Sfm module-1


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full description of chapter on of praanachandra book of strategic market

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Sfm module-1

  2. 2. Strategic financial management <ul><li>Business Definition for: Strategic Financial Management </li></ul><ul><li>the identification of the possible strategies capable of maximizing an organization's net present value, the allocation of scarce capital resources among the competing opportunities, and the implementation and monitoring of the chosen strategy so as to achieve stated objectives </li></ul><ul><li>( A Dictionary of Business and Management ; Strategic Financial Management An approach to management that applies financial techniques to strategic decision making. See also strategic management accounting ). </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Creating value for share holders is widely accepted as dominant corporate objective </li></ul><ul><li>The interest in value creation has been encouraged by several developments </li></ul><ul><li>1. institutional investors, have begun exerting influence on corporate management to create value for shareholders </li></ul><ul><li>2. many leading companies like Sears, Coca Cola, Siemens, Pepsico, HLL, Reliance and Infosys have accorded value creation a central place in their corporate planning </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>3.business press is emphasizing shareholder value creation in performance rating exercises </li></ul><ul><li>4. greater attention is now being paid to link, management compensation to share holder returns </li></ul><ul><li>To help firms create value for shareholders, value based management (VBM) approaches have been developed </li></ul><ul><li>VBM represents a synthesis of various business disciplines </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>From finance, VBM has adopted the goal of shareholder value maximization and the discounted cash flow model </li></ul><ul><li>From business strategy, VBM has borrowed the notion that value creation stems from exploiting opportunities based on the firm’s comparative advantage </li></ul><ul><li>From accounting, VBM has adopted the structure of financial statements with some modification </li></ul><ul><li>From organization behavior, VBM has borrowed the notion that you get what you measure and reward </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>VBM approaches developed by leading consulting organizations are discussed in eight sections as given below: </li></ul><ul><li>1. methods and key premises of VBM </li></ul><ul><li>2. Marakon approach </li></ul><ul><li>3. Alcar Approach </li></ul><ul><li>4. Mckinsey approach </li></ul><ul><li>5. Stern Stewart approach </li></ul><ul><li>6. BCG approach </li></ul><ul><li>7. Lessons from the experience of VBM adopters </li></ul><ul><li>8. Potential and hurdles for VBM in India </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Methods and key premises of VBM: </li></ul><ul><li>Three principle methods are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. the free cash flow method proposed by McKinsey /Alcar group </li></ul><ul><li>2.the economic value added/ market value added (EVA/MVA) method pioneered by Stern Stewart and company </li></ul><ul><li>3. the cash flow return on investment/ cash value added (CFROI/CVA) method developed by BCG and Holt Value Associates </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Though these methods look outwardly different, the basic premises underlying them are same. They are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>1. the value of any company (or its individual strategies and investments) is equal to the present value of the future cash flows the company is expected to produce </li></ul><ul><li>2. conventional accounting earnings are not a sufficient indicator of value creation, because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they are not the same as cash flow, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they do not reflect risk, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they do not include an opportunity cost of capital, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they do not consider time value for money, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they are not calculated the same way by all firms because of variations in accounting policy </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>3. For managing shareholder value, firms should use metrics that are linked to value creation and employ them consistently in all facets of financial management </li></ul><ul><li>4. A well designed performance measurement and incentive compensation system is essential to motivate employees to focus their attention on creating shareholder value </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Key difference: key difference between these methods relates to VBM metrics. </li></ul><ul><li>For ex., the Alcar et al method uses shareholder value added, the Stern Stewart method emphasizes EVA and MVA and the BCG method focuses of CFROI and CVA cash value added </li></ul><ul><li>Each camp argues they are the best and cite supporting evidence, making it difficult to objectively asses the validity of these claims </li></ul><ul><li>It seems EVA/MVA method has received more attention and gained popularity </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Marakon approach: key steps </li></ul><ul><li>1. Specify the financial determinants of value </li></ul><ul><li>2.Understand the strategic drivers of value </li></ul><ul><li>3. Formulate higher value strategies </li></ul><ul><li>4. Develop superior organizational capabilities </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Specify the financial determinants of value: </li></ul><ul><li>Marakon approach is based on market-to-book ratio model </li></ul><ul><li>According to this model shareholder wealth creation is measured as the difference between the market value and the book value of a firm’s equity. </li></ul><ul><li>The book value of equity, B, measures approximately the capital contributed by the shareholders, whereas the market value of equity , M, reflects how productively the firm has employed the capital contributed by the share holders, as assessed by the market </li></ul><ul><li>Hence the management creates value for shareholders if M exceeds B, decimates value if M is less than B, and maintains value if M is equal B </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>According to Marakon model, the market-to-book values ratio is a function of the return on equity, the growth rate of dividends (as well as earnings), and the cost of equity </li></ul><ul><li>M/B=(r-g)/(k-g) </li></ul><ul><li>M=market value of equity; B=book value of equity; r=return on equity; g=growth rate in dividends; k=cost of equity </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>M/B=(r-g)/(k-g) </li></ul><ul><li>From the eqn. it is evident that (M/B) > 1 only when r>k </li></ul><ul><li>i.e., value is created when there is positive spread between return on equity (ROE) and cost of equity </li></ul><ul><li>Further when r>k, higher the g the higher M/B ratio </li></ul><ul><li>This means that when the spread is positive , a higher growth rate contributes more to value creation </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Understand the strategic determinants of value: </li></ul><ul><li>The key financial determinants of value are the spread (between ROE and cost of equity) and the growth rate in dividends </li></ul><ul><li>The two primary strategic determinants of spread and growth and hence value creation are market economics and competitive position as shown in figure </li></ul>
  16. 16. Strategic Determinants of Value Creation Structural Factors and trends Av. Equity spread And growth of Market(s) overtime Differentiation And economic Cost position And trends Relative equity spread And growth over time Financial determinants Average equity spread Over time Average growth over time Value creation Market Economics Competitive position
  17. 17. <ul><li>Market economics: refers to the structural factors which determine the average equity spread as well as the growth rate applicable to all competitors in a particular market segment </li></ul><ul><li>The key forces which shape market economics (or profitability) are as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity of indirect competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat to entry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity of direct competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer pressures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marakon refer first four as “ limiting forces ” and last two as “ direct forces ” </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Determinants of Market Economics (or profitability) <ul><li>Limiting </li></ul><ul><li>Forces </li></ul><ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>forces </li></ul>Intensity of Indirect competition Threat of entry Supplier pressures Regulatory pressures Market profitability Customer pressures Intensity of Direct competition
  19. 19. <ul><li>Competitive position: the competitive position of a firm refers to its relative position in terms of equity spread and growth rate vis-à-vis the average competitors in its product market segment </li></ul><ul><li>It is shaped by two factors: product differentiation and economic cost position </li></ul><ul><li>A firm is successful in its product differentiation if the customers value its particular offering and are willing to pay a premium for the same </li></ul><ul><li>As McTaggart et al say “ Differentiation of a particular offering occurs only when customers perceive a significant difference in quality or benefits, with the result the offering is capable of commanding a price premium relative to competitive offerings” </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>A firm may exploit its offerings in two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>1. it can raise the price, leaving the market unchanged or </li></ul><ul><li>2. expand the market share, leaving the price unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>For some products and services, in particular those which are regarded as commodities, successful product differentiation may not be feasible. </li></ul><ul><li>In such cases superior profitability may arise mainly from a relative economic cost advantage </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>McTaggart et al define this as follows “ A business has a cost advantage if it has lower total economic cost per unit than the market average” </li></ul><ul><li>The total economic cost comprises of two elements; the total operating cost and a charge for the capital employed in business </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The possible sources of a relative economic cost advantage are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to cheaper raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient process technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to low-cost distribution channels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economies of scale in some markets </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Formulate Higher Value Strategies: value is created by participating in attractive markets and/or building a competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Thus the key elements of a firm’s strategy are its participation strategy and its competitive strategy as shown in the next slide </li></ul>
  24. 24. Elements of business strategy <ul><li>participation </li></ul><ul><li>strategy options </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive </li></ul><ul><li>strategy options </li></ul>Alternative Strategy development In which Markets Should we participate How should we Compete in Each market Entry strategy options Exit strategy options Product offering Strategy options Cost and asset Strategy options Pricing strategy options
  25. 25. <ul><li>The participation strategy of a firm defines the product markets in which it will compete </li></ul><ul><li>At the corporate level the issue is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In which new business the firm should enter and from which existing business the firm should exit? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the business unit level the issue is : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In which unserved markets should the firm enter and from which existing markets should the firm exit? </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>The Competitive strategy of a business unit spells out the means the management will employ to build competitive advantage and/or overcome competitive disadvantage in the markets served by it </li></ul><ul><li>As McTaggart et al say “development of a competitive strategy involves three related tasks: determining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how best to differentiate the product and/or service offering, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how best to configure and manage the business unit’s costs and assets, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>how to price the product or service offerings” </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Develop Superior Organizational Capabilities: </li></ul><ul><li>Higher value strategies are designed to overcome the forces of competition </li></ul><ul><li>They should be combined with superior organizational capabilities which enable a firm to overcome the internal barriers to value creation and to counter what Warren Buffet calls the “institutional imperative” (forces which lead to divergence between the goal managers and shareholders) </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>The key organizational capabilities are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. A competent and energetic chief executive who is fully committed to the goal of value maximization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. A corporate governance mechanism that promotes the highest degree of accountability for creation or destruction of value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. A top management compensation plan which is guided by the principle of “relative pay for relative performance” </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>4. A resource allocation system which is based on four principles, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The principle of zero based allocation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The principle of funding strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The principle of no capital rationing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The principle of zero tolerance for bad growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. A performance management process (high-level strategic and financial control process) which is founded on two basic principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. the performance targets are driven by plans, rather than the other way around </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. the process should have integrity implying that the performance contract must be fully honored by both sides, chief executive and each business unit head </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Prob <ul><li>Mahesh international earns a return on equity of 25%. Its dividend payout ratio is 0.40. equity shareholders of Mahesh require a return of 18%. The book value per share is Rs.50. </li></ul><ul><li>A. what is the market price per share, according to the Marakon model? </li></ul><ul><li>B. if the return on equity falls to 22% what should be the payout ratio to ensure that the market price per share remains unchanged? </li></ul>
  31. 31. soln <ul><li>r= 25%, k=18%, b=0.4, g=(1-b)r=15%, B=Rs.50; M/B=(r-g)/(k-g) </li></ul><ul><li>A. M/50=(0.25-0.15)/(0.18-0.15)= Rs.166.67 </li></ul><ul><li>B. r=22%; 166.67/50= (0.22-g)/(0.18-g) </li></ul><ul><li>Cross multiply; 30-166.67g=11-50g </li></ul><ul><li>g= 0.1628 </li></ul><ul><li>g= (1-b)r= 1-b= g/r= 0.1628/0.22=0.74 </li></ul><ul><li>So b=1-0.74=0.26 or 26% </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>ALCAR approach: the Alcar Group Inc. a management education and software company, developed an approach to VBM which is based on discounted cash flow analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Determinants of shareholder value: according to Alfred Rappaport author of creating share holder value; a guide to managers and investors, who is regarded as father of share holder value, the following seven factors called “value drivers” affect shareholder value </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>1. rate of sales growth </li></ul><ul><li>2. operating profit margin </li></ul><ul><li>3. Income tax rate </li></ul><ul><li>4.Investment in working capital </li></ul><ul><li>5. fixed capital investment </li></ul><ul><li>6. cost of capital </li></ul><ul><li>7. value growth duration </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>While first six “value drivers” are self explanatory, last one value growth duration represent the period over which investments are expected to earn rates of return in excess of cost of capital </li></ul><ul><li>It is an estimate reflecting the belief of management that competitive advantage will exist for a finite period </li></ul><ul><li>Thereafter competitive edge would be lost causing the rate of return to regress to the cost of capital </li></ul>
  35. 35. Shareholder value creation network <ul><li>Corporate </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Valuation </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>decisions </li></ul>Creating shareholder value Shareholder return 1.Dividends 2.Capital gains Cash flow from operations Discount rate Debt Value Growth duration 1.Sales growth 2.Operating Profit margin 3. Income tax rate 1.Working capital investment 2. Fixed capital investment Cost of capital operating investment financing
  36. 36. Assessment of the shareholder value impact of the business unit (strategy) Procedure suggested by Alcar approach for assessing shareholder impact of a strategy Steps Elaboration 1. Forecast the operating cash flow stream for the business unit (strategy) over the planning period The annual operating cash flow is defined as: cash inflow [(sales)(operating profit margin)(1-effective tax rate)] –cash outflow [fixed capital investment + working capital investment] 2.Discount the forecasted operating cash flow stream using the weighted average cost of capital The weighted average cost of capital is: (post-tax cost of debt) (market value weight of debt)+(post-tax cost of equity )(market value weight of equity) 3. Estimate the residual value of the business unit (strategy) at the end of the planning period and find its present value The residual value is : (perpetuity cash flow)/ (cost of capital)
  37. 37. 4. Determine the total shareholder value The total shareholder value is : present value of the operating cash flow stream + present value of the residual income – market value of the debt 5. Establish the pre-strategy value The pre-strategy value is; [(cash flow before new investment ) / (cost of capital)] – market value of the debt 6. Infer the value created by the strategy The value created by the strategy is: (total shareholder value – pre-strategy value)
  38. 38. Prob <ul><li>The income statement for year 0 (the year which has just ended) and the balance sheet at the end of year 0 for Ventura Limited are given below ( in blue colour); </li></ul><ul><li>Ventura ltd is debating whether it should maintain the status quo or adopt a new strategy. If it maintains the status quo: </li></ul><ul><li>1. the sales will remain constant at 1,000 </li></ul><ul><li>2. the gross margin and selling, general, and admin. Expenses will remain unchanged at 25 and 10 percent respectively </li></ul><ul><li>3. depreciation charges will be equal to new investments </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>4. the asset turnover ratios will remain constant </li></ul><ul><li>5. the discount rate is 16% </li></ul><ul><li>6. the income tax rate is 40% </li></ul><ul><li>If Ventura ltd adopts a new strategy its sales will grow at a rate of 10% per year for five years </li></ul><ul><li>The margins, the turnover ratios, the capital structure, the income tax rate, and the discount rate, however will remain unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Depreciation charges will be equal to 10% of the net fixed assets at the beginning of the year </li></ul><ul><li>What value will the new strategy create? </li></ul>
  40. 40. Determination of the value created by a new strategy Current values Income statem ent pr oject ions Residual value (year 0) 1 2 3 4 5 5+ Sales 1000 1100 1210 1331 1464 1611 1611 Gross margin (25%) 250 275 303 333 366 403 403 S &G.A (10%) 100 110 121 133 146 161 161 PBT 150 165 182 200 220 242 242 Tax 60 66 73 80 88 97 97 Net profit 90 99 109 120 132 145 145
  41. 41. Balance sheet projections Current values Residual value (year 0) 1 2 3 4 5 5+ Fixed assets 300 330 363 399 439 483 483 Current assets 200 220 242 266 293 322 322 Total assets 500 550 605 667 732 805 805 Equity 500 550 605 667 732 805 805
  42. 42. Cash flow projections Current values Residual value (year 0) 1 2 3 4 5 5+ Profit after tax 99 109 120 132 145 145 Depreciation 30 33 36 40 44 48 Capital expenditure* 60 66 73 80 88 48 Increase in current assets 20 22 24 27 29 0 Operating ash flow 49 54 59 65 72 145 Present value factor (@16% discount) 0.862 0.743 0.641 0.552 0.476 Present value of the operating cash flow 42 40 38 36 34 Total pv =190
  43. 43. <ul><li>*= (depreciation=30)+(rise in fixed asset =30)=60 </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to Increase in current asset= 20 </li></ul><ul><li>Present value of the operating cash flow stream= 190 </li></ul><ul><li>Residual value= 145/0.16 =906 </li></ul><ul><li>Present value of the residual value= (0.476)906= 431 </li></ul><ul><li>Total shareholder value= 190+431-0=621 </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-strategy value=90/0.16 = 563 </li></ul><ul><li>Value of strategy= 621-563= 58 </li></ul>
  44. 44. Prob <ul><li>The income statement for the year 0 (just ended) and the balance sheet at the end of year for Futura Ltd are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Income statement balance sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Sales 10,000 equity fixed assets </li></ul><ul><li>Gross margin(20%) 2,000 4000 </li></ul><ul><li>Selling, gen.adm (10%) 1000 </li></ul><ul><li>PBT 1000 6000 Current assets </li></ul><ul><li>Tax 300 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>PAT 700 Total 6000 6000 </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Futura ltd. Is debating whether it should maintain the status quo or adopt a new strategy. If it maintains the status quo: </li></ul><ul><li>The sales will remain constant at 10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>The gross margin will remain at 20%and the selling , general and admn. expenses 10% of sales </li></ul><ul><li>Depreciation charges will be equal to new investments </li></ul><ul><li>The asset turnover ratios will remain constant </li></ul><ul><li>The discount rate will be 15% </li></ul><ul><li>The income tax rate will be 30% </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>If Futura Ltd adopts a new strategy its sales will grow at a rate of 20% per year for three years. The margins, the turnover ratios, the capital structure, the income tax rate and the discount rate, will remain unchanged </li></ul><ul><li>Depreciation charges will be equal to 10% of the net fixed assets at the beginning of the year </li></ul><ul><li>What value will the new strategy create? </li></ul>
  47. 47. soln Current values (year 0) Income 1 statm 2 ent 3 4 sales 10,000 12,000 14,400 17,280 17,280 Gross margin (20%) 2,000 2,400 2,880 3,456 3,456 Selling and gen adm. (10%) 1,000 1,200 1,440 1,728 1,728 PBT 1,000 1,200 1,440 1,728 1,728 Tax 300 360 432 518.4 518.4 PAT 700 840 1008 1209.6 1209.6
  48. 48. Balance sheet & cash flow projections Current values (year 0) 1 2 3 4 Fixed assets 4,000 4,800 5,760 6,912 6,912 Current assets 2,000 2,400 2,880 3,456 3,456 Total assets 6,000 7,200 8,640 10,368 10,368 Equity 6,000 7,200 8,640 10,368 10,368 Profit after tax (a) 840 1008 1209.6 1209.6 Depreciation (b) 400 480 576 691.2 Capital expenditure(c) 1200 1440 1728 691.2 Increase in current and operating cash flow (d) a+b-c-d PVIF= 400 (360) 0.870 (313.2) 480 (432) 0.756 (326.59) 576 (518.4) 0.658 (341.11) - 1209.6
  49. 49. <ul><li>Present value of the operating cash flow stream= (980.90) </li></ul><ul><li>Residual value=1209.6/0.15= 8064 </li></ul><ul><li>Present value of residual value= 8064/(1.15) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Total shareholder value=5302.21-980.90=4321.31 </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-strategy value= 70/0.15= 4667.67 </li></ul><ul><li>Value of the strategy= 4321.31-4667.67= </li></ul><ul><li>= -346.36 </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Shareholder value management cycle: a successful implementation of shareholder value management means that the firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.selects a strategy that maximizes the expected shareholder value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. finds the highest valued use for all assets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. bases performance evaluation and incentive compensation on shareholder value added and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. returns cash to shareholders when value creating investments do not exist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>See figure in next slide </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Share holder value management cycle Strategic planning Investor communications Portfolio review And resource allocation Incentive compensation Performance evaluation
  52. 52. <ul><li>Mckinsey approach: a leading international consultancy firm has developed an approach to VBM. </li></ul><ul><li>According to them “Properly executed, value based management is an approach to management whereby, the company’s overall aspirations, analytical techniques and management processes are all aligned to help the company maximize its value by focusing decision-making on the key drivers of value” </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>The key steps are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>1. ensure the supremacy of value maximization </li></ul><ul><li>2. find the value drivers </li></ul><ul><li>3. establish appropriate managerial processes </li></ul><ul><li>4. implement value-based management properly </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Ensure the supremacy of value maximization: the first step in VBM is to ensure that senior managers embrace value maximization as the ultimate financial objective </li></ul><ul><li>This means that top management should focus on discounted cash flow value (the most direct measure of value creation) and eschew (give up) traditional measures like earnings per share, growth in profit, or accounting rate of return as they are often poor proxies for value creation </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Generally companies pursue financial goals as well as non financial goals </li></ul><ul><li>Financial goals (value maximization or profit maximization) guide senior management </li></ul><ul><li>Non financial goals like product innovation, customer satisfaction and quality improvement are meant to motivate the entire organization </li></ul><ul><li>They guide and inspire employees </li></ul><ul><li>They make sense to employees down the line who are familiar with operational measures like productivity, market share, cycle time, defect rate or absenteeism and understandably find value creation to be somewhat abstract and remote </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Non-financial goals are often consistent with the financial goal of value maximization </li></ul><ul><li>Companies that maximize value also excel in terms of product quality, customer service, innovation, and employee satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Of course, in some cases there may be a possibility of conflict between a non-financial goal and the goal of value maximization </li></ul><ul><li>In such cases the conflict should ordinarily be resolved in favor of the goal of value maximization </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Find the value drivers: an essential ingredient of VBM is a sound understanding of performance variables, referred to as the key value drivers, that influence the value of the business </li></ul><ul><li>Value drivers need to be identified at different levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Copeland et. al. suggest that it is useful to examine value drivers at three levels viz: </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Generic level: at this level, the return on invested capital is analyzed in terms of operating margin and invested capital </li></ul><ul><li>Business unit level: at this level, variables like product mix, customer-mix, operating leverage, and so on are relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Grass root level: at this level, the focus is on operating value drivers like capacity utilization, revenues generated per visit, cost per delivery, and so on, that are directly influenced by the decisions of front line managers </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Establish appropriate managerial processes : VBM calls for gearing the following managerial processes to value maximization: 1. strategy development, 2. target setting, 3. action plans (budgets), and 4. performance measurement / incentive system </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy development: value maximization should guide the formulation and evaluation of strategies, both at the corporate level as well as at the business unit level </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>At the corporate level, strategy development is concerned with two related issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What business should the firm be in? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should resources be allocated across various businesses? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategy development at the business unit level calls for exploring alternative strategies, valuing them, and selecting the one that is expected to generate the highest value </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Target setting: targets reflect what management plans to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>The selected value maximizing strategies should be translated into specific targets, short-term as well as long-term </li></ul><ul><li>The basic principles that should guide target setting are as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. target should be based on key value drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. targets must be tailored to the level of the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. short-term targets and long-term targets must be properly linked </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Action plans / budgets: action plans show the specific steps to be taken in line with the strategy of the business unit to achieve the targets </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term budgets of the companies, often expressed almost entirely in financial terms, do not provide sufficient guidance for implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>What is required is an actionable plan that facilitates an organized pursuit of its goals </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Performance measurement: managerial actions are greatly influenced by how performance is measured and evaluated </li></ul><ul><li>Hence performance measurement and the incentive system should be linked to the company’s strategy or business unit’s strategy </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>According to Copeland this calls for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. tailoring performance measurement to reflect the characteristics of business unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. linking performance measurement to set target </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. combining financial and operating measures that reflect the key value drivers of the unit, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. developing performance measures that provide early warning </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Implement VBM properly: VBM is a long and complex process as it calls for a change in the mindset of decisions makers </li></ul><ul><li>The spider diagram, shown below, is a useful tool to provide a perspective on the process of change </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>performance driven </li></ul><ul><li>5 </li></ul><ul><li>low cost 3 Value-based </li></ul><ul><li>1 </li></ul><ul><li>strong managed bottom up as </li></ul><ul><li>self-reinforcement well as top down </li></ul><ul><li>process </li></ul><ul><li>two-way </li></ul><ul><li>communications </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>It helps understanding where the company is in terms of the following questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. is the company performance oriented? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. are the decisions of the company value-based? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. does the company employ a bottom up as well as a top down process? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. is there a meaningful two-way communication in the company? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. does the company have fairly strong self-reinforcing processes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6. does the company have a low-cost value-based management systems? </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. <ul><li>The above characteristics reflect the hard as well as the soft aspects of value-based management. </li></ul><ul><li>As Copeland et. al put it “the goal is to plot where your organization is on each of these parameters and then stretch to reach the outer limits of the hexagon. Few companies today have achieved this ultimate goal, but many are striving to do so” </li></ul>
  69. 69. <ul><li>Stern Stewart approach (EVA approach): originally proposed by consulting firm Stern Stewart & co. Economic Value Added (EVA) is currently a very popular idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Fortune magazine called it “today’s hottest financial idea and getting hotter”, Peter Drucker refers it as ‘a measure of total factor productivity’ </li></ul><ul><li>Companies across a broad spectrum of industries and across a wide range of countries have joined the EVA bandwagon. </li></ul>
  70. 70. <ul><li>EVA is essentially the surplus left after making an appropriate charge for the capital employed in the business </li></ul><ul><li>It may be calculated in any of following: </li></ul><ul><li>EVA=NOPAT –c* x CAPITAL </li></ul><ul><li>EVA= CAPITAL(r-c*) </li></ul><ul><li>EVA=[PAT+INT(1-t)] –c* x CAPITAL </li></ul><ul><li>EVA= PAT –k e x EQUITY </li></ul><ul><li>where EVA= economic value added; NOPAT=net operating income after tax; c*=cost of capital; CAPITAL= economic book value of the capital employed in the firm; r=return on capital = NOPAT/CAPITAL; PAT= profit after tax; INT= interest expense of the firm; t=marginal tax rate of the firm; k e= cost of equity; EQUITY= equity employed in the firm </li></ul>
  71. 71. <ul><li>Ex. The balance sheet and P&L a/c of Melvin corpn. As on 31.3.00 is given below </li></ul><ul><li>Liabilities assets P & L a/c </li></ul><ul><li>Equity 100 Fixed asset 140 Net sales 300 </li></ul><ul><li>Debt 100 Net current 60 cost of- 258 </li></ul><ul><li>assets -goods sold </li></ul><ul><li>Total 200 200 PBIT 42 </li></ul><ul><li>interest 12 </li></ul><ul><li>PBT 30 </li></ul><ul><li>tax (30%) 9 </li></ul><ul><li>PAT 21 </li></ul>
  72. 72. <ul><li>Cost of equity is 18%. </li></ul><ul><li>The interest rate is 12%, which, given a marginal tax rate of 30%, translates to a post tax cost of debt of 8.4%. </li></ul>
  73. 73. <ul><li>Since Melvin employs debt & equity in equal proportions, its weighted average cost of capital is 0.5 x18 +0.5 x 8.4= 13.2% </li></ul><ul><li>NOPAT=PBIT (1-Tax rate)=42(1-0.3)=Rs.29.4 </li></ul><ul><li>Return on capital=29.4/200= 0.147=14.7% </li></ul><ul><li>EVA=200(0.147-0.132)=Rs.3 </li></ul>
  74. 74. <ul><li>What causes EVA to increase </li></ul><ul><li>From the above it can be seen that EVA will rise; </li></ul><ul><li>if operating efficiency is improved, </li></ul><ul><li>if value adding investments are made, </li></ul><ul><li>if uneconomic activities are curtailed and </li></ul><ul><li>if the cost of capital is lowered </li></ul>
  75. 75. <ul><li>In more specific terms: </li></ul><ul><li>1. the rate of return on existing capital increases because of improvement in operating performance </li></ul><ul><li>This means that the operating profit increases without infusion of additional capital in the business </li></ul><ul><li>2. additional capital is invested in projects that earn a rate of return greater than the cost of capital </li></ul><ul><li>3. capital is withdrawn from activities which earn inadequate returns </li></ul><ul><li>4. the cost of capital is lowered by altering the financing strategy </li></ul>
  76. 76. <ul><li>Ex. For value creating strategies: </li></ul><ul><li>Base case </li></ul><ul><li>CAPITAL 10,000 </li></ul><ul><li>NOPAT 2,000 </li></ul><ul><li>c* 15% </li></ul><ul><li>r 20% </li></ul><ul><li>EVA=CAPITAL x (r-c*)=10000(0.2-0.15)=500 </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy-1: improvement in operating performance </li></ul><ul><li>NOPAT increases from 2000 to 2250 due to greater operating efficiencies; this raises r to 22.5% </li></ul><ul><li>EVA= CAPITAL(r-c*)=10000(0.225-0.15)=750 </li></ul>
  77. 77. <ul><li>Strategy-2; profitable investment </li></ul><ul><li>A new project requiring 10,000 is expected to earn a return of 18%, thereby adding 1800 to NOPAT. This project will increase EVA, even though the consolidated return will decline to 19% (average of 18% & 20%) </li></ul><ul><li>EVA=CAPITAL (r-c*)=20000(0.19-0.15)= 800 </li></ul><ul><li>Note maximizing EVA is more important, not maximizing return on capital. Hence project should be accepted </li></ul>
  78. 78. <ul><li>Strategy-3; withdrawal of unproductive capital </li></ul><ul><li>1000 of working capital can be liquidated with only a marginal decline of NOPAT. </li></ul><ul><li>NOPAT will fall by just 50. </li></ul><ul><li>Withdrawing this working capital would increase the rate of return to 21.67% ( 1950/9000) (2000-50)/(10000-1000) and EVA to 600 </li></ul><ul><li>EVA= 9000 x (0.2167-0.15)= 600 </li></ul>
  79. 79. <ul><li>Strategy-4; reduction in the cost of capital </li></ul><ul><li>The capital structure of the firm is altered and this change lowers the cost of capital to 13%, without affecting anything else. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result EVA rises from 500 to 700 </li></ul><ul><li>EVA=CAPITAL x (r-c*)= 10000(0.20-0.13)= 700 </li></ul>
  80. 80. <ul><li>The three components of EVA </li></ul><ul><li>As seen EVA is a function of net operating profit after tax (NOPAT), cost of capital c*, and the capital employed (CAPITAL) </li></ul><ul><li>NOPAT is defined as; (profit before interest and tax) (1-tax rate) </li></ul><ul><li>This definition is based on two principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. separate the investment and financing side of a firm. This implies that financing charges (interest & dividend) are not considered when we look at profit (or cash flows) on the investment side. Financing charges will be reflected in the cost of capital figure used in discounting profits (or cash flows) on the investment side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. do all analysis in post tax terms </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. Project cash flows <ul><li>Time cash flow time cash flow </li></ul><ul><li>0 +1000 0 -1000 </li></ul><ul><li>1 -1150 1 +1200 </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of capital: 15% Rate of return:20% </li></ul>Project Financing side Investment side
  82. 82. <ul><li>Cost of capital: providers of capital (shareholders and lenders) want to be suitably compensated for investing capital in the firm. The cost of capital reflects what they expect. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of capital should have following features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It represents a weighted average of the cost of all sources of capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is calculated in post tax terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It reflects the risks borne by various providers of capital </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. <ul><li>The formula employed for estimating cost of capital is: </li></ul><ul><li>c*= (cost of equity)(proportion of equity in the capital employed) + (cost of preference)(proportion of preference in the capital employed) +(pretax cost of debt)(1-tax rate)(proportion of debt in the capital employed) </li></ul>
  84. 84. <ul><li>Capital employed: to obtain the capital employed in the business we have to make adjustments to the ‘accounting’ balance sheet to derive the ‘economic book value’ balance sheet </li></ul><ul><li>These adjustments are meant to reflect the economic value of assets in place rather than the accounting values as determined by inherently conservative historical cost based Generally Accepted Accounting Principles </li></ul>
  85. 85. <ul><li>Measuring NOPAT and CAPITAL: adjusting for the distortions of GAAP </li></ul><ul><li>As seen EVA is a function of NOPAT, CAPITAL, weighted average cost of capital (WACC). </li></ul><ul><li>NOPAT and CAPITAL (capital employed) calls for adjusting for the distortion in GAAP (Generally Accepted Accounting Practices) </li></ul><ul><li>Stern Stewart have identified more than 160 potential adjustments </li></ul><ul><li>In most real life situation 10 to 15 adjustments are suffice </li></ul>
  86. 86. <ul><li>The important ones are given below: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Research and development: outlays on R & D are investment in future products and processes. GAAP requires companies to deduct this from earnings. </li></ul><ul><li>For EVA purpose R & D outlays are capitalized and amortised over a period of 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>2. strategic investments: managers are reluctant to propose strategic investments, as there is gestation period and no returns for few years. </li></ul><ul><li>To check this strategic investments are held back in a suspense account and capital charges are added to reflect opportunity cost, till the time investments is expected to generate profit </li></ul>
  87. 87. <ul><li>3. expense recognition: companies incur substantial marketing cost to establish brands, enter new markets, expand customer base and gain market share </li></ul><ul><li>Under GAAP they are treated as expense even though the benefits accrue over longer period </li></ul><ul><li>Under EVA system these outlays are capitalized and amortized over an appropriate period </li></ul>
  88. 88. <ul><li>4. depreciation: managers are reluctant to replace cheap old asset with expensive new assets because capital charges declines as the book value of the assets decrease on account of st.line depreciation </li></ul><ul><li>To over come this sinking fund method can be used, where the annual depreciation is small initially but rises over the life of asset. </li></ul><ul><li>If the sinking fund method of depreciation is used, the sum of depreciation and the EVA capital charge remains constant over time </li></ul><ul><li>Sinking fund depreciation= Value (r-1)/(r n -1) = 100000(1.2-1)/(1.2 5 -1)=13438 </li></ul>
  89. 89. Panel A Straight Line method 1 2 3 4 5 capital 100000 80000 60000 40000 20000 Depreciation 20000 20000 20000 20000 20000 Capital charge Sum 15000 35000 12000 32000 9000 29000 6000 26000 3000 23000 Panel B Sinking fund Method Capital 100000 85167 68109 48492 25933 Depreciation 14833 17058 19617 22559 25933 Capital charge 15000 12775 10216 7273 3890 sum 29833 29833 29833 29833 29823
  90. 90. <ul><li>5. restructuring charges: under GAAP restructuring charges are treated as a loss on an investment that has turned sour. Managers are reluctant for restructuring. Under EVA restructuring is welcomed </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. An asset of 100 with nil operating profit, has market value of 60, cost of capital is 12%, under GAAP factory breaks even, under EVA factory has a negative EVA of Rs.12 </li></ul><ul><li>On sale of asset, Instead of charging 40 to income statement, under EVA, 60 is distributed as dividend and add 40 to Balance Sheet (BS) as restructuring investment (net reduction 60 in BS) </li></ul>
  91. 91. <ul><li>6. taxes: companies use accelerated (WDV) depreciation method for tax purposes and slower method for shareholder reporting (straight line) </li></ul><ul><li>Under GAAP referred to as book taxes, and cash taxes company actually pays are different. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between book taxes and cash taxes go into a liability account called deferred taxes payable in future, which never gets paid </li></ul><ul><li>So while calculating NOPAT only cash taxes must be deducted and deferred tax liability must be treated as quasi-equity and included as shareholders funds </li></ul>
  92. 92. <ul><li>7. marketable securities: companies hold marketable securities which are not used for generating operating profit. </li></ul><ul><li>The investment in marketable securities should be excluded from capital employed and income from them should not be included in the NOPAT </li></ul>
  93. 93. <ul><li>EVA as the basis for an integrated financial management system: the proponents of EVA argue that it is an excellent bedrock on which an integrated financial management system can be constructed, as it has the following features </li></ul><ul><li>1. it is a performance measure that ties directly, theoretically as well as empirically, to shareholder wealth creation </li></ul><ul><li>2. it converts accounting information into economic reality that is readily grasped by non financial managers. It is simple yet effective way of teaching business literacy to everyone </li></ul>
  94. 94. <ul><li>3. it serves as a guide to every decision from strategic planning to capital budgeting to acquisitions to operating decisions </li></ul><ul><li>4. as the basis for incentive compensation, it truly aligns the interest of mangers with that of shareholders and make managers think and act like owners </li></ul>
  95. 95. <ul><li>5.it is an effective tool for investor communication </li></ul><ul><li>6. it serves as an anchor for internal system of corporate governance that motivates everyone to work co-operatively and enthusiastically to achieve the best attainable performance </li></ul>
  96. 96. <ul><li>EVA and valuation: the value of a firm or division thereof is equal to current economic book value plus the present value of the future EVA stream expected from it </li></ul><ul><li>EVA valuation= economic book value of assets+ present value of EVA stream associated with it </li></ul><ul><li>EVA valuation and DCF valuation give identical results </li></ul><ul><li>Link between EVA and MVA: the market value added (MVA) is the difference between the current market value and the capital employed by the firm </li></ul>
  97. 97. <ul><li>Ex. If the market value of a firm (the sum of the market value of its equity and debt) is 12000 and its economic book value is 10000, the MVA is 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>MVA is the present value of all the future EVA’s </li></ul><ul><li>MVA= [EVA 1 /(1+c*) 1 ] + [EVA 2 /(1+c*) 2 ] +…. </li></ul><ul><li>If the market value of a company exceeds its capital employed it means that MVA is positive and vice versa </li></ul>
  98. 98. <ul><li>To get an insight into how value is linked to its key drivers, a company’s value may be expressed as a sum of two components </li></ul><ul><li>V=NOPAT/ c* + [I(r-c*)T]/[c*(1+c*)] </li></ul><ul><li>Where V=value of the firm; I=amount of new investment projected every year; r=rate of return expected to be earned on new investment; T=period over which new investment will take place; c*= weighted average cost of capital; NOPAT= net operating profit after tax </li></ul>
  99. 99. <ul><li>The first term NOPAT/c* represents the value of the investments in place </li></ul><ul><li>The second term I(r-c*)/c*(1+c*) represents value of the forward plan. It is the present value of the EVA added by new investments which are available for a period of T years </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond that period it is expected that new entrants and substitutes will compete away the potential for superior returns </li></ul>
  100. 100. <ul><li>EVA and capital budgeting: </li></ul><ul><li>the NPV of a project using the EVA approach is defined as: (same as DCF method) </li></ul><ul><li>NPV= n Σ t=1 [EVA t / (1+ discount rate) t ] </li></ul><ul><li>EVA and incentive compensation: the purpose of an incentive compensation plan is to motivate employees to work harder and smarter so that the organizational performance is maximized </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately, the incentive compensation plans used by most companies fail to accomplish these objectives </li></ul>
  101. 101. <ul><li>The centre piece of the EVA financial management system is a unique bonus plan that overcomes the limitations and aligns the interest of managers and shareholders. </li></ul><ul><li>The key elements of the EVA bonus plan are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. bonus is linked to increases in EVA </li></ul><ul><li>2. there is no floor or ceiling on the bonus </li></ul><ul><li>3. the target bonus is generous </li></ul><ul><li>4. performance targets are set by formula, not negotiation </li></ul><ul><li>5. a bonus bank is established </li></ul>
  102. 102. <ul><li>BCG Approach : Boston Consulting Group has developed an approach to shareholder value management </li></ul><ul><li>Two concepts: total shareholder return and total business return </li></ul><ul><li>For applying these concepts, two performance metrics are used: cash flow return on investment (CFROI) and cash value added (CVA) </li></ul>
  103. 103. <ul><li>Total shareholder return: total shareholder return (TSR) is the rate of return shareholders earn from owning a company’s stock over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>The TSR for a single holding period is computed as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>TSR= [(dividend/ beginning market value) + (ending market value –beginning market value)/(beginning market value)] </li></ul>
  104. 104. <ul><li>TSR for multiple holding period is computed using the conventional IRR computation </li></ul><ul><li>Begining market value=[dividend 1 /(1+TSR) 1 + dividend 2 /(1+TSR) 2 + dividend n /(1+TSR) n +.. …+ending market value in year n/ (1+TSR) n </li></ul><ul><li>The reasons for considering TSR as a useful measure of value creation are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. TSR is comprehensive as it includes dividends as well as capital gains </li></ul>
  105. 105. <ul><li>2. TSR is widely used by the investment community and also required by the Securities Exchange Commission a regulatory body for the capital market in USA </li></ul><ul><li>3. TSR can be easily benchmarked against the market or peer groups </li></ul><ul><li>4.TSR is not biased by size </li></ul><ul><li>5. TSR is difficult to manipulate </li></ul>
  106. 106. <ul><li>Total Business Return: if TSR is what matters to investors, an internal counterpart to it is needed for managerial purposes </li></ul><ul><li>For BCG, the total business return (TBR) is the internal counterpart of TSR </li></ul><ul><li>The link between TSR, TBR, and value drivers is shown next slide </li></ul>
  107. 107. TSR, TBR and the value drivers Total Business Return Total Shareholder Return Capital Gains Free cash flows Return on Invested capital Growth in new investments Measured as cash flow return on investment
  108. 108. <ul><li>The TBR for a single holding period is computed as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>TBR= (free cash flow/beginning value) + (ending value – beginning value)/ beginning value </li></ul><ul><li>The TBR for a multiple holding period is measured using the conventional IRR computation </li></ul>
  109. 109. <ul><li>Beginning value= [free cash flow 1 /(1+TBR) +free cash flow 2 /(1+TBR) 2 +…..+ free cash flow n / (1+TBR) n + ending value in year n /(1+TBR) n </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning and ending values are estimates of market values of the firm or business unit at the beginning and end of period. </li></ul><ul><li>They are estimated using one or more of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Value=earnings x P/E multiple </li></ul><ul><li>Value= Book value x M/B multiple </li></ul>
  110. 110. <ul><li>Value= Free cash flow divided by cost of capital </li></ul><ul><li>Value= NPV of expected cash flow </li></ul><ul><li>BCG calculates TBR using a time fade model which assumes that a firm’s return on invested capital and its growth rate will fade over time toward a national average due to competitive pressures </li></ul>
  111. 111. <ul><li>Bartely Madden of HOLT Associates explains as follows “when businesses succeed in achieving above-average returns, competitors are attracted by above-average returns and try to serve the customer ever more effectively. The competitive process tends to force high-CFROI firms toward the average. Business earning CFROIs below the cost of capital are eventually compelled to restructure and/or downsize in order to earn at least the cost of capital, or eventually they cease operations” </li></ul>
  112. 112. <ul><li>Inter alia, BCG uses the TBR for strategic planning, resource allocation, and incentive compensation </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic planning: strategic planning involves choosing strategies and plans that create value </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative strategies and plans must be evaluated in terms of their TBR. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the only measure that accurately reflects the tradeoffs among profitability, growth and cash flows, the three drivers of value </li></ul>
  113. 113. <ul><li>Resource allocation: in multi-business firms, resource allocation has a critical bearing on value creation </li></ul><ul><li>Resource allocation decisions should be based on the track record of various business and the promise of their strategic plans </li></ul><ul><li>BCG employs a perspective, depicted in the figure in next slide , to guide resource allocation decisions </li></ul>
  114. 114. Resource allocation perspective <ul><li>Positive </li></ul><ul><li>Current CFROI </li></ul><ul><li>vs 0 </li></ul><ul><li>cost of capital </li></ul><ul><li>Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Negative 0 Positive </li></ul><ul><li>TBR of business plan </li></ul><ul><li>versus </li></ul><ul><li>target TBR </li></ul>question High priority for reinvestment Do not fund question
  115. 115. <ul><li>Cash flow return on investment (CFROI): TBR incorporates the returns (CFROIs) both for the assets in place and the assets to be created </li></ul><ul><li>Thus CFROI has an important bearing on TBR </li></ul><ul><li>What is CFROI and how is it measured? </li></ul><ul><li>BCG defines CFROI as “ the sustainable cash flow a business generates in a given year as a percentage of the cash invested in the firm’s assets” </li></ul>
  116. 116. <ul><li>Sustainable cash flow is gross cash flow less depreciation. Thus: </li></ul><ul><li>CFROI= (cash flow- economic depreciation)/ cash invested </li></ul><ul><li>Note the economic depreciation is the amount of annual sinking fund payment earning cost capital required to replace assets </li></ul>
  117. 117. Illustration <ul><li>Illustration of calculation of CFROI: </li></ul><ul><li>A new plant entails an initial investment of Rs. 300,000, Rs.250,000 toward fixed assets and the balance toward net working capital. The plant has an economic life of 14 years. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of 14 years, fixed assets will fetch nothing, but net working capital will be recovered in full. </li></ul><ul><li>The plant is expected to produce a NOPAT of Rs.21, 080 each year </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of capital is 10%. It will cost Rs.250,000 to replace the fixed asset </li></ul>
  118. 118. <ul><li>Calculation of economic depreciation: </li></ul><ul><li>Rs.250,000= economic depreciation x FIFA(14,10%) =250000(1.1-1)/(1.1 14 -1)=8936 </li></ul><ul><li>Economic depreciation= 250,000/27.975=Rs. 8937 </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation of annual depreciation= 250,000/14= Rs. 17,857 </li></ul><ul><li>Return on capital employed (ROCE) = NOPAT/book capital </li></ul><ul><li>Return on gross investment (ROGI)= cash flow/cash invested </li></ul>
  119. 119. Annual measurement of the project in three sample years Year 1 Year 6 Year 12 1.NOPAT 21080 21080 21080 2.Depreciation 17857 17857 17857 3.Cash flow (1+2) 38937 38937 38937 4.Economic depreciation 8937 8937 8937 Sustainable cash flow (3-4) 30000 30000 30000 Book capital (17857 x 5) and 17857 x 11 300000 210715 103573 CFROI(%) (38937-8937)/300000 10.00 10.00 10.00 ROCE(%) (21080/300000/210715/103573)= 7.03 10.00 20.35 ROGI(%) (38937/300000) 12.98 12.98 12.98
  120. 120. <ul><li>To judge the accuracy of these measures, compare them with IRR, the most commonly employed measure to assess investment projects. IRR of the project= </li></ul><ul><li>300000= 38937/(1+r) + 38937/(1+r) 2 + ..+ (38937+50000)/(1+r) 14 </li></ul><ul><li>r works out to 10percent </li></ul><ul><li>Comparing the three measures it is seen that: </li></ul>
  121. 121. <ul><li>1. ROCE understates IRR in initial years and over states in later years. </li></ul><ul><li>ROCE shows a rising trend over time, though the project is a constant cost-of-capital performer </li></ul><ul><li>2. ROGI does not show rising trend. </li></ul><ul><li>It has a constant upward bias of about 3%, as it does not take into account what must be withheld to replace the asset at the end of its economic life </li></ul><ul><li>3. CFROI equals IRR throughout. </li></ul><ul><li>It take into account the replacement need and provides the correct signal each year </li></ul>
  122. 122. <ul><li>Cash Value Added: the CFROI is the key metric used by BCG for measuring performance and valuing a company </li></ul><ul><li>However, BCG has also developed a measure of economic profit: cash value added (CVA). </li></ul><ul><li>BCG claims that CVA is superior to EVA because it removes the accounting distortion that may bias EVA </li></ul><ul><li>CVA is measured as operating cash flow less economic depreciation less a capital charge on gross investment </li></ul><ul><li>Thus CVA= cash flow – economic depreciation – capital charge on gross investment </li></ul>
  123. 123. EVA and VA calculation Panel A: EVA Rs. million Year 1 Year 6 Year 12 1 NOPAT 21080 21080 21080 2 Book capital 300000-(17857x5)=2107i5 300000 210715 103573 3 Cost of capital 10% 10% 10% 4 Capital charge (10% of sl no 2) 30000 21072 10357 EVA (1-4) (8920) 8 10732 Panel B: CVA 1 NOPAT 21080 21080 21080 2 Depreciation 17857 17857 17857 3 Cash flow 38937 38937 38937 4 Economic depreciation 8937 8937 8937 5 Cash invested 300000 300000 300000 6 Cost of capital 10% 10% 10% 7 Capital charge 30000 30000 30000 CVA= (3-4-7) 0 0 0
  124. 124. <ul><li>From the table we find that EVA rises over time from minus 8920 for year 1 to plus 10372 for year 12 </li></ul><ul><li>CVA is zero for each year and this reflects properly the economic performance of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Remember that this plant earns a rate of return that just equals cost of capital </li></ul><ul><li>Hence it neither generates value nor destroys value </li></ul>
  125. 125. <ul><li>Lessons from the experience of VBM adopters: </li></ul><ul><li>1. top management support and involvement is essential </li></ul><ul><li>2. a good incentive plan is necessary which links performance and compensation </li></ul><ul><li>3. employees should be properly educated </li></ul><ul><li>4. the choice of value metric by itself (per se) is not critical. The metric chosen must be suited to the circumstances. (hitting good golf shot depends on the player than on the brand of club) </li></ul><ul><li>5. VBM works well in certain cases, especially in firms where physical capital is more, than in firms which rely on intellectual capital </li></ul><ul><li>6. one size does not fit all (need for customization) </li></ul>
  126. 126. <ul><li>Potential and hurdles for VBM in India: </li></ul><ul><li>The potential and urgency for applying VBM in Indian companies is immense for the following reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>1. most companies have substantial physical assets which are under utilized. This is reflected in low productivity of capital </li></ul><ul><li>2. historically, most business groups diversified into a number of sectors, thanks to various inducements and temptations </li></ul><ul><li>The heightening competition from the mid 1990s has forced many business houses to review and restructure their portfolios to achieve greater focus </li></ul><ul><li>3. equity investors who fared poorly during 1992-2002 have been prodding corporate managements to focus on creating value for shareholders </li></ul>
  127. 127. <ul><li>Hurdles: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Most managements do not seem to have genuine commitments to promote the welfare of the ordinary shareholders. </li></ul><ul><li>There is divide between dominant shareholders and others. Dominant shareholders want control of the company at any cost irrespective of the welfare of all the shareholders </li></ul>
  128. 128. <ul><li>2. financial literacy of employees is not high and many managements may not be keen to raise it </li></ul><ul><li>Financial numbers are kept closely guarded secret </li></ul><ul><li>It can be summed up as “let the operating people produce more, sell more, and control costs. Let them not bother about finances, on what terms we get finances and how we manage our cash flows” </li></ul>
  129. 129. <ul><li>3. the accounting model seem to dominate corporate thinking and managers believe that stock prices are determined largely by reported earnings. No wonder managing the bottom line is a favorable corporate past time in India </li></ul><ul><li>4. the degree of decentralization is not very high. Barring few operating decisions of a routine nature, most decisions are highly centralized. Employees down the line have hardly any say in financing decisions and no say in strategic operating decisions which is pre-condition for introducing VBM </li></ul>
  130. 130. <ul><li>5. many top managements believe in monitoring employee behavior by watching over their shoulders and rewarding them on the basis of subjective personal assessment and are reluctant to incorporate objective assessment and give up discretion with respect to performance evaluation and incentive compensation </li></ul>
  131. 131. <ul><li>6. managers are used to a compensation structure in which the fixed component is high and variable component is low. </li></ul><ul><li>They are not psychologically ready to accept performance linked and variable in nature, pay structure. </li></ul><ul><li>They welcome incentive compensation provided it does not in any way lower the fixed pay they are used to </li></ul>