Moving from Teacher-Centered to Student-Centered ClassroomsFLIPPING THE CLASSROOM Devin Hess – Educational Technology Consultant (2013)
What’s your teaching style? Traditional classrooms: Teacher – centered: Teacher as deliverer of content and knowledge Students as recipients Direct instruction in class Lecture, demonstrations, video presentations Students are passiveDevin Hess – Educational Technology Consultant (2013)
What’s your teaching style? Collaborative learning: Student-Centered Students work in groups Teacher as facilitator Dilemma: Difficult to transmit basic instruction Time constraintsDevin Hess – Educational Technology Consultant (2013)
Nature of homework Students often do not understand Cannot get help Practice mistakes Frustration – give upDevin Hess – Educational Technology Consultant (2013)
Reverse location of direct instruction and practice/application:FLIPPED CLASSROOM MODEL
Flipped Classroom Model: There is no single “Flipped Classroom Model”!!! It is an approach. Multiple models of implementation. Represent different learning theories. Pedagogical considerations are key! “the Flipped Classroom isnt a methodology. Its an ideology.“ ~ Brian BennettBennet, B. (2011, Oct. 18).
Flipped Classroom Model:The current ‘buzz’ in education: Oversimplified and often misapplied Criticisms and endorsements must reference particular implementation.
Flipped Classroom Model: It’s not new! Based on concepts from Dewey: Student centered Hands-on, experiential Flexible demonstration of mastery Pre-Tech: Read at home, collaborative projects in class.Devin Hess – Educational Technology Consultant (2013)
Flipped Classroom Model: Origins of Current Approach: “The Inverted Classroom” Lage, Platt and Treglia (2000) “The Flipped Classroom” term usually attributed to: Jon Bergman/Aaron Sams (2006) Submitted The Flipped Classroom book for publication in Feb. 2011 Khan’s Ted Talk: Popularized and became identified with “Flipped Classroom” in March, 2011Devin Hess – Educational Technology Consultant (2013)
1.Reverse Instruction/HomeworkHome: Direct instruction via technology (videos, websites …) Practice basic skills School: • Homework in small groups • Differentiated class – students move at own speed
1.Reverse Instruction/Homework Benefits for students: Ability to rewind and review instructional materials Move at own pace Support in class for homework. Increased time for teacher-student interaction Peer support: peer coaches, collaborationDevin Hess – Educational Technology Consultant (2013)
1.Reverse Instruction/Homework Concerns: Videos are a form direct-instruction: Students are passive recipients of knowledge Not experiential, constructivist. In-class time: Still drill & kill? Individuals isolated on computers doing exercises? Key is transformation of learning process!Devin Hess – Educational Technology Consultant (2013)
2.Experiential Learning CyclesFour Stage Process: Experience Explore Concepts Make Meaning Demonstrate & Apply From Gerstein (2011). Based on Experiential Learning Cycles of Borton (1970), Juch (1983), Kolb (1984)
3.Experiential Learning CyclesExperience: In class activities Engagement Inquiry From Gerstein (2011). Based on Experiential Learning Cycles of Borton (1970), Juch (1983), Kolb (1984)
3.Experiential Learning CyclesExplore: The “Flipped” stage Guided, independent exploration From Gerstein (2011). Based on Experiential Learning Cycles of Borton (1970), Juch (1983), Kolb (1984)
3.Experiential Learning CyclesMake Meaning: At home and/or in class projects & activities. Bloom’s “Create” From Gerstein (2011). Based on Experiential Learning Cycles of Borton (1970), Juch (1983), Kolb (1984)
3.Experiential Learning CyclesDemonstrate &Apply: Share learning with peers. Teach From Gerstein (2011). Based on Experiential Learning Cycles of Borton (1970), Juch (1983), Kolb (1984)
3.Khan AcademyBackground: Salman Khan: background in math, engineering, computer science and business. 2004 – created math videos to help cousin 2005 – increased demand YouTube postings 2009 – Founded Khan Academy Significant funding from Gates Foundation, Google and others From Gerstein (2011). Based on Experiential Learning Cycles of Borton (1970), Juch (1983), Kolb (1984)
3.Khan AcademyValuable resource for flipped classrooms: Over 4,000 free instructional videos Translated into dozens of languages Serves over 6 million students per month Coordinated with practice problems Sophisticated student analytics Organized ‘meet-ups’ in over 500 cities From Gerstein (2011). Based on Experiential Learning Cycles of Borton (1970), Juch (1983), Kolb (1984)
3.Khan AcademyA tool, not a model - multiple implementations: Support for project-based learning classrooms: Source for background skill instruction and practice. Provides time for deep engagement and creativity in class. Simple flip: Direct instruction via videos at home. Collaborative and individualized homework support in the classroom. Supplement standard classrooms: Students have additional support resources during homework From Gerstein (2011). Based on Experiential Learning Cycles of Borton (1970), Juch (1983), Kolb (1984)
Tools and resources … the techie side.TIPS FOR THE FLIP
Content Sources It’s not just about the video! Premade tutorials & programs (e.g. Khan Academy) Interactive web sites Primary source images or documents Simulations and animations Slide-shares Hyper-linked images Web-quests Forms, polls, questionnairesDevin Hess – Educational Technology Consultant (2013)
Content PreparationMake you own? Content should be easy to navigate: Multiple slides Lesson reference points (headings, index) Keep content clear, concise and well focused. Display "Essential Question" at the top or bottom of each screen. Keep production standards high: Check: Mic volume, camera focus, transitions, etc.
Content Preparation Recommendations: Task Level: Simple Intermediate Advanced Screen-O- Computer based screen capture: Snag-It Camtasia Matic iPad based screen and pen capture: ShowMe Educreations Doceri On-line lesson creation tools: Edcanvas Sophia LectureTools iPad as whiteboard and lesson recorder AirServer Splashtop DoceriDevin Hess – Educational Technology Consultant (2013)
Content Access Goals: Student can easily access and identify content: Dropbox, Google Drive or YouTube Confusion and distraction Premade programs (Khan) Well organized, includes practice & student tracking. Embed file links directly into lesson instructions. Learning goals will be fresh. Monitor Student engagement: See who has accessed the material. Track skill mastery. Students interact with content, other students, and/or the teacher. Some platforms incorporate limited social-network elements.Devin Hess – Educational Technology Consultant (2013)
Flipped hosting sites Examples of two content-hosting sites suitable for flipped classroom materials.Edcanvas Sophia Very simple Very simple Student analytics Student analytics Limited content types Multiple content types Multi-slide Single screen “Pathways” linked to content standards
Questions ? Isn’t video passive, non-engaging learning? What if they don’t flip out at home? Flip across the digital divide? No time to re-design . . . Other questions?
References: Bennet, B. (2011, Oct. 18). Video is not the answer. [Blog]. Educator, Learner. Retrieved from http://www.brianbennett.org/blog/video-is-not-the-answer/ Gerstein, J. (2011, June 13). The flipped classroom model: A full picture. [Blog] User-Generated Education. Retrieved from http://usergeneratededucation.wordpress.com/2011/06/13/the-flipped-classroom-model-a-full-picture/ Khan Academy [website]. Retrieved on April 6, 2013 from https://www.khanacademy.org/about Lage, M., Platt, G., and Treglia, M. (2000, Winter) Inverting the classroom: A gateway to creating an inclusive learning environment. The Journal of Economic Education , 31(1) (Winter, 2000), 30-43. Retrieved from JSTOR at http://www.jstor.org/stable/1183338 Musallam, R. (2013, Jan. 5): A pedagogy-first approach to the flipped classroom: Exploring overlaps between inquiry & technology. Cycles of Learning. Retrieved from http://www.cyclesoflearning.com/files/38160d33feb8aa0c0f531ef6368dbd71-85.php Westermann, K., Rummel, N. (2012, July). Delaying instruction: Evidence from a study in a university relearning setting. Instructional Science 40(4) 673-689. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11251-012-9207- 8#page-1 Wilhelm, J. (2012). Cultures of collaboration: Leveraging classroom potential. Voices from the Middle, 20(2), 60-62. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.er.lib.k- state.edu/docview/1288617207?accountid=11789?accountid=11789