Georgia History Chapter 4


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  • War of Jenkins’s Ear
    La batalla de Cartagena de Indias'

    The History of Royal Navy, the British Army and the US Marine Corps (which enlisted Cpt. Lawrence Washington, brother of the first president of the USA George Washington), fighting against the Spanish forces at the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, in 1740-1741.

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  • This slide introduces Chapter 4, “Settlement of the Thirteenth Colony.”
  • This is an essential question for this section of the chapter.
  • This is an essential question for this section of the chapter.
  • This is an essential question for this section of the chapter.
  • This is an essential question for this section of the chapter.
  • Georgia History Chapter 4

    1. 1. Georgia and the American Experience Chapter 4: 1477-1752 Settlement of the Thirteenth Colony Study Pr esentation © 2005 Clairmont Press
    2. 2. Section 1: An Age of Exploration • ESSENTIAL QUESTION – What were the effects of the interactions of Europeans and Native Americans?
    3. 3. Spain and the Age of Exploration • Columbus discovered San Salvador Island (part of today’s Bahamas) in 1492. • Columbus later explored the coasts of Central and South America and other Caribbean islands. • Amerigo Vespucci sailed along the South American coast in 1499; a mapmaker named the new land “America.”
    4. 4. Hernando De Soto Searches Georgia for Gold • In 1540, Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto, with hundreds of men, marched north from Tampa, Florida into southwest Georgia (near today’s Albany). • De Soto’s weapons, plated armor, and horses overwhelmed the Native Americans; thousands of American Indians in Georgia died, many from disease (smallpox) brought by the Spaniards. • The Spaniards marched across Georgia into South Carolina, but never found the gold they sought.
    5. 5. On Monday, the twenty-ninth of March, they left from there for Ichisi, and it rained so much, and a small river swelled in such a manner, that if they bad not made much haste to cross, all of the army would have been endangered. This day Indian men and women came forth to receive them. The women came clothed in white, and they made a fine appearance, and they gave to the Christians tortillas of corn and some bundles of spring onions exactly like those of Castile, as fat as the tip of the thumb and more. And that was a food which helped them much from then on; and they ate them with tortillas, roasted and stewed and raw, and it was a great aid to them because they are very good. The white clothing in which those Indian women came clothed are some blankets of both coarse and fine linen. They make the thread of them from the bark of the mulberry trees; not from the outside but rather from the middle; and they know how to process and spin and prepare it so well and weave it, that they make very pretty blankets. And they put one on from the waist down, and another tied by one side and the top placed upon the shoulders, like those Bohemians or Egyptians who are in the habit of sometimes wandering through Spain. The thread is such that he who found himself there certified to me that he saw the women spin it from that bark of mulberry trees and make it as good as the most precious thread from Portugal that the women in Spain procure in order to sew, and some more thin and even, and stronger. The mulberry trees are exactly like those of Spain, and as large and larger; but the leaf is softer and better for silk, and the mulberries better for eating and even larger than those from Spain, and the Spaniards also made good use of them many times, in order to sustain themselves. They arrived that day at a town of a cacique subject to Ichisi, a pretty town and with plenty of food, and he [the cacique] gave them willingly of what he had, and they rested there on Tuesday, and then on Wednesday, the last day of March, the Governor and his army departed, and they arrived at the Great River, where they had many canoes in which they crossed very well and arrived at the town of the lord, who was one-eyed, and he gave them very good food and fifteen Indians to carry the burdens. And as he was the first who came in peace, they did not wish to be tiresome. They were there Thursday, the first of April, and they placed a cross on the mound of the town and informed them through the interpreter of the sanctity of the cross, and they received it and appeared to adore it with much devotion. by Rodrigo Rangel, Hernando de Soto's Private Secretary
    6. 6. Spain’s Early Missions in Georgia • In 1566, Spain established missions on Georgia’s Cumberland Island and St. Catherine’s Island, called Santa Catalina. During the same century, posts were established at Sapelo and St. Simon’s Island. • The Spanish missionaries called the region Guale (pronounced “Wallie”) after the Guale Indians. Click to return to the Table of Contents
    7. 7. Section 2: English Settlement of the New World • ESSENTIAL QUESTION – What caused a rivalry between England and Spain in the New World?
    8. 8. English Settlements in the New World • The English established colonies on North America’s Atlantic coast throughout the 1600s. The goals of the colonists varied, from religious mission, gaining wealth to bettering their lives. • Great Britain wanted raw materials from the New World’s colonies, which it would manufacture into finished goods and sell to other countries. This was mercantilism. • By 1686, as the English colonies reached as far south as South Carolina, the Spanish retreated from Guale to St. Augustine, Florida. Great Britain wanted a “buffer” colony to protect the English colonists from Spanish Florida.
    9. 9. The English Influence in the Georgia Colony • The French began colonizing the Gulf coast and parts of Alabama. England began worrying about the French and Spanish threats to its colonial claims. • In 1721, the English established Fort King George at the mouth of the Altamaha River, near today’s Darien. The fort was a “warning point” for invaders from Spanish Florida. The fort was abandoned after six years. • Although Great Britain claimed Georgia in 1663, it didn’t begin making plans to settle the territory until 1717. Click to return to the Table of Contents
    10. 10. Section 3: The Colonization of Georgia • ESSENTIAL QUESTION – Why was the Georgia colony founded?
    11. 11. Georgia Becomes a Colony • James Edward Oglethorpe and 20 other influential men in Great Britain made a plan to create a colony for the working poor. They envisioned a colony for people who faced jail time for bad debts. • In 1732, King George II created a charter allowing 21 Trustees, including Oglethorpe, to create a Georgia colony and oversee it for 21 years. It included the land between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers and extended west to the Pacific Ocean. • Oglethorpe promised that silk, dyes, wine, spices, and semi-tropical fruit would be sent from Georgia back to England.
    12. 12. The First Georgia Colonists • Few debtors, former prisoners, or working poor ever made it to Georgia during its early settlement. • Georgia’s first settlers were given land, tools, and food. They promised to defend the colony from invaders and to grow trees that would attract silk worms. • Between 114 and 125 settlers sailed from England on the ship Ann in 1732. Oglethorpe befriended Tomochichi, chief of the Yamacraw Indians. • Tomochichi led the settlers to Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. This became the first settlement of the new Georgia colony.
    13. 13. Savannah: Georgia’s Planned City • Oglethorpe, surveyor Noble Jones, and Colonel William Bull designed the city of Savannah and built it along the Savannah River to facilitate shipping. • The streets formed several squares that were divided into blocks (called “tythings”) and wards. The center of each square was for social, political, and religious gatherings. • All but three of Oglethorpe's original squares exist in Savannah today. • Today, nearly 150,000 people live in Savannah. Click to return to the Table of Contents
    14. 14. Section 4: Building a New Home • ESSENTIAL QUESTION – In what ways did Georgia expand and succeed as a colony?
    15. 15. New Colonists Arrive in Georgia • Catholics were not allowed to settle in Georgia under the charter signed by King George II. • Forty original settlers died in the first year. In July 1733, 42 Jews were allowed to settle in Georgia, including a muchneeded doctor. • In 1734, a group of German protestants from Salzburg arrived, and settled a town called Ebenezer, about 25 miles from Savannah. In 1736, they moved to Red Bluff and settled New Ebenezer. • Oglethorpe and Chief Tomochichi returned from a trip to England in 1736 with 300 more settlers, including German protestants from Salzburg and Saxony. Religious leaders John and Charles Wesley also arrived in Georgia.
    16. 16. Georgia’s Colonists Become Discontent • Regulations enforced by Oglethorpe did not allow rum trade, buying large tracts of land, or use of slave labor. • South Carolina used slave labor to successfully grow rice, tobacco, and cotton on large plantations. Farmers in Georgia wanted the same “success” that South Carolina farmers had. • Many Georgians moved to places in the colony where they basically could live as they wished. • By 1742, Georgians were allowed to buy and sell rum. Slavery was introduced in 1750. The colony named for King George II was changing.
    17. 17. The incident that gave its name to the war had occurred in 1731 when the British brig Rebecca was boarded by the Spanish coast guard La Isabela, commanded by Julio León Fandiño. After boarding, Fandiño cut off the left ear of the Rebecca's captain, Robert Jenkins, who had been accused of piracy. Fandiño told Jenkins, "Go, and tell your King that I will do the same, if he dares to do the same." In March 1738, Jenkins was ordered to attend Parliament, presumably to repeat his story before a committee of the House of Commons. According to some accounts, he produced the severed ear when he attended, although no detailed record of the hearing exists. The incident was considered alongside various other cases of "Spanish Depredations upon the British Subjects," and was perceived as an insult to the honour of the nation and a clear act of war.
    18. 18. The War Against Spain • The War of Jenkin’s Ear broke out between Great Britain and Spain in 1739, and lasted until 1748. Oglethorpe organized an army of about 2,000 men with plans to capture Spanish forts in Florida. Spain responded and forced the Georgians, South Carolinians, and their Indian allies to retreat to St. Simon’s Island. • The Battle of Bloody Marsh in 1742 caused the Spanish to flee Georgia, marking the end to Spanish threats. Georgia’s southern border was protected. • Oglethorpe left the Georgia colony for England in 1743 and never returned.
    19. 19. The Post-Oglethorpe Era Begins • Three different men served as president of the Georgia colony from the time Oglethorpe left the colony until 1754: William Stephens, Henry Parker, and Patrick Graham. • In 1752, one year before the initial 21-year charter was to expire, the trustees returned Georgia to the authority of King George II. • In its first 20 years as a colony, Georgia’s population grew to 5,500 people, of which one-third were slaves. Protestants from Europe found safe haven in Georgia. • Treaties with Native Americans and victory over the Spanish settlers in Florida provided security to the Georgia colonists.
    20. 20. Early Georgia Colony Accomplishments • The Bethesda Orphans Home was established in Ebenezer. • The orphanage later became Bethesda House School, where many of Georgia’s early leaders were educated. • The Methodist Church was founded by John and Charles Wesley. • The first Sunday School in America is established by the Wesley brothers. • A successful court system was established and maintained. • Women were able to inherit property. Click to return to the Table of Contents