A structured approach to conversion rate optimization


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A structured approach to conversion rate optimization. Devknob.com finds this to be a quality method to structure CRO campaigns when possible

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A structured approach to conversion rate optimization

  1. 1. Mark Patron October 2011 A Structured Approach to Conversion Rate Optimization Conversion Rate Optimization
  2. 2. Conversion Rate Optimization Introduction Conversion rate optimization (CRO) is the method of creating an experience for a website or landing page visitor with the goal of increasing the percentage of visitors that convert into customers1 . With the average online website conversion rate being just 2% to 3% there is clearly a lot of headroom to improve things. Forrester Research estimates for every $100 spent on driving traffic to websites, companies spend just $1 converting that traffic into business. So, an extra dollar spent intelligently on CRO should be a better investment than spending more money on generating traffic. Over the past 3 years RedEye has joined forces with Econsultancy to research how companies are improving their website conversion. To understand what is working and what is not we have surveyed thousands of digital marketers. Whilst there have been some changes in favourite methods and tools used the one thing that has consistently stood out is that to improve conversion you need a structured approach. In 2009, 2010 and 2011 having a structured approach to conversion was one of the most predictive characteristics of survey respondents who were having success with improving conversion rates. In 2010 some 89% of survey respondents who had a structured approach to conversion had improved conversion over the past 12 months2 . This year a similar result was seen with 74% of the survey respondents who said they had a structured approach to conversion stating they had improved sales3 . This year’s survey also found companies that had a structured approach to conversion were twice as likely to have seen a large increase in sales. Structure had the highest correlation with improved sales and the second highest correlation with improved conversion rates. However, producing a workable and successful structure isn’t always an easy task. In this year’s RedEye Econsultancy CRO Report only 31% of www.redeye.com pg1 Conversion Rate Optimization companies said they did have a structured approach to improving conversion. The problem is there are so many tools to help improve conversion (multivariate testing, web analytics, usability testing, surveys, basket abandonment email… the list is endless); it’s difficult for an online marketer to know where to start. Using the findings from the past three years of research and our own experience as practitioners, RedEye has produced a structure we believe will help marketers understand what will have the greatest incremental improvement on online business, and ultimately, if implemented correctly, will improve website conversion. At RedEye we believe a structured approach to improving conversion needs to be a continuous improvement process; an iterative cycle of measurement, analysis, testing and optimization (see Fig. 1). Each stage of the cycle has a purpose and goal, that leads to the next, helping you understand your users, and improve your conversion. Every website is different so what works for one website will not necessarily work for another. However, by following this structured formula you will achieve a clear direction for improving conversion and understand what methods and tools can be used, at what stage, to optimize your online business. Our research into conversion has proved the more methods online marketers use to improve conversion the more likely they are to have better results. Our latest findings show companies whose conversion had improved over the previous 12 months used on average 26% more methods to improve their conversion than those companies whose conversion had not improved3 . We also know from experience that using complimentary methods gives a better result. Fig. 2 shows how different methods can be used to integrate both qualitative and quantitative data to understand both the“what”and“why”of online user behaviour. CRO is both a science and art.
  3. 3. Conversion Rate Optimization www.redeye.com pg2 Conversion Rate Optimization Fig. 2: Mapping complimentary quantitative and qualitative methods to understand online customer behaviour Fig. 1: RedEye’s structured approach to improving conversion
  4. 4. Conversion Rate Optimization www.redeye.com pg3 Conversion Rate Optimization This RedEye white paper will take you through the different methods and tools you can use within each stage of RedEye’s conversion rate optimization process, to help you achieve an effective structure for improving conversion. Stage 1: Measurement You cannot manage what you cannot measure, so the first stage in the process is measurement. In order to continually improve conversion you need to constantly assess your activity as well as the market place. Here are a few of the most important practices to get started on the road to great conversion. Business goals As they say in the army, if you are unclear about your objectives then you cannot fulfil your mission. Define your overall goals. Do you want sales? Registrations? Clicks? Or eye-balls? It is okay to have more than one goal, although you should prioritise them, ideally using some form of score- card. Once you have set your objectives you can start to achieve them. Our research has shown, out of those that had improved conversion, 94% identified key performance indicators as a best practice they carried out3 . Companies also reported that identifying key performance indicators was their top best practice (see Fig. 3). Fig. 3: Which of the following practices do you carry out? Source: RedEye Econsultancy Conversion Rate Optimization Report, 2011
  5. 5. Conversion Rate Optimization www.redeye.com pg4 Conversion Rate Optimization KPI’s (key performance indicators) to consider • Top line stats: Traffic fluctuations, revenues, conversion • Content: Top URL’s and sections of the site that have a high variance from previous weeks • Marketing: Top-line channel comparison • Search (paid and natural): Top phrases or phrases that may have changed dramatically • Email: Comparisons of all email activity • Funnels: The online user journey from entry to purchase • Engagement: Recency of visits/interaction with social media • Successful internal search Benchmarking Study well-executed competitor sites to find features you should be using or testing. It’s free research and probably the best investment you can make. Piggyback on your competitors’investment by testing your competitors’sales funnels compared to yours. You normally find your best customers are also your competitors’best customers, so your customers will know how your website compares; so should you! Simon Nixon, co- founder of Moneysupermarket.com, spent 20% of his time benchmarking competitors4 . Leading online brands like ASOS use benchmarking to maintain the best user experience for their customers (see www.redeye.com/clients/case- studies/asos/). Web analytics data Web analytics data is the most important source of measurement for CRO. The single largest cause of inaccuracy with web analytics data is out of date site tagging, so regularly check page tags. Surveys Getting real consumer feedback is invaluable. Use surveys on entry to ask what the user’s objective is, then another survey on exit to identify if their objective was fulfilled. Post-purchase surveys can also work well. (Some free or low cost survey tools are listed in Resources at the end of this whitepaper.) Internal search data Identify good and bad searches. Are people searching for diaries and if so should you stock them? Analyse the success of highly searched phrases by understanding if people are re-searching or leaving the site. If either of these things is happening a high percentage of the time then you need to investigate how you can help your customers find what they want. Stage 2: Analysis Once you have set goals in place, and you know the direction you need to go, the next stage in the conversion process is analysis. Analysis will help you identify any potential issues or pain points on your website, as well as help you pull out what methods are working the best. Here is a list of ways to help you do this.
  6. 6. Conversion Rate Optimization www.redeye.com pg5 Content analysis Look at exit/bounce rates to analyse how often someone arrives on your site and does not look at anything beyond that first page. This will help you understand how well pages are performing. If a page has a high bounce rate it is important to determine the reason people are leaving the page without viewing more. Is the page not what they were expecting based on where they have come from? Was the call to action clear enough? Was the navigation confusing? Conversely, if a page has a very low bounce rate you should consider why that page is so effective. Understanding why a page is effective will help you replicate the success on other pages. When analysing how well a page performs consider the objective of the page. Is it a doorway? An info page? A conversion page? What actions (core journey) would you like the user to make following viewing each page? By understanding the purpose of the page, you will be in a much better position to interpret the data. User needs analysis Once you’re clear about what your business wants from your KPI’s you should consider what’s in it for the consumer. User needs analysis will identify who your users are, what they are likely to use the site for and whether they are able to achieve their goals. You can then use this information to make your website more engaging for the user. Usability testing One-to-one usability testing with eye tracking is the best way to analyse and fully understand how your site design is performing and why your customers are doing the things you see in the web analytics data. Core journey analysis Use sales funnel analysis to understand the online journey users are making in order to purchase. This will help you identify any problems users may be experiencing which hinder the buying process. Your visitors will also be making many journeys that do not fit neatly into the sales funnel analysis. As sellers we can be too focused on the sales funnel and forget buyers do not necessarily behave in a linear way. So you need to analyse all the main journeys on your site. Customer core journey analysis looks at how your prospective customers arrive at your website, move around it and make purchases. Where funnel analysis looks at the conversion funnel, core journey analysis considers all the primary user goals, for example registration, signing up for a newsletter or finding product information. The better you understand your core journeys the better you can lead or pull your users through your site rather than trying to push them. Core journey analysis requires a combination of analytics and usability expertise. Once the core journeys have been identified, and associated analytics segments created, the analysis of these core journeys involves overlaying revenue information, average order value and cutting the data by customer segments and critical pages. As well as revealing invaluable insights to help you optimize your user journeys, most importantly this should provide you with useful data in a format that is actionable and easy to understand and relevant to your business goals. (For more information see Stage 3: Test, Optimization dashboard.) Media and campaign analysis Analyse your campaigns to differentiate which generate best quality customers and which generate the worst quality customers. Which campaigns and traffic sources convert the best? Analyse brand keywords versus generic. Aim to analyse customer lifetime value by traffic source. Ways to analyse user needs • Focus groups • In-depth interviews • Quantitative online surveys
  7. 7. Conversion Rate Optimization www.redeye.com pg6 Website owners spend a lot of money on media so it is important to understand how effective each media channel really is. Consumers don’t work in a linear manner. Ideally your web analytics data should enable you to look behind the last click to understand how different types of media assist each other and how users respond to each individual media. Knowing this information will help you allocate your marketing and media spend more effectively and maximise your conversion. Stage 3: Test The next step is the testing process. Too often tests are done by throwing hundreds of ideas against a wall in the hope that a few will stick. This is a waste of time and money, worse, the best ideas don’t get tested. You need a rigorous method to justify what test to do next. Testing is key to improving website conversion. Companies who were satisfied with their conversion did on average 40% more tests than those companies who were dissatisfied3 . Interestingly however, there was no material difference between the number of tests done by those whose conversion had improved and those whose conversion had not; providing evidence that improving conversion is not just about doing more tests; it’s about doing the right tests. Testing is fundamental to improving website conversion. The 2011 RedEye Econsultancy Conversion Rate Optimization survey found that A/B and multivariate testing were the two most valuable methods for companies to improve conversion (see Fig. 4). Fig 4: How valuable do you find the following methods for improving conversion rates? Source: RedEye Econsultancy Conversion Rate Optimization Report, 2011
  8. 8. Conversion Rate Optimization www.redeye.com pg7 Below are some strategies to use at this stage, to ensure you have a structured testing process that will provide insightful results. Develop a test plan First brainstorm ideas for tests to run with four to eight key stakeholders from different parts of the business. Successful previous tests are a good source of future test ideas. Before you start to test, think about what you want to achieve. Make sure you have a clear goal in mind, for example increased sales, more conversions or a higher average order value. Design tests for the things that can and will have the greatest impact on your goals. You want to test things that will really move the dial, don’t tinker around the edges. Design tests carefully, consider how you will know whether the test has worked. Do not waste time designing tests you cannot implement. Without properly constructed tests no learning is reliable, so test one thing at a time and compare like with like. In your test, make sure you’re comparing a similar size of a similar demographic, at a similar time, for a similar offer. For example, a test at the weekend might give a different result to a weekday. Where the campaign or traffic value is high consider using a proper control. The control group gets what you have always used, while test groups get something new and different. For less expensive tests you can use a simple champion/challenger approach where the test is run against the existing format. Prioritise A lack of resources was the biggest barrier to improving conversion according to the latest survey we did with Econsultancy3 , with 53% of company respondents claiming this as the main barrier to improving conversion (see Fig. 5). This reinforces the importance of prioritising scarce resources. Source: RedEye Econsultancy Conversion Rate Optimization Report, 2011 Fig. 5: What are the biggest barriers preventing your organisation from improving conversion rates?
  9. 9. Conversion Rate Optimization www.redeye.com pg8 Fig. 6 shows what companies test. Calls to action and page layout are top, with navigation and copy a close third and fourth. Interestingly, the top three showed a year on year increase, while copy had a slight decline. Even though copy testing is important, other criteria such as navigation are also key. In the same way as we know using more methods to improve conversion leads to a better conversion rate, a more holistic approach to optimization leads to better results. For example, if all your tests are based on copy then testing a completely different facet, such as navigation, could well give a better incremental improvement. What you test is more important than how much you test. Prioritise tests by potential value and cost of each of the tests (see Fig. 7). Consider testing first, poorly performing steps in the conversion funnel and key pages with high bounce rates. Optimization dashboard Testing the right things is clearly important. RedEye has developed a patent pending methodology to help prioritise tests by combining your consumer target groups, your brand and your business goals. Your target groups are the various consumer segments such as first time visitors versus repeat visitors. Your brand is represented by website content. Your business goals are analysed through customer core journeys (for example purchase, registration or getting product information). Together these three elements give you a holistic view of the data required to improve your conversion (see Fig. 8). Fig. 6: Specifically for your website, what do you test? Source: RedEye Econsultancy Conversion Rate Optimization Report, 2011
  10. 10. Conversion Rate Optimization Fig 7: How to prioritise tests based on value and cost www.redeye.com pg9 Fig. 8: How to produce a holistic view of CRO data
  11. 11. Conversion Rate Optimization www.redeye.com pg10 These three independent factors must be put into an optimization dashboard to prioritise what to test. The dashboard calculates the expected returns from traffic volume and expected lift and ROI for each test. Obviously this is the part senior management will be the most interested in and will greatly help selling CRO to the board. The board will want to see fewer but more effective tests generating better results with lower costs. Testing process Test everything and assume nothing. If all your tests work then you are not taking enough risks. When you have a great idea and you’ve put in the effort beforehand to analyse your website and customers in order to come up with that idea, it’s easy to be biased and expect the idea to work. Remember, testing is not there to prove an idea works, but to assess whether it works. Make sure results are statistically significant. Think about how you plan to use the results. Depending on the results what action will you take? Every online campaign you run, or change you make, should be treated as a test. The key is to do something, and then see if it works. This applies to SEO and PPC campaigns, website pages and email. You can never test too much. Decide what to test, test it, make a change and test again. Always remember customer behaviour changes and it is not an exact science. Customers often behave unexpectedly. This is one reason we need to test. Even an idea you think would have a positive impact on user behaviour, based on previous analysis, may not work. What may be working perfectly well one month may suddenly hinder conversion levels next month. The only way to keep on top of what is working and what is not is to test, test and test again! Recording test results is essential. We know from the research that companies who combine findings from different departments are more likely to have seen improved conversion. This is even more pronounced for companies with £10m+ revenues, with 80% of companies who combine findings from different departments having improved conversion3 . In other words the bigger the organisation, the more important it is to combine findings in one place and to have a single co-ordinated CRO strategy. Somewhere you need a way to document the tests you do and build up a knowledgebase of what worked and what didn’t, so you do not reinvent the wheel in the future. It is still worth retesting good ideas that did not work a few years previously because things change. Stage 4: Optimize Now you know your goals, have analysed your site and have achieved insightful results from the tests you have done, you are in a position to implement successful designs and content changes. After carefully analysing and testing you will be in a position to begin to optimize your website based on the information you have extracted about how your users interact with your website. Data in itself, whether it is extracted from analysis or testing, is only valuable when you use it. Below are some ways you can use your data to start optimizing your marketing strategy and improve your website conversion. Landing page optimization Landing page optimization is an important part of conversion rate optimization. Optimizing landing pages is the first place to test to improve results. Copy, headlines, images and layout obviously drive how well a landing page works and all of these elements need to be tested. Most things in this white paper apply as much to landing page optimization as they do to conversion rate optimization. The only difference is the typical length of the core journey.
  12. 12. Conversion Rate Optimization Segmentation and targeting Companies whose conversion had improved used 50% more ways to segment their visitors and customers than companies whose conversion had not improved or had stayed the same3 . Segmentation and targeting ensures your marketing communications are relevant to the consumer. You want to show the right content to the right person at the right time. Consider sending visitors to different pages based on their profile and traffic source. You can segment traffic via a simple drop down box. For example, different job titles or sectors get different user guides. You don’t have to change your e-commerce platform, simply use microsites to test catering for these different segments. You can also segment registered and non-registered traffic using login Fig. 9: In which ways do you segment your visitors and customers? Source: RedEye Econsultancy Conversion Rate Optimization Report, 2011 www.redeye.com pg11 cookies. Align keywords, calls to action and landing pages for each segment. Analyse conversion for different segments, specifically, new versus repeat visitors, channel used to access the site, product and RFM data. To accurately segment and target users you will need a good quality online single customer view database. The most commonly used types of segmentation are listed in Fig. 9. Reduce basket abandonment Typically, 65% to 75% of consumers abandon their shopping basket before payment. This high drop off means one of the easiest ways to improve conversion is to reduce your basket abandonment rates and convert more abandoners into buyers.
  13. 13. Conversion Rate Optimization Examples of segments Purchased any product: Compare the activity of those that have purchased to those that have not. This is most powerful when trying to understand what non-customers are doing on the site. Repeat visitors: Understand the difference between the user behaviour of returning prospects and first time visitors. Channel used to access site: How the user entered your site is a big clue to how they need to be treated. If they entered with the search term‘cheap holiday’send them emails on cheap deals. If they entered via a PPC ad promoting a‘luxury break’send them an email about luxury breaks. First time buyers: Paying customers act differently to first time browsers. By splitting the data in this way you can focus on your buying customers. It is these users that are important to you. Product segments: It is important to have segments per product so you can analyse the activity of users based on what they like to buy. Trends in behaviour may differ depending on what product is being purchased. Advocates: Separate regular visitors from infrequent visitors. It is the regular visitors you want to pay attention to. Understanding these users is critical because how they behave is how you want all users to behave. Engagement: Recent visitors are more engaged and can be contacted more frequently. RFM: Recency, frequency and monetary spend segmentation is a tried and tested direct marketing technique that works well. For more information see www.jimnovo.com. www.redeye.com pg12 Segmentation check-list • KISS (Keep it simple stupid!) • Make it actionable • Use product and/or RFM data (recency, frequency, monetary value) • Make sure segment sizes are significant and meaningful
  14. 14. Conversion Rate Optimization • Use clear and visible font sizes • Consider accessibility (for example high contrast text and background colours) • Use quality photographs of your products • Your brand should be visible on every page of the checkout process • Make searching for items fast and accurate • Use apologetic error messages highlighting the field they need to complete • Include targeted keywords in product descriptions • Show any store opening hours on your site • Implement wireframe templates to finalise page look and feel • Include user friendly error messages • Make it clear what payment options are available • Offer as many payment methods as possible • Use form field best practice to make the checkout process streamlined • Minimise required fields in forms • Don’t ask for duplicated information • Make it easy to fill in data (for example postcode and street number only) • Give the consumer the option to call • Have a clear value proposition • Reduce the number of steps in your checkout process • Include a progress indicator on each checkout page • Provide a link back to the product • Be transparent, provide delivery costs early in the process • Include prompts, for example free delivery when you spend £30 • Don't distract with unrelated offers and avoid clutter • Show stock availability on the product page • Make it obvious what to click next • Add small thumbnail pictures of products purchased in the shopping basket • Make editing the shopping basket easy • Allow editing of quantities, sizes, colors, etc. within the shopping basket • Show accurate colour choices and label the variations • Offer a way to login and save what’s in the basket for later • Make sure your product pages and basket load quickly www.redeye.com pg13 Ways to reduce shopping cart abandonment
  15. 15. Conversion Rate Optimization Remarket to your abandoners The RedEye Econsultancy CRO Report 2011 found, 70% of companies who target abandoners had increased sales, with 19% claiming they had a seen a large increase in sales3 . As 46% of consumers claim they would be more likely to complete an online transaction if they received an email reminding them of items they had not purchased from their shopping baskets in a previous session5 , a simple triggered email remarketing campaign is an easy way to communicate with abandoned basket shoppers and entice them back to your website. A single basket abandonment email should generate 2% to 4% extra revenues. Yet, according to our research only 14% of top UK retailers send abandoned basket emails6 . (For a free trial of basket abandoned email see www.ondemand.redeye.com). Build an email list Repeat visitors are eight times more likely to purchase your products or services than first-time visitors7 , and email is one of the best ways to get people back to your website. So it is important to entice consumers to give you their email address. Offer a discount voucher or even a free gift in return for their email address. Calculate the value of your existing email addresses (the revenues resulting from your email activity divided by the number of email addresses); then you know how much you can invest in collecting each additional email address. Ideally registration should be included early in the buying process enabling acquisition of email addresses, but it must be handled with a light touch and included within the buying flow. Don’t use words like ‘register’ and ‘registration’ during checkout; use terms like ‘account creation’, ‘my account’, ‘customer login’ and ‘join’ instead. Make the first stage of your checkout as simple as possible, either with two clear options (login or guest checkout), or with the starting point being entering your email address, then choosing whether or not you already have a password. When you ask the customer to choose a password, provide clear information on how many characters the password should be and whether or not it needs to include alpha-numeric characters. Build trust Internet users have many reasons to be cynical, so before people will spend money with you they need to trust you. Demonstrate to them you’re a real entity. Build trust and reduce anxiety with trust logos, a clear privacy policy, secure lock icons and secure ordering on your shopping basket pages. Do you have any warranty or product guarantees? Consider testimonials and endorsements. It is also important to manage your online reputation and deal with bad news head-on. Research or brainstorm the top 10 reasons why someone would not buy from you and answer those objections. Calls to action Are your calls to action compelling? Are they obvious? Are they easy to respond to? If you want your website visitors to convert, you have to tell them what to do. Align search keywords, landing page headlines/copy and calls to action. Create a sense of urgency by using deadlines. It goes without saying that calls to action that are above the fold work best. Note, calls to action were the highest reported type of test in the RedEye Econsultancy Conversion Rate Optimization Report (Fig. 6). www.redeye.com pg14 The top consumer e-commerce fears8 you need to address 1. Fear of credit card information being stolen 2. It’s not a real store 3. You’ll sell my information 4. I can’t tell what the product is really like 5. Not being able to track orders 6. Needing help from a salesperson 7. If I don’t like it, I’ll be stuck with it
  16. 16. Conversion Rate Optimization Navigation Navigation is one of the three most commonly tested things (see Fig. 6). Navigation is the foundation for good website usability so make it work for your site visitors. A rule of thumb is make sure your navigation gets people to where they want to go in 3 clicks or less. Good categorization and label naming makes it easy for users to find the products and services they are after and spend money on your site. Consider doing a card sorting exercise to improve how your information is structured and labeled, leading to more effective navigation. This involves asking consumers to sort potential navigation terms into meaningful groups. Make it easy for users to buy more Just like impulse buys at a retail checkout counter, install modules that show other items the user can buy once they've added products to the cart or while they are viewing other products. Be careful these do not become too distracting or get in the way of the main prize. The answer to making sure this does not happen of course is testing! Remove barriers that may make it difficult for users to convert If there is anything on your site that makes it awkward or difficult for users to proceed - fix it. Remove clutter, distractions and anything that gets in the way of the consumer fulfilling their and your objectives. A great way to identify barriers is through user testing. For more information on this see Steve Krug’s very readable book “Don’t make me think!”9 Conclusion No website is the same and no users are the same. The trick is to understand your users and target them in the most appropriate manner. Customers are influenced by a range of activities before they convert; website content, website usability, on and offline advertising all play a role in whether or not the consumer will make a purchase. The key is to understand what impact each of these actions has and then create strategies to target different customers at different stages in the buying cycle. With digital content doubling every 18 months and more and more websites competing for consumers’attention, the only way to maintain or improve your website conversion is to follow a rigorous structure of measurement, analysis, testing and optimization. The first step is measurement because you cannot manage what you cannot measure. The next steps are analysing and testing to see what works. However, analysis and testing is only useful if the findings are then optimized and rolled out. Then we are back to measuring the results and the process repeats itself. Our research with Econsultancy over the past 3 years has clearly demonstrated that a structured approach is the best way to improve website conversion results. Finally, it is important to remember it is empowered staff that makes things happen. Apart from having a structured approach, three of the top four most correlated variables with improved conversion were perceived control over conversion rates, having someone directly responsible for CRO, and incentivising staff based on conversion rates3 . So, you can use all the tools and methods you want, but without the right people doing the right things you won’t achieve the results you want. Improving conversion is complex and sadly there is no magic bullet. However get it right and the rewards are great. www.redeye.com pg15 Things to draw the user’s attention to • Popular products or themes/top sellers • Featured products you want to let customers know about • Other items also purchased by those who bought that particular item (similar interests) • Accessories that go with that product or complimentary items at a discount when purchased with the main product
  17. 17. Conversion Rate Optimization To find out more about RedEye call 0845 094 1114 or visit www.redeye.com For a copy of the RedEye Econsultancy CRO Report 2011 go to http://econsultancy.com/uk/reports/ Resources - Free trial or inexpensive CRO tools: MVT www.google.com/websiteoptimizer www.visualwebsiteoptimizer.com www.whichmvt.com - compares MVT suppliers www.whichtestwon.com - good source of ideas www.abtests.com - search engine for A/B and multivariate case studies. http://visualwebsiteoptimizer.com/ab-split-significance- calculator/ - statistical significance tester Web analytics www.googleanalytics.com - it’s free so you’d be mad not to use it! www.crazyegg.com - inexpensive tool to see where your users are clicking User testing www.whatusersdo.com www.usertesting.com Basket abandonment email www.ondemand.redeye.com - free trial Surveys www.surveygizmo.com www.4qsurvey.com References 1 Conversion Optimization, Wikipedia. Submitted 31 March 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki /Conversion_optimization 2 RedEye Econsultancy Conversion Report 2010 3 RedEye Econsultancy Conversion Rate Optimization Report 2011 4 William Richard King, Planning for Information Systems, March 2011 (pg 197) 5 E-Dialog, European Email Attitudes Survey 2009, cited in Internet Retailing, June 2009, from http://www.internetretailing.net/2009/06/email-comes- top-for-driving-impulse-purchases/ 6 Behavioural Email Benhcmark Study, RedEye, September 2011, from http://www.redeye.com/events /whitepapersandreports/behavioural-email-benchmark- study-5/ 7 Nick Usborne, Marketing Experiments Blog, 2006, from http://www.marketingexperiments.com/blog /general/repeat-visitors-8-times-more-likely-to-make- online-purchase.html 8 Richard Johnson, Why Are People Afraid of E-Commerce? September 2010, from http://www.sitejabber.com/blog/2010/09/20/why-are- people-afraid-of-e-commerce/ 9 Steve Krug, Don’t make me think! New Riders, 2005 (2nd edition) www.redeye.com pg16