) :v{vv}, res{p} { } void operator()(); // place result in res}; int main(){ double res1; double res2; std::thread t1{f,some_vec,&res1}; // f(some_vec,&res1) std::thread t2{F,some_vec,&res2}; // F(some_vec,&res2)() t1.join(); t2.join(); std::cout << res1 << << res2 << n; Stroustrup - Madrid11 97}
  • 92. Mutual exclusion: std::mutex• A mutex is a primitive object use for controlling access in a multi-threaded system.• A mutex is a shared object (a resource)• Simplest use: std::mutex m; int sh; // shared data // ... m.lock(); // manipulate shared data: sh+=1; m.unlock(); Stroustrup - Madrid11 99
  • 93. Mutex – try_lock()• Don’t wait unnecessarily std::mutex m; int sh; // shared data // ... if (m.try_lock()) { // manipulate shared data: sh+=1; m.unlock(); } else { // maybe do something else } Stroustrup - Madrid11 100
  • 94. Mutex – try_lock_for()• Don’t wait for too long: std::timed_mutex m; int sh; // shared data // ... if (m.try_lock_for(std::chrono::seconds(10))) { // Note: time // manipulate shared data: sh+=1; m.unlock(); } else { // we didnt get the mutex; do something else } Stroustrup - Madrid11 101
  • 95. Mutex – try_lock_until()• We can wait until a fixed time in the future: std::timed_mutex m; int sh; // shared data // ... if (m.try_lock_until(midnight)) { // manipulate shared data: sh+=1; m.unlock(); } else { // we didnt get the mutex; do something else } Stroustrup - Madrid11 102
  • 96. Recursive mutex• In some important use cases it is hard to avoid recursion std::recursive_mutex m; int sh; // shared data // ... void f(int i) { // ... m.lock(); // manipulate shared data: sh+=1; if (--i>0) f(i); m.unlock(); // ... Stroustrup - Madrid11 103 }
  • 97. RAII for mutexes: std::lock• A lock represents local ownership of a non-local resource (the mutex) std::mutex m; Lock (local) int sh; // shared data void f() { mutex // ... (shared over time) std::unique_lock lck(m); // grab (acquire) the mutex // manipulate shared data: sh+=1; } // implicitly release the mutex Stroustrup - Madrid11 104
  • 98. Potential deadlock• Unstructured use of multiple locks is hazardous: std::mutex m1; std::mutex m2; int sh1; // shared data int sh2; // ... void f() { // ... std::unique_lock lck1(m1); std::unique_lock lck2(m2); // manipulate shared data: sh1+=sh2; Stroustrup - Madrid11 105 }
  • 99. RAII for mutexes: std::lock• We can safely use several locks void f() { // ... std::unique_lock lck1(m1,std::defer_lock); // make locks but dont yet // try to acquire the mutexes std::unique_lock lck2(m2,std::defer_lock); std::unique_lock lck3(m3,std::defer_lock); // … lock(lck1,lck2,lck3); // manipulate shared data } // implicitly release the mutexes Stroustrup - Madrid11 106
  • 100. Future and promise set_value()get() future promise set_exception() result• future+promise provides a simple way of passing a value from one thread to another – No explicit synchronization – Exceptions can be transmitted between threads Stroustrup - Madrid11 107
  • 101. Future and promise• Get from a future<X> called f: X v = f.get();// if necessary wait for the value to get• Put to a promise<X> called p (attached to f): try { X res; // compute a value for res p.set_value(res); } catch (...) { // oops: couldnt compute res p.set_exception(std::current_exception()); } Stroustrup - Madrid11 108
  • 102. Type-safe simple concurrencydouble accum(double* b, double* e, double init);double comp(vector<double>& v) // spawn many tasks if v is large enough{ const auto vs = v.size(); if (vs<10000) return accum(&v[0], &v[0]+vs ,0.0); auto f0 = async(accum, &v[0], &v[vs/4], 0.0); // first quarter auto f1 = async(accum, &v[vs/4], &v[vs/2], 0.0); // second quarter auto f2 = async(accum, &v[vs/2], &v[vs*3/4], 0.0); // third quarter auto f3 = async(accum, &v[vs*3/4], &v[0]+vs, 0.0); // fourth quarter return f0.get()+f1.get()+f2.get()+f3.get(); C++0x} Stroustrup Models Madrid11 109
  • 103. Thanks!• C and Simula – Brian Kernighan – Doug McIlroy – Kristen Nygaard – Dennis Ritchie – …• ISO C++ standards committee – Steve Clamage – Francis Glassborow – Andrew Koenig – Tom Plum – Herb Sutter – …• C++ compiler, tools, and library builders – Beman Dawes – David Vandevoorde – …• Application builders Stroustrup - Madrid11 110
  • 104. More information• My home pages – C++0x FAQ – Papers, FAQs, libraries, applications, compilers, … • Search for “Bjarne” or “Stroustrup” • “What is C++0x ?” paper• My HOPL-II and HOPL-III papers• The Design and Evolution of C++ (Addison Wesley 1994)• The ISO C++ standard committee’s site: – All documents from 1994 onwards • Search for “WG21”• The Computer History Museum – Software preservation project’s C++ pages • Early compilers and documentation, etc. – http://www.softwarepreservation.org/projects/c_plus_plus/ – Search for “C++ Historical Sources Archive” Stroustrup - Madrid11 111