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  • Feedback: Taking comments from customers for measuring satisfaction is a responsibility of the managerial level.Operational facts: Trackingsales, processing orders and customer support etc.Sales staff analysis is important to see how much of the sales portion has been contributed by each of the employees.Sales performance analysis is required to monitor how to enhance sales and address related issues.Market analysis based on customer behaviourDesigning new sales products and identifying new sales opportunities.
  • Analyst understand the user needs and problems has developed a viable solution to these problems, and then communicate the solution. Say verbally
  • It helped tracking the markets and also monitor overall Project’s activities. It should be sasid verbally

Final mkis Final mkis Presentation Transcript

  • MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM
    Presented By:
    MCA-II (Morning)
    Roll no: 1-10 (Group-I)
  • Presented By: Group - I
    Bikram
    Dushyant
    Dinesh
    Aseem
    Aarushie
    Aman
    Chandni
    Parul
    Deepika
    Devika
  • Table of Content
    Marketing Information System(MKIS)
    Working Mechanism of MKIS
    SDLC
    Feasibility Study
    Requirement Analysis and Specification
    Structured Analysis Tools
    Design Phase
    Coding
    System Testing
    Maintenance
    Case Study
  • BASIC CONCEPTS OF MARKET, MARKETING AND MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM
  • MarketDefinition-The term market refers to group of consumers who are interested in the product, have the resources to purchase it and it is permitted by law to purchase the product.
    • Potential market
    • Available market
    • Qualified available market
    • Target market
    • Penetrated market
  • Marketing
    The management process responsible for identifying , anticipating and satisfying customer requirements profitably.
  • Marketing Information System(MKIS)
    A system that analyzes and assesses marketing information, gathered continuously from sources inside and outside an organization and helps the decision makers to improve their marketing planning, implementation, and control.
  • Various Activities of MKIS
  • BASIC FUNCTIONS OF MKIS
  • How does MKIS work?
  • Working Mechanism of MKIS
    Developing INFORMATION
    Distributing OUTPUT
    INPUT
    Gather Data
    Data
    Information
    Strategic
    Decisions
    Marketing
    Environment
    Markets
    Channels
    Competitors
    Law
    Economy
    Technology
    Internal Report
    System
    Marketing Research System
    Control
    Decisions
    Marketing
    Intelligence
    System
    Marketing
    Models
    Operational
    Decisions
    Marketing Decisions and Communications
  • Gathering Data
    Data is gathered from Marketing Environment
  • Developing Information
    Obtains meaningful and useful information for Managers from following sources:
  • Marketing Intelligence System
  • Marketing Research System
  • Marketing Models
  • According to Latest
    DEVELOPMENT
  • Other Marketing related Information System
    Marketing Information System (MKIS)
    Marketing Intelligence System
    Analyzing Market Structure & Behavior
    Executive Information System (EIS)
    Marketing Research System
    Researching & Selecting Market Opportunities
    Marketing Decision Support System
    Decision Support System (DSS)
    Developing Market Strategies
    Marketing Planning System
    Marketing Information System (MIS)
    Marketing Control System
    Planning Market Tactics
    Marketing Report System
    Transaction Processing System (TPS)
    Implementing & Controlling Marketing Efforts
    Marketing & Sales Productivity & Support System
  • Distributing Information
  • MKIS at Managerial Levels
    MKIS should cater for information requirements at each level, for instance
  • Presented By:
    Deepika
  • Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
  • System Identification
    OBJECTIVES
    • Identify whether the request is feasible and valid
    • Do we need to improve or modify the existing system
    • Do we need to build altogether a new one
    Types
    1. Preliminary Investigation
    2. Feasibility Study
  • Preliminary Investigation
    Study existing Marketing Management System.
    Conduct surveys in the open market.
    Interviewing the customers.
    Questionnaires.
    Gather information.
    Analyze the information looking for inconsistencies, ambiguities or unresolved issues.
  • Feasibility Study
    Implementation Function
    A feasibility study looks at the viability of an idea that attempts to answer one main question:
    “Should we proceed with the proposed project idea? Is it a viable business venture?”
  • Need of Feasibility Study
    Identify how, where, and to whom you intend to sell a service or product.
    Give focus to the project and outline alternative.
    Identify reasons NOT to proceed.
    Enhance the probability of success.
    Provide quality information.
    Increase investment in the company.
    Provides documentation.
    Help in securing funding from lending institutions and other monetary sources.
  • Types Of Feasibility Study
  • SDLC in MKIS
    Operational Feasibility
    Measure how people interact with the system.
    Questions that help to test operational feasibility:
    What is the size and growth forecasts of market segment?
    What are the industry sales and market trends the product is based on?
    Are current business methods are acceptable to users?
    What training will users be given?
    Technical Feasibility
    Study of function performance and constraints.
    Questions that help to test the technical feasibility:
    What are the target areas where the marketing is to be done?
    What type of transportation and shipping facilities required for marketing?
    What type of media is required for promoting the product?
  • SDLC in MKIS
    Economic Feasibility
    Profits at less expenditure.
    Questions that help to test the economic feasibility:
    What is the required marketing budget?
    What is expected rate of return on new product in the market?
    Will the product be profitable when delivered to customer at target price?
    Will consumers buy the new product
    Marketing Feasibility Study
    AIM:
    1. Make sure there is true market for the product.
    2. Estimate the market share of the project.
    3. Includes the evaluation, development and full implementation of marketing plans.
    4. Identify, quantify and evaluate opportunities within a market.
    POINTS TO BE CONSIDERED ARE:
    • Description of Industry
    • Current market analysis
    • Competition
    • Anticipated future market potential
    • Potential buyers and sources of revenue
    • Sales projection
  • How do we analyze the system ?
  • System Analysis
    ANALYSISBreaking problem into successively manageable parts for individual study.
    SYSTEM ANALYSIS
    The systems-analysis phase is the specification of what the system needs to do to meet the requirements of end users.
    Gather sufficient information about the performance of your marketing strategy using specific statistical data.
  • WHY IS IT DONE
    We don’t start the coding directly first we need to collect the information about the project . Help programmers during system development ex-flowchart, use cases.
    All the diagrams and process carried out before starting the project comes under system analysis
  • Who does the System Analysis ?
  • SYSTEM ANALYST
    The system analyst gives a system development project meaning and direction.
    The analyst first task is to prepare a statements specifying the scope and objective of the problem in this only rough work is done an accurate study is done in the feasibility study.
    Qualities
    Training
    Experience
    Common sense
  • ACTIVITIES INVOLVED
    NEED ANALYSIS The analyst sums up the requirements of the system from the user and the managers.
    DATA GATHERING System analyst collects data about the system to be developed using techniques and methods such as:
    -written documents
    -interview
    -sampling
    ANALYSIS REPORT  Analysis report is prepared. It is done for review and approval of the project from the higher management.
  • ANALYSIS REPORT
    PART 1  It should explain how the current system works.
    PART 2It explains the problems in the existing system.
    PART 3It describes the requirements for the new system and make recommendations for the future.
  • REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION
    Analysis of data describing the system to determine how well it is performing, what requirements must be met, and strategies for fulfilling them. It has three interrelated parts.
    Analysis of factual data
    Identification of essential requirements
    Selection of requirements fulfillment strategies.
  • SRS OUTPUT
  • STRUCTURED ANALYSIS TOOLS
  • DATA FLOW DIAGRAM
    Data Flow Diagram is a graphical representation of the logical flow of data . It helps in expressing the system’s requirements in a simple and understandable form. It is also known as Bubble Chart.
    DFD serves the two purposes:
    ►To provide an indication of how data are transformed as they move through the system
    ►To depict the functions (sub functions)that transform the data flow.
  • CONTEXT LEVEL DIAGRAM
    The purpose of this is to conceptualize the general sources and sinks of data.
    It contain only one process(process 0) that depict the function of the entire system in relationship to external entities.
  • CONTEXT LEVEL DIAGRAM FORMARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM
    CUSTOMER INFORMATION
    FILE
    CUSTOMERS’S DETAILS
    Customer’s Requirements
    Customer
    Customer
    Product
    delivery
    MARKETING INFORMATION
    PROCESS
    FEEDBACK
    PRODUCT’S DETAILS
    PRODUCT ORDER’S
    FILE
  • 1ST LEVEL DFD FOR MARKETING INFORMATION SYSTEM
    Organization Plans
    Information file
    Data about buyers and characteristics
    Requirements
    details
    Product
    Delivery
    Marketing Strategies
    Various measures of market, product, customer
    1.0
    MARKETING
    IDENTIFICATION
    PROCESS
    2.0
    PRODUCT
    ADJUSTMENT
    PROCESS
    3.0
    PLANNING
    PROCESS
    CUSTOMER
    CUSTOMER
    feedback
    Updated data
    Marketing Research Data’s File
  • 2nd LEVEL DFD FOR PROCESS 3.0
    Distribution
    plans
    Product
    Delivery
    Communication
    plans
    Various measure
    Of market,
    customer , product
    3.3
    Customer’s
    service
    process
    3.1
    Communication
    Planning
    process
    3.2
    Distribution &
    Sales
    process
    CUSTOMER
    feedback
    Updated data
    on Customer’s
    satisfaction
    Details regerding
    Transportation etc
    Details on advertising, selling etc
    Physical distribution
    file
    Organisation’s Plan
    and Records
    Customer File
  • DATA DICTIONARY
    A data dictionary is a structured repository of data about data. It is a set of precise and accurate definitions of all DFD’s data elements and data structures
    ADVANTAGES OF DATA DICTIONARY:-
    ● The most obvious is documentation; it is a valuable reference in any organization
    ● Improving analyst/user communication by establishing consistent definition of various elements, terms and procedures
    ● During implementation , it serves as a common base for programmers who are working on system
  • DATA DICTIONARY ON PROCESS 0
    PROCESS: Marketing information process
    DESCRIPTION: This process consists of sequence of all process like Marketing identification Process, product Auditing Process and planning process etc.
    INCOMING DATA FLOW: Customer’s Requirements
    OUTGOING DATA FLOW: Product Delivery
    LOGICAL SUMMARY:
    ► Customer’s requirements are accepted
    ► They are checked for validations and feasibility
    ► Development function is performed as per requirements
    ► Product is delivered to customer
  • DATA DICTIONARY ON DATA STORE
    DATA STORE: Product Order’s File
    DESCRIPTION: Includes all the details of all the orders of customers.
    INBOUND FLOW: Marketing Information Process
    OUTBOUND FLOW: Marketing Information Process
    VOLUME: 1000
    ACCESS: Sequentially processed
    DATA STRUCTURE: ●Product id
    ●Product code
    ●Units
  • DATA DICTIONARY ON DATA FLOW
    DATA FLOW NAME: Product Delivery
    DESCRIPTION: Details regarding the delivery of product and carries the details to customer
    FROM PROCESS: Marketing Information Process
    TO PROCESS: Customer
    DATA STRUCTURES: ●Product Size
    ●Volume
    ●Price
  • DESIGN PHASE
  • Definition
    This phase is the first step in moving from problem domain to the solution domain. The purpose of the design phase is to plan a solution of the problem specified by the requirement document. The design activity of marketing information system is often divided into two separate phase-
    Conceptual design
    detailed design.
  • Conceptual Design
    Conceptual design aims to identify the modules that should be in the marketing system, the specifications of these modules, and how they interact with each other to produce the desired results. That is why ,it is also known as logical desin ,high level design that becomes a basis for the detailed system design.
  • Detailed System Design
    In conceptual design the attention is on what components are needed, while in detailed design how the components can be implemented in software is the issue. During detailed design the internal logic of each of the modules specified in system design is decided. The main objective of detailed design is to prepare a blue print of a system that meets the goals of conceptual design.
  • System Design consist of three activities
    USER INTERFACE
    DESIGN
    DATA DESIGN
    PROCESSDESIGN
    • SCREEN, FORM,
    REPORTS, AND DIALOG DESIGN
    • DATA ELEMENT STRUCTURE DESIGN
    • PROGRAM AND STRUCTURE DESIGN
  • User Interface Design
    Focuses on designing the interaction between end user and marketing information system.
    Produces detailed specification for marketing information system so that it becomes easy for the user to interact with the system such as :
    Display screens
    Interactive user/computer dialogues
    Audio responses
    Forms
    Documents and reports.
  • User Interface Design
  • Data Design
    It focuses on the design of the logical structure of databases and file to be used by a marketing information system. Data design frequently produces a data dictionary, which catalogs detailed description of:
    The attributes .
    The relationships.
    The specific data elements
    Database,files,records are maintained of consumer, salesman.
    The integrity rules.
  • DATA DESIGN
  • Process Design
    • Activities involved in determining the workflows and implementations requirements for a particular process
    • Different process files will be designed to hold the coding for different processes
    • Process design, whether designing a new process or modernizing an existing process, require knowledge of the process equipments.
  • Design Methods
    • Problem Partitioning:-Based on the principle of ‘Divide And Conquer'. the whole problem is divided into small manageable parts to be solved separately.
    • Structured Design:-produce a structure where the modules have minimum dependence on each other and high level of cohesion.
    • Top Down design:-A system may be termed as a hierarchy of sub systems, the highest level sub system corresponding to the total system.
  • Design Verification
    Like every other phase, the design phase ends with verification of the design . One way of doing this is thorough reviews. The Project Manager and System is Proponent conduct the critical design review and approve/disapprove the project into the Development Phase.
  • C
    0
    D
    1
    N
    G
  • Online Advertisement SystemHow it works?
    Advertisement Data Form
    Blogger
    Google SMS
    Channel
    B.S Products.
  • The Whole Process
  • The Whole Process
  • The Whole Process
    User Agent
    Blloger
    B.S Tracker Launched
    B..S Tracker Launched
    Rss Feed
    Adv
  • Customer Options
    1.Customer can Enable/Disable the Adevertisements by sending the following messege to 9870807070.
    On <Channel Name>
    Off <Channel Name>
    2.Customer Can Search any channel by sending the following messege to 9870807070.
    Search <Channel Name>
    3.For subscription use.
    Subscribe <Channel Name>
    And send it to 9870807070.
    B.S Tracker Launched
  • Customer Record SystemHow It Works
    Final
    Result
    Main
    Form
    Add Customer
    Display All Data
    Customer
    Database
  • Main Form
  • Add A Customer
  • Display All Data
  • TESTING: Does the software behave as specified?
  • Why we do Testing?
    • An error free information system gives marketing
    managers accurate, timely and relevant information.
    • An error free information system is a basis for decision
    making in specific responsibility areas of marketing management.
    • system development, generally firms conduct system testing,
    to verify andvalidate the system.
    • To assess whether the system meets the technical and commercial objectives at various levels in order to ascertain the system acceptability.
    • To make sure that the system developed is according to the specifications.
    • Identifies defects, flaws, or errorsin the system that must be fixed.
  • V-Model of Testing in MKIS
    • System testing is too important to leave to the end of the project, so the V-Model of testing in Marketing Information System incorporates testing into the entire system development cycle.
    • It illustrates that,
    • Testing can and should start at the very beginning of the
    system development.
    • How each subsequent phase should verify and validate
    work done in the previous phase.
  • The V-Model of Software Testing
    Business Case and Statement of Work
    Production Verification
    System Specification
    User Acceptance Testing
    Architectural Design
    System and Integration Testing
    Technical Design and Coding
    Unit Testing
    Implementation
    Testing Relationship
    Work Flow
    Validation and Verification
  • Types of Tests
    The V-Model of testing in Marketing information System identifies four testing phases, each with a certain type of test associated with it.
  • Unit Testing
    • Also known as Module Testing or Component Testing.
    • Individual modules and components are tested, ensuring that they function properly.
    • Done by the developers and not by end-users.
    Entry Criteria:
    ♦ System Requirements are at least 80% complete and have been approved to-date.
    ♦ Technical Design has been finalized and approved.
    ♦ Code development for the module is complete.
    Exit Criteria:
    ♦ No major or critical defects prevents any modules from moving to Integration Testing.
    ♦ Project Manager approval has been received.
  • Integration Testing
    • Tests all the components and modules that are integrated to form a sub-system.
    • Tests the interaction with between the modules.
    • When a defect is discovered, only those tests with a connection to the defect must be rerun.
    Entry Criteria:
    ♦ Unit testing has been completed and signed off.
    Exit Criteria:
    ♦ All sub-systems meet the desired functionality and performance requirements.
    ♦ Outstanding defects have been identified, documented, and presented to the business sponsor.
  • System Testing
    • Testing the system as a whole.
    • Evaluates the system's compliance with its specified requirements.
    • Checks for unexpected interaction between the units and modules.
    • When a defect is discovered, previously executed system tests must be rerun after the repair is made.
    • Requires many test runs, because it entails feature by feature validation of behavior using a wide range of both normal and erroneous test inputs and data.
  • System Testing
    • Testing the system as a whole.
    • Evaluates the system's compliance with its specified requirements.
    • Checks for unexpected interaction between the units and modules.
    • When a defect is discovered, previously executed system tests must be rerun after the repair is made.
    • Requires many test runs, because it entails feature by feature validation of behavior using a wide range of both normal and erroneous test inputs and data.
    System Testing
    Load
    factor
    Recovery
    testing
    Security
    testing
    Stress
    testing
    Performance
    testing
  • Entry Criteria:
    ♦ Integration Testing for each sub-system has been completed and
    approved.
    Exit Criteria:
    ♦ Application meets all documented functional requirements.
    ♦ No known critical defects prevent moving to the User acceptance
    Testing.
    ♦ All appropriate parties have approved the completed tests.
  • User Acceptance Testing
    • Final stage in the testing process before system is accepted for operational use.
    • Reveal requirement problems where system facilities do not really meet the users needs or system performance.
    Alpha Testing:
    • Done if the system is made for a single customer.
    • Testing the system with data supplied by the client.
    • Continues until the system developer and the client agrees that the delivered system is acceptable.
    Beta Testing:
    • When a system is to be marketed as a software product.
    • It involves delivering a system to potential customers.
    • They report problems to the system developers.
    • After the feedback, the system is modified and either released for further beta testing or for general sale.
    Entry Criteria:
    ♦ Business requirements have been met.
    ♦ Security requirements have been documented and necessary user access obtained.
    Exit Criteria:
    ♦ UAT has been completed and approved by the user community.
    ♦ Change Control Management is managing requested modifications and enhancements.
    ♦ Business sponsor agrees that known defects do not impact a production release.
  • Production Verification Testing
    • Final opportunity to determine if the system is ready for release.
    • Purpose is for a period of time simulate real business activity.
    • As a sort of full dress rehearsal, it should identify anomalies or unexpected changes to existing processes.
    • Mock production runswill verify that the existing business process flows, interfaces, and batch processes continue to run correctly.
    Entry Criteria:
    ♦ Known defects have been documented.
    ♦ Migration package documentation has been completed, reviewed, and approved by the production systems manager.
  • How do we maintain the system?
  • SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
    Once a system is fully implemented and being operated by end users, the maintenance function begins. System maintenance is the monitoring, evaluating and modifying of operational information system to make desirable or necessary improvements. Regardless of how well designed, constructed and tested a system or application may be, there may be any need in order to conducting System Maintenance.
    *Changing needs of dynamic and competitive market.
    *Negative feedback provided by the evaluation process.
    *Maintaining the marketing information system at the highest level of effectiveness
    and efficiency.
    *Removing existing errors in the information system.
    .
    REASONS TO CONDUCT SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
  • FUNDAMENTAL OBJECTIVES OF SYSTEM MAINTENANCE
    To make predictable changes to existing programs to correct errors that were made during system design or implementation.
    To preserve those aspects of the program that were correct and to avoid the possibility that “fixes” to programs cause other aspects of those programs to behave differently.
    To avoid as much as possible degradation of system performance. Poor system maintenance can gradually erode system throughput and response time.
  • Types of System Maintenance
    • Corrective maintenance:
    It aims to correct any remaining errors regardless of where they may arise – design, coding, testing, documentation etc.
    • Adaptive maintenance:
    It changes the system to react to the changes in which the system operates, e.g., porting to a new compiler, operating system or hardware.
    • Preventive maintenance:
    It involves the activities to update the software in anticipation of any future problems.
    • Perfective maintenance:
    Perfective maintenance is where the most of the maintenance time and money is spent. It improves the efficiency and effectiveness of the system.
  • System maintenance tasks
  • Validating the Problem
    The first task of the system analyst or the programmer is to validate the problem. Working with the users, the team should attempt to validate the problem by reproducing it.
    There could be following possible effects of bug:
    One possible output is an unsubstantiated bug(means we r not sure dat it is a bug).
    In some cases the analyst confirms the error but recognizes it as a simple misuse or mistaken use of the program.
  • Benchmark Program
    This task can be performed by either system analyst and/or programmer. Users should also participate to ensure that the test is conducted as closely as possible under some circumstances that simulate a normal working environment.
  • Study and debug the program
    The programmer response to “bug-fix” requirements that establish the exception for fixing the problem. The programmer “debugs” (edits) a copy of the problem program.
    Changes are not made in the production program. The result is corrected version of the program.(deleivery of software’s new version)
    The purpose of program studies is to gain insight into how program works and doesn’t works. Program studies can also lead to better estimates of the time and resources that will be required to fix the error.
  • Test the program
    A candidate release of the program must be tested before it can be placed into operation as the next new version of the production program.
    The following tests are essential :
    Unit testing ensure that the stand-alone program fixes the bug without undesirable side effect to the program.
    System testing ensures that entire application, of which the modified program was a part , still works.
    Regression testing extrapolates the impact of the changes on program .
  • CASE STUDY:Market Information System boosts incomes of Ukraine’s small& medium sized growers
  • Abstract:
    A Market Information System (MIS) was created by the Agricultural Marketing Project (AMP) jointly with its Ukrainian subcontractor APK-Inform
    It helped boost sales and profits of small and medium sized growers, and attracted significant investments.
    Resulted in about $20 in additional benefits to farmers for each $ spent and became self sufficient in 3 years from its launch.
  • Problem statement
    Lack of market infrastructure.
    Growers did notknow where and how to sell fruits & vegetables and consumers paid relatively high pricesfor these products
    Complete lack of market transparency.
    Lack of widely recognized standards for thefruits & vegetables
    Lack of Internet connection and cell phones.
    A need to receive easy and fast access, to information about market and market forecasts.
  • Creating MIS step by step
  • How AMP’s MIS is used in practice
    A farmer who had a pessimistic approach towards the MIS.
    One of the top processing companies procured a serious shortage of its raw material. The web portal helped.
    One of our farmers decided to expand planting area under onions motivated by high prices for this crop in the past season.  
  • Ukraine became one of the largest exporters of onions on the region.
    Farmers were made aware about new crops, niche products and new technologies to their advantage.
    Supermarket chains managers start their day from checking daily wholesale prices in the web portal.
    Most key supermarkets, wholesalers and processors assign specialists to check offers & bids, catalogue, analytics, prices and other parts of the web-portal on a regular basis.
  • Impact
    System has resulted in about $20 in additional benefits to farmers for each $ spent.
    The web-portal presently attracts around 30,000 unique visitors every month.
    The MIS helped lower the transaction costs to farmers (reduced by 100-200 times).
    Allowed farmers to improve their technologies and develop a stronger negotiating position when talking to buyers, use several alternative marketing channels, making their sales more profitable.
  • Price information from various regions within the country helped them improve their marketing decisions
    Farmers managed to lower production costs, while boosting yields and quality of the final product produced.
    Information on the web-portal attracted many foreign and domestic investors to Ukraine’s horticultural sector.
    The number of fruit & vegetable processors increased from 15 in 2003 to about 125 in 2006.
  • The number of full-service wholesale companies has increased from virtually zero to around 30 and many mid-size companies were created.
    Thousands of on-farm and off-farm seasonal and permanent jobs were created.
    Ukraine, which prior to AMP’s interventions imported fruits & vegetables from neighboring countries, in 2006 became a net exporter of many of these products. 
  • We all are THANKFUL!
    Bikram
    Dushyant
    Dinesh
    Aseem
    Aarushie
    Aman
    Chandni
    Parul
    Deepika
    Devika