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Generations of computer
 

Generations of computer

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    Generations of computer Generations of computer Document Transcript

    • GENERATIONS OF COMPUTER<br />Generation provides a framework for the growth of computer industry. The computer era consists of five generations till today.<br />FIRST GENERATION<br />Period: (1942-55)<br />Technology Used: Thousands of vacuum tubes<br />
      • A vacuum tube is high speed electronic device, which used filaments as a source of electronics & could control and amplify electronic signals.
      • Memory used electromagnetic relays, data and instructions were fed into the system from punched cards.
      Software Technology Used<br />
      • The instructions were written in machine and assembly languages.
      • The stored program concept was used.
      Key Characteristics<br />
      • Bulky in size
      • Highly unreliable
      • Limited commercial use
      • Difficult commercial Production
      • Costly
      • Difficult to use
      Examples<br />ENAIC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC I, IBM 701<br />SECOND GENERATION<br />Period: (1955-64)<br />Hardware Technology Used<br />
      • Transistors because of following properties
      • Mode of germanium semiconductor
      • Highly reliable as compared to tubes
      • Could switch ten times faster than tubes
      • One-tenth the power consumed by tube
      • Smaller than a tube
      • Less expensive to produce
      • Dissipated less heat as compared to vacuum
      • Magnetic cores were used for main memory
      • Magnetic disks and tapes as secondary storage media
      Software Technology Used<br />
      • High level programming languages (like FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL, SNOBOL) were used.
      • Batch operating system enabled multiple jobs to be batched together & submitted at a time.
      Key characteristics<br />
      • Ten times faster than first generation computer
      • Smaller in size
      • Consumed less power and dissipated less heat
      • More reliable and less prone to hardware failure
      • Easier to program than previous generation systems
      • Commercial production was still difficult & costly
      Examples<br />Honeywell 400, IBM 7030, CDC 1604, UNIVAC LARC<br />THIRD GENERATION<br />Period: (1964-75)<br />Hardware Technology Used: ICs<br />
      • Integrated circuits are circuits consisting of several electronic components like transistors, resistors, and capacitors grown on a single silicon chip elimination wired interconnection b/w components.
      • Integrating about 10-20 components named as Small Scale Integration (SSI).
      • Later, Technology enhanced to integrate about 100 components on a single chip, known as Medium Scale Integration (MSI).
      • Larger magnetic core memory
      • Larger capacity magnetic disks & tapes as secondary storage
      • Mini computers
      Software Technology Used<br />
      • Timesharing OS came into existence.
      • Standardization of high level languages (Fortran & COBOL).
      • Unbundling of software from hardware
      Key Characteristics<br />
      • Powerful, capable of performing about 1 million instructions per second
      • Smaller in size than second generation
      • Consumed less power & dissipated less heat
      • More reliable & less prone to hardware failures & requiring lower maintenance cost
      • Cheaper to produce commercially
      • Scientific, Commercial & Interactive online Applications
      Example<br />IBM 360/370, PDP – 8, PDP -11, CDC 6600<br />FOURTH GENERATION<br />Period: (1975-89)<br /> <br />Hardware Technology Used<br />
      • ICs with very large scale integration (VLSI) technology, capable of integrating 1 million components on a chip
      • A Microprocessor contains all circuits needed to perform arithmetic logic & control functions on a single chip
      • Semiconductor memory
      • Larger capacity hard disks as in-built secondary storage
      • Magnetic tapes & floppy disks as portable storage media
      • Personal computer
      • Spread of high speed computer network
      Software Technology Used<br />
      • OS like MS-DOS, Ms-Windows, Apple were developed for PCs
      • Graphical user Interface (GUI) provides icons and menus to make it user friendly
      • PC based applications like powerful word processing package, spread sheet package, etc.
      • Multiple windows on a single screen
      • UNIX OS
      • C programming language became popular
      Key Characteristics<br />
      • PCs were smaller and cheaper than mainframes or minicomputers of third generation
      • Small, affordable, reliable, easy to use PCs
      • More powerful Mainframe systems
      • They were general purpose machines
      • Easier to produce commercially
      • Groupware is such application that allows multiple members working on a single project located at distant locations using network
      • Add-on Hardware feature that allows to invest only in hardware configuration & software of their need and value
      Example<br />IBM PC, APPLE II, TRS 80, VAX 9000, CRAY-I, CRAY-2, CRAY-X<br />FIFTH GENERATION<br />Period: (1989-present)<br />Hardware Technology Used<br />
      • ICs with ULSI (Ultra Large scale Integration) resulting in chips having ten million components
      • Larger capacity main memory
      • Larger capacity hard disks
      • Optical disks as portable read only storage media
      • Notebook Computers
      • Powerful desktop PCs & workstations
      • Very powerful mainframe
      • The Internet
      Software Technology Used<br />
      • A vast ocean of information became readily available to computer users through World Wide Web (www)
      • Multimedia applications
      • Internet based applications like e-mail
      Key Characteristics<br />
      • Portable computers
      • More powerful, cheaper, reliable
      • Easier to use desktop machines
      • Very powerful mainframes
      • Very high uptime due to hot pluggable components
      • General purpose machines
      • Easier to produce commercially
      Example<br />IBM, Notebooks, Pentium PCs, SUN Workstations, IBM SP/2, PARAM 10000<br />