Child develpement slides final


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  • Cephalocaudal: shoulders, middle trunk, and so on.
  • At birth approx 100 billion neuronsBrain is about 25% of adult weight and by 2nd birthday about 75% of adult weight
  • Child develpement slides final

    1. 1. Changes in Height, Weight and Physical Performance By: Amanda Bruce, Devon Casanare, Margaret Vargas, Emily Wright 5/17/11
    2. 2. Agenda• Prenatal (Amanda)• Infancy (Emily)• Early Childhood (Devon)• Middle/Late Childhood (Amanda)• Adolescence (Emily)• Early/Middle/Late Adulthood (Margaret)
    3. 3. Prenatal conception - birth• Germinal period: first 2 weeks after conception; zygote creation• Rapid cell division and differentiation occurs through mitosis• Embryonic period: 2-8 weeks after conception - cell division increases, organs appear (Santrock, 2009, 79
    4. 4. Fetal Period last 2 months of pregnancy• 3 months: 3 inches in length, 3 ounces in weight (movement in arms/legs)• 4 months: 6 inches, weighs 4-7 ounces (growth spurt in lower body)• 5 months: 12 inches, weight is close to a pound (structures of skin formed)• 6 months: 14 inches in length, weigh 2-2.5 pounds (fetus is viable) (Santrock, 2009, 81)
    5. 5. Fetal Period Continued• 7 months: 16 inches long, weight is 3 pounds• 8-9 months: fatty tissues develop and the fetus grows longer. – weight is around 7 pounds(Santrock, 2009, 81)
    6. 6. Brain• Most significant development during prenatal period is brain development• At birth, baby has around 100 billion neurons• Neurons spend most of their developmental period moving to the right location• First 2 trimesters: basic structure is developed• Last trimester: neurons connect and begin processing information (Santrock, 2009, 81)
    7. 7. Infancy Birth - 2 years• Average weight for newborn: 7.5 pounds• Average length: 20 inches long• Gain an average of 5-6 ounces per week• Grow an inch per month during the first year• 2 years old: weight approximately 26-32 pounds• 32-35 inches in height (Santrock, 2009, 116)
    8. 8. • Cephalocaudal – Earliest growth occurs at the top – Physical growth of features from top to bottom• Proximodistal – Growth starts at center of body and moves towards extremities. – Ex: control trunk and arms before hands and fingers (Santrock, 2009, 115)
    9. 9. Brain Development• Approximately 100 billion neurons• EEG shows spurt in brain activity between 1.5- 2 years related to infant’s capacity for conceptualization and language (pg. 117)• Deprived environment=depressed brain activity (Santrock, 2009, 117)
    10. 10. Gross Motor Skills• Involve large-muscle movements such as walking• Posture is basis for gross motor skills (it is learned)• Start walking between 11 and 15 months (Santrock, 2009, 129)
    11. 11. Fine Motor Skills• Involve small movements such as using silverware or grasping a toy• 2 types of grasps – Palmar: grip with whole hand – Pincer: grasp with thumb and forefinger (end of first year) (Santrock, 2009, 132)
    12. 12. Early Childhood 2-5 years• 5-7 pound weight increase• 2.5 inches height increase (Santrock,2009,211)
    13. 13. Height Changes• Genetics = strong influence• Nutritional, hormonal, delayed puberty• Boys & Girls grow at different rates• Proper nutrition: Fruits, vegetables, dairy regulate healthy growth, does NOT increase growth. (Santrock, 2009, 211) (, 2011)
    14. 14. Weight Changes• Age 3, 4lb weight gain• Childs appetite changes• Diet dictated by parent (, 2011) (Santrock, 2009, 213)
    15. 15. Physical Development• Engaging activity: 1hr. each day• More active by age 4• Appropriate activities: Park play structure, swings, cli mbing structures (, 2011) (, 2011)
    16. 16. Physical Development Cont.• Brain develops• Motor skills develop, (Gross & Fine)• Gross Motor Skills = large-scale movements (walking, jumping, running)• Fine Motor Skills = articulated movements (tie-shoes, solve puzzles) (Santrock, 2009, 212)
    17. 17. Middle/Late Childhood 6-11 years• 2-3 inches per year• 5-7 pounds a year – Mostly due to muscular and skeletal change• Muscle mass increase, children double their strength• Head circumference decreases in size• Waist decreases in size (Santrock, 2009, 283)
    18. 18. Physical Performance• Exercise is crucial in development• Physical action helps to refine developmental skills• Regular physical activity in childhood and adolescence improves strength and endurance, helps build healthy bones and muscles, helps control weight, reduces anxiety and stress, increases self-esteem (Santrock, 2009, 284) (Centers For Disease Control and Prevention, 2010)
    19. 19. Adolescence 10-21 years• Puberty: rapid physical maturing• Growth spurt about 2 years earlier for girls than boys – During this, girls height increases about 3.5 inches per year, boys about 4 inches per year (Santrock, 2009, 356)
    20. 20. Brain• Significant structural development – Connection between left and right hemisphere thickens- improves ability to process information• Pre-frontal cortex not fully developed- cannot control passions (anger) (Santrock, 2009, 360)
    21. 21. Early Adulthood 20-30’s• According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention its was found that the prevalence of obesity in the U.S. adults 20 years of age and older increased from 19% in 1997 to slightly above 25% in 2005.• Possible reasons for obesity include: heredity, leptin, set point, metabolism, environmental factors, gender, and personal lifestyle choices during college years. (Santrock, 2009, 420-421)
    22. 22. Physical Performance• Physical peak is between the ages 19-26• Begin to decline in physical performance• Around 30, changes are seen, such as muscle tone and strength declining, sagging chins, protruding abdomens, lessening of physical abilities, the lens of the eye looses some of it’s elasticity and it’s less able to change shape and focus on near objects, hearing declines, and body’s fatty tissue beings to increase (Santrock, 2009, 420-421)
    23. 23. Middle Adulthood mid 30’s-60’s• Loose height in middle age – Due to bone loss in vertebrae• Average height loss: – Men: lose an inch between 30-50, and between 50-70 – Women: lose as much as 2 inches from 25-75• Obesity increases the probability that an individual will suffer multiple ailments, among them being hypertension, diabetes, and digestive disorders (being overweight increases risk of dying at an earlier age) (Santrock, 2009, 477)
    24. 24. Physical Performance• Muscle Loss: 1-2% per year past the age of 50 – Mainly occurs in back of legs• Exercise can reduce the decline involved in sarcopenia. (Santrock, 2009, 477)
    25. 25. Late Adulthood mid 60’s-death• Men and women become shorter• Experience under nutrition which can lead to harmful weight loss• Under nutrition – Vitamin and mineral deficiency – Role of calorie restriction in improving health and extending life (Santrock, 2009, 548)
    26. 26. Physical Performance• Older adults start to move slower to the point that this slowing occurs for movements with a wide range of difficulty. Ex: every day activities (reaching and grasping) (Santrock, 2009, 548)
    27. 27. Reference• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010).• Kids Health. (2011).• Kids Health. (2011). Retrieved from 62• How much physical activity do children need? (March 2011). Retrieved from• Kids Health. (2011). Retrieved from• Santrock, J. W. (2009). Life-span development. New York: McGraw-Hill.• Donner, Ed. (March, 2011). The Normal Weight & Height for a 4-year old. Retrieved from height-4yearold/