Atomic Structure
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Atomic Structure

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retelling of atomic structure

retelling of atomic structure

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Atomic Structure Atomic Structure Presentation Transcript

  • Atomic structure Mrs Griffiths Wellington School Visit www.teacherpowerpoints.com For 100’s of free powerpoints
  • Atomic Structure
  • The structure of the atom The Ancient Greeks used to believe that everything was made up of very small particles. I did some experiments in 1808 that proved this and called these particles ATOMS: Dalton ELECTRON – negative, mass nearly nothing PROTON – positive, same mass as neutron (“1”) NEUTRON – neutral, same mass as proton (“1”)
  • The Atom Nucleus Electron Shell or Orbit
  • The Atom Hydrogen Proton Electron Hydrogen has one proton, one electron and NO neutrons
  • The Atom Helium Electron Proton Neutron Helium has two electrons, two protons and two neutrons
  • Mass and atomic number -1 0 Electron 0 1 Neutron 1 1 Proton Relative Charge Relative Mass Particle He 2 4 MASS NUMBER = number of protons + number of neutrons SYMBOL PROTON NUMBER = number of protons (obviously)
  • The Atom Helium Electron Proton Neutron Helium has two electrons, two protons and two neutrons
  • The Atom Lithium Protons Neutrons Electrons
  • The Atom Beryllium Protons Neutrons Electrons Beryllium has four electrons, four protons and five neutrons.
  • The Atom Boron Protons Neutrons Electrons Boron has five electrons, five protons and six neutrons.
  • The Atom Carbon Protons Neutrons Electrons Carbon has six electrons, six protons and six neutrons.
  • The Atom Nitrogen Protons Neutrons Electrons Nitrogen has seven electrons, seven protons and seven neutrons.
  • The Atom Oxygen Protons Neutrons Electrons Oxygen has eight electrons, eight protons and eight neutrons.
  • The Atom Fluorine Protons Neutrons Electrons Fluorine has nine electrons, nine protons and ten neutrons.
  • The Atom Neon Protons Neutrons Electrons Neon has ten electrons, ten protons and ten neutrons.
  • The Atom Sodium Protons Neutrons Electrons Sodium has eleven electrons, eleven protons and twelve neutrons.
  • H 1 1 B 5 11 O 8 16 Na 11 23 Cl 17 35 U 92 238 How many protons, neutrons and electrons?
  • Periodic table Horizontal rows are called PERIODS Mendeleev The periodic table arranges all the elements in groups according to their properties. Vertical columns are called GROUPS
  •  
  • The Periodic Table Fact 1: Elements in the same group have the same number of electrons in the outer shell (this correspond to their group number) H Hg Au Pt Xe I Ag Kr Br Zn Cu Ni Fe Ca K Ar Cl S P Si Al Mg Na Ne F O N C B Be Li He E.g. all group 1 metals have __ electron in their outer shell These elements have __ electrons in their outer shell These elements have __ electrons in their outer shells
  • The Periodic Table Fact 2: As you move down through the periods an extra electron shell is added: H Hg Au Pt Xe I Ag Kr Br Zn Cu Ni Fe Ca K Ar Cl S P Si Al Mg Na Ne F O N C B Be Li He E.g. Lithium has 3 electron in the configuration 2,1 Potassium has 19 electrons in the configuration __,__,__ Sodium has 11 electrons in the configuration 2,8,1
  • The Periodic Table Fact 3: Most of the elements are metals: H Hg Au Pt Xe I Ag Kr Br Zn Cu Ni Fe Ca K Ar Cl S P Si Al Mg Na Ne F O N C B Be Li He These elements are metals This line divides metals from non-metals These elements are non-metals
  • The Periodic Table Fact 4: (Most important) All of the elements in the same group have similar PROPERTIES. This is how I thought of the periodic table in the first place. This is called PERIODICITY. H Hg Au Pt Xe I Ag Kr Br Zn Cu Ni Fe Ca K Ar Cl S P Si Al Mg Na Ne F O N C B Be Li He
    • E.g. consider the group 1 metals. They all:
    • Are soft
    • Can be easily cut with a knife
    • React with water
  • Group 1 – The alkali metals Fr Cs Rb K Na Li
  • Group 1 – The alkali metals 1) These metals all have ___ electron in their outer shell Some facts… 2) Reactivity increases as you go _______ the group. This is because the electrons are further away from the _______ every time a _____ is added, so they are given up more easily. 3) They all react with water to form an alkali (hence their name) and __________, e.g: Words – down, one, shell, hydrogen, nucleus Potassium + water potassium hydroxide + hydrogen 2K (s) + 2H 2 O (l) 2KOH (aq) + H 2 (g)
  • Group 0 – The Noble gases Rn Xe Kr Ar Ne He
  • Group 0 – The Noble gases Some facts… 1) All of the noble gases have a full outer shell, so they are very _____________ 2) They all have low melting and boiling points 3) They exist as single atoms rather then diatomic molecules
    • Helium is lighter then air and is used in balloons and airships (as well as for talking in a silly voice)
    • Argon is used in light bulbs (because it is so unreactive) and argon , krypton and neon are used in fancy lights
  • Group 7 – The halogens At I Br Cl F
  • Group 7 – The Halogens Some facts… 1) Reactivity DECREASES as you go down the group (This is because the electrons are further away from the nucleus and so any extra electrons aren’t attracted as much). 2) They exist as diatomic molecules (so that they both have a full outer shell): 3) Because of this fluorine and chlorine are liquid at room temperature and bromine is a gas Decreasing reactivity Cl Cl
  • The halogens – some reactions 1) Halogen + metal: + 2) Halogen + non-metal: + Na + Cl - Na Cl H Cl Cl H Halogen + metal ionic salt Halogen + non-metal covalent molecule
  • How shells fill
    • The first electron shell can only hold a maximum of two electrons.
    • The second electron shell can hold a maximum of eight electrons.
    • The third electron shell can also hold a maximum of eight electrons.
    • The fourth electron shell can also hold eight electrons.
  • Electron structure Consider an atom of Potassium: Potassium has 19 electrons. These are arranged in shells… The inner shell has __ electrons The next shell has __ electrons The next shell has __ electrons The next shell has the remaining __ electron Electron structure = 2,8,8,1 K 19 39 Nucleus
  • How the shells fill with electrons 0 electron 0 electron 0 electron 2 electron Helium He 0 electron 0 electron 0 electron 1 electron Hydrogen H Shell 4 Shell 3 Shell 2 Shell 1 Element
  • How the shells fill with electrons 0 electron 0 electron 2 electron 2 electron Beryllium Be 0 electron 0 electron 1 electron 2 electron Lithium Li Shell 4 Shell 3 Shell 2 Shell 1 Element
  • How the shells fill with electrons 0 electron 0 electron 4 electron 2 electron Carbon C 0 electron 0 electron 3 electron 2 electron Boron B Shell 4 Shell 3 Shell 2 Shell 1 Element
  • How the shells fill with electrons 0 electron 0 electron 6 electron 2 electron Oxygen O 0 electron 0 electron 5 electron 2 electron Nitrogen N Shell 4 Shell 3 Shell 2 Shell 1 Element
  • How the shells fill with electrons 0 electron 0 electron 8 electron 2 electron Neon Ne 0 electron 0 electron 7 electron 2 electron Fluorine F Shell 4 Shell 3 Shell 2 Shell 1 Element
  • How the shells fill with electrons 0 electron 2 electron 8 electron 2 electron Magnesium Mg 0 electron 1 electron 8 electron 2 electron Sodium Na Shell 4 Shell 3 Shell 2 Shell 1 Element
  • How the shells fill with electrons 0 electron 4 electron 8 electron 2 electron Silicon Si 0 electron 3 electron 8 electron 2 electron Aluminium Al Shell 4 Shell 3 Shell 2 Shell 1 Element
  • How the shells fill with electrons 0 electron 6 electron 8 electron 2 electron Sulphur S 0 electron 5 electron 8 electron 2 electron Phosphorus P Shell 4 Shell 3 Shell 2 Shell 1 Element
  • How the shells fill with electrons 0 electron 8 electron 8 electron 2 electron Argon Ar 0 electron 7 electron 8 electron 2 electron Chlorine Cl Shell 4 Shell 3 Shell 2 Shell 1 Element
  • How the shells fill with electrons 2 electron 8 electron 8 electron 2 electron Calcium Ca 1 electron 8 electron 8 electron 2 electron Potassium Shell 4 Shell 3 Shell 2 Shell 1 Element
  • The First Twenty Elements
    • Hydrogen 1,0,0,0
    • Helium 2,0,0,0
    • Lithium 2,1,0,0
    • Beryllium 2,2,0,0
    • Boron 2,3,0,0
    • Carbon 2,4,0,0
    • Nitrogen 2,5,0,0
  • First 20 Elements continued
    • Oxygen 2,6,0,0
    • Fluorine 2,7,0,0
    • Neon 2,8,0,0
    • Sodium 2,8,1,0
    • Magnesium 2,8,2,0
    • Aluminium 2,8,3,0
    • Silicon 2,8,4,0
  • First 20 Elements continued
    • Phosphorus 2,8,5,0
    • Sulphur 2,8,6,0
    • Chlorine 2,8,7,0
    • Argon 2,8,8,0
    • Potassium 2,8,8,1
    • Calcium 2,8,8,2
  • The Alkali metals
    • Lithium, Sodium and Potassium have one electron in their outer shell and this is why they are found in group one of the periodic table.
  • The Nobel gases
    • The Nobel gases have full outer shells and they are found in group 0 of the periodic table. Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon.
  • The Halogens
    • Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine are the Halogens and they all have seven electrons in their outer shell. This is why they are found in group 7 of the periodic table.
  • Displacement
    • Fluorine can displace Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.
    F Cl Br I
  • Displacement
    • Chlorine can displace Bromine and Iodine but it cannot displace Fluorine
    Cl Br I F
  • Displacement
    • Bromine can displace Iodine but it cannot displace Fluorine or Chlorine
    Br I F Cl
  • Displacement
    • Iodine cannot displace Iodine Fluorine, Chlorine or Bromine
    I F Cl Br
  • Fluorine reacts with sodium chloride. Which equation is correctly shows this reaction?
    • F 2 + 2Na  2NaF
    • F + Na  NaF
    • 2F + 2Na  2NaF
  • Which will displace?
    • 2NaF + Cl 2  Yes or No
    • 2NaBr + Cl 2  Yes or No
    • 2KI + I 2  Yes or No
    • 2LiCl + I 2  Yes or No
    • 2NaBr + I 2  Yes or No
    • 2NaBr + F 2  Yes or No
    • Cl 2 + 2NaBr  Yes or No
  • Four factors affecting Reaction Rate Surface Area Concentration Temperature Catalysts
  • Catalyst
    • A catalyst speeds up or slows down a reaction but does not get used up by the reaction.
  • Temperature
    • If we increase the temperature of a reaction by 10 0 C the rate will double this means the reaction will be complete in half the time.
  • Concentration
    • If we increase the concentration of a reactant the number of particles increase that in turn increases the chance of a collision and initiates a chemical reaction.
  • Surface area
    • The larger the particle size the smaller the relative area the slower the reaction.
    • The smaller the particle size the greater the relative surface area and the faster the reaction.
  • Group 1
    • Lithium, sodium and potassium are all in group 1.
    • They all have one electron in the outer shell.
    • They are all metals.
    • They react with group 7 to form metal halides.
  • Group 7
    • Fluorine ,Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine.
    • They all have 7 electrons in their outer shell.
    • They are all coloured.
    • They form metal halides with group 1 metals.
  • Group 0
    • These are the noble gases.
    • They have complete electron shells.
    • The electron shells are full.
    • They are unreactive.
    • They are inert.
    • They do not react.
    • They include, Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon and Radon
  • Halogens 184 114 Solid Slate grey Iodine 59 -7 Liquid Brown Bromine -34 -101 Gas Green Chlorine B.P. -188 M.P. -220 State Gas Colour Pale Yellow Name Fluorine
  • Reactions
    • Sodium and Chlorine react to form 
    • Sodium Chloride.
    • Iron and Chlorine react to form 
    • Iron Chloride.
    • 2Na + Cl 2  2NaCl.
    • Fe + Cl 2  FeCl 2 .
  • Uses of the Halogens
    • Fluorine is put into water supplies to kill harmful bacteria and to help keep teeth healthy.
    • Chlorine is used in swimming pools to bacteria in the water.
    • Bromine is used in pesticides. Silver bromide is used in photography.
    • Iodine is an antiseptic on cuts and grazes.