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Coastal Erosion And Management On The North Norfolk
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Coastal Erosion And Management On The North Norfolk

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Photos from various points along the N Norfolk coastline and details on the management strategies in place.

Photos from various points along the N Norfolk coastline and details on the management strategies in place.

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  • Flooding management – compared to erosion management Article in handout
  • Revetments had previously been laid along the cliff but post 1998 these were removed following a storm breach and has now been left unmanaged
  • Article in handout
  • Managed retreat – often termed sustainable – allowing nature to find its equilibrium e.g. let salt marshes develop to create natural buffer zone …. Only intervene if it becomes necessary.
  • NO coming back
  • Transcript

    • 1. Coastal erosion and management on the north Norfolk coastline A2 coursework
    • 2. Cley next the sea
      • Managed to prevent coastal flooding and protect the wetland habitat.
      • Salthouse village is protected only as a consequence of the wetland habitat being there.
      • Salthouse flooded in 1953 – 1 death
      • Flooded in 1993 and 1996 when A149 was cut off for 6 weeks
    • 3.  
    • 4. Landuse behind Cley
    • 5. Looking east from Cley Shingle ridge is bulldozed to maintain the barrier to protect Salthouse village
    • 6. Looking west from Cley towards Blakney Point (coastal spit) Westerly movement of material by LSD Management conflict-managed retreat V secondary buffer ridge??
    • 7. Looking up the beach from the shoreline Shingle ridges/berms Top of beach
    • 8. Landuse behind Cley Managed shingle ridge Flat saltmarsh land Salthouse village
    • 9. Weybourne
      • Do Nothing approach.
      • Rapid retreat as no management plan.
      • Agriculture is main landuse
    • 10. Looking west towards Cley Unmanaged shingle ridge
    • 11. Looking east towards Sheringham Chalk/unconsolidated sand and glacial till cliffs Revetments had previously been laid Along the cliff but post 1998 these were removed following a storm breach and has now been left unmanaged
    • 12. Cliff face showing evidence of slumping Under the shingle beach there is a chalk WCP Evident during storm periods Slumping
    • 13. Sub-aerial weathering Conglomerates Unconsolidated sand Chalk with flint nodules
    • 14. Chalk-evidence of bedding planes Wave cut notch by corrasion Cave Weybourne crag
    • 15. Evidence of coastal management
    • 16. Cley next the Sea Flat saltmarsh Gently dipping slopes away from the sea
    • 17. Sub-aerial weathering Evidence of gulleying due to sub-aerial weathering through the Unconsolidated glacial till and sand deposits
    • 18. 5 coastguard cottages approximately 10m from cliff (potential interview)
    • 19. Sheringham
      • Hold the existing line approach.
      • Multiple defences used
      • Victorians built first sea wall
      • Major tourist town – high value landuse
      • Great ice cream and fish and chips!
    • 20. Undefended Sheringham-looking west towards Weybourne Sheringham golf course Chalk dipping beneath sealevel Leaving glacial deposits exposed Evidence of slumping LSD now eastwards
    • 21. Start of defences (west of Sheringham centre)-Groynes Hinged doors allow shingle movement from west to east WEST EAST
    • 22. Sheringham West Beach Original Sea Wall not included in sea wall replacement scheme – the wider beach offered greater protection Rock Armour buried by shingle helps to prevent scouring of sea wall Sheringham town centre
    • 23. Fishermen’s Slope – in 1986 beach level fell by 2.5 m due to scouring Sea wall from 1900 resurfaced with concrete in 1988 and entirely replaced in 1993 -4 Rock Armour and Rock groynes Narrow beach here = more erosion
    • 24. Sheringham East Drainage pipe in cliff to Help prevent saturation of soil Drainage hole allows water to Flow onto promenade
    • 25. Sheringham East – the end of the sea defences Cliff slumping along undefended stretch 1988 – Beach nourishment used 12000 tonnes of flints were deposited into The bays East of the ‘tank’
    • 26. Sheringham town centre Tourist facilities
    • 27. High value landuse in Sheringham town centre – Sea Defences hold the existing line £1.5 million spent in 1998 on replacing and repairing wooden groynes And installing rock groynes
    • 28. West Runton
      • Managed Retreat.
      • Agricultural landuse
      • Fossil evidence from Tropical climatic period
    • 29. West Runton has few tourist amenities; Low value; Managed retreat Short sea wall protects café and toilet block Dark band at base of cliff marks line of a tropical river which meandered East to West 600 000 yrs bp – Known as Cromer Forest Bed Many fossil remains found including the West Runton Elephant Cliffs are glacial till and prone to Slumping – results in a gentle profile
    • 30. WCP forms rocky outcrop Erratics from Northumberland (Dolerite) and Norway (Rhomb Pomphry) found here
    • 31. Low value landuse – agriculture and caravan park Weight of farm machinery has encouraged cliff collapse along the coast
    • 32. Overstrand
      • Hold the existing line
      • Multiple hard engineering strategies
      • Main issue is slumping of boulder clay cliffs
      • Red lining – no new development allowed between a designated line and the cliff. Redefined every 5 years.
    • 33. Overstrand uses multiple sea defences – groynes and sea wall
    • 34. Gabions allow water to pass through and hold back slumped material Sea Wall also provides a promenade (tourist amenity)
    • 35. Wooden Groynes prevent LSD Sand beach means a gentle profile
    • 36. Boulder Clay cliffs are prone to slumping Gabions hold back slumped material - A successful measure Drainage holes are found in concrete wall Bore holes sunk into ground in high risk areas to remove water
    • 37. The old coastal path was closed off and the road diverted.
    • 38. Wooden Revetments Flint nodules caught in gaps – reduce effectiveness of the sea defence
    • 39. HDE and a Revetment 5ft 5 ¾ My bag! Steel girders – foundations for defence?
    • 40. Re-curved sea wall with drainage holes
    • 41. Coastal path – severed in 2002 due to slumping Foundations of Overstrand hotel
    • 42. Vegetated area suggests no recent slumping
    • 43. Former cliff line Foundations
    • 44. Clifton Way
      • 1990 – 45m cliff recession
      • Nov 1992- 15/20m recession
      • Jan 1994 – 20 /25m in just over 2 weeks.
      • 30 year old Bungalows deemed worthy of protection.
      • £1.4 million spent on regrading scheme and putting in defences
    • 45. Slope was regraded after a loss of 100,000 tonnes of material in 1994 Lack of vegetation Drainage channels
    • 46. Rock armour at base to prevent further slumping and undercutting 1995 – area excavated and layers of sand and synthetic matting, Chalk and boulder clay were used to rebuild the slope. Drainage channels, bore holes and inspection holes were installed
    • 47. Council access road had been re - routed twice before 1994 New access road to beach for maintenance
    • 48. View from beach up Clifton Way
    • 49. Revetments placed infront of rock armour Access road Bungalows are here!
    • 50. Managing the coast
      • Shoreline management plan – based on sediment cells
      • Reviewed every 5 years
      • ‘…it is a live working document and must be capable of change’
    • 51. Four options
      • Do Nothing – no defences except for safety measures
      • Hold the exisiting line – intervene to hold the existing defence where it is.
      • Advance the existing line – move existing sea defence forwards
      • Managed retreat – allow nature to take its course and intervene where necessary
    • 52. Possible project titles
      • How effective are the coastal management strategies at X?
      • A comparison of beach and cliff profiles at X and Y?
      • A comparison of coastal protection strategies at X and Y?
      • What factors influence the beach and cliff profiles at X?
      • How do the beach and cliff characteristics of defended and undefended Sheringham differ?
      • How are the coastal defences at X perceived?
      • Do residents and tourists perceive coastal management strategies differently? A case study of Sheringham.
      • What physical and human processes influence the coastline at X?
      • Is there any evidence of longshore drift on Sheringham beach?
      • Which has the most effective coastal management strategy – Sheringham or Overstand?
      • Protecting coastlines against erosion is more important than protecting them from coastal flooding? A study of Cley –next- sea and Sheringham.
      • To what extent do physical processes affect the type of coastal management strategy chosen? A comparison of Sheringham and Weybourne
      • An evaluation of human influence on beach and cliff profiles at Sheringham, Weybourne and Overstrand
    • 53. What now????
      • Thursday
      • 1 day group fieldwork – visit and collect data at each site (5 in total)
      • Thursday eve- Collate data. Decide on title and devise any further data collection techniques (EIA, CBA etc)
      • Friday
      • Individual data collection
      • Friday eve – write up methodology and process data
      • Saturday – extra data collection / photos etc