Lexical change


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Lexical change

  1. 1. LexicalChangePresented by:CaecilliaDevy<br />
  2. 2. Whydoes a languageacquire new words?<br />
  3. 3. Why?<br />
  4. 4. How?<br />Adding new words to a language to use the existinginventory of lexical items.<br />Creating new ones by meas of a regularword-formation process.<br />Resultingtwo alternatives:<br /><ul><li>The oldwordmaydisappear
  5. 5. Twowordsmaycoexsistexpressingroughly the same concept but differentmeaning or connotations</li></li></ul><li>Old English-the Germanic Basis of English<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Examples<br /><ul><li>10 mostfrequentnouns in Present-day English: </li></ul>time, year, way, man, day, thing (6 are Germanicorigin)<br /><ul><li>FrequentOld English verbsuntiltoday:</li></ul>go, have, think, find, come <br />
  8. 8. Borrowing I: Early Influences on English<br />
  9. 9. By the end of 7th century<br /> The Christianityconvertion influence Latin wordsblendwitheveryday English language.<br /><ul><li>The new words: angel, altar, nun, monastery, priest, temple (religion context); and school, chest, sock, plant, fennel, fever(education, household and medicinecontext)</li></ul> Contact with speakers of anotherlanguagebrings about the integration of words for new concepts.<br />
  10. 10. Around 9th and 10th century<br /><ul><li>The entrance of Scandinavian Vikings constitutevery basic vocabulary about daily life aspects
  11. 11. WordsborrowedfromScandinavianletters:</li></li></ul><li>The lexical items of the conquerer’slanguagewould have been adopted by the speakers.<br />More prestigiouslanguagewins out in the bilingualismbringing the drop of the ancestor’slanguage.<br />Prestige plays an important role in lexical change.  the dialectspoken in Danelawspread to all part of country not for quitesome time<br />
  12. 12. Borrowing II: French Influence on English Vocabulary<br />
  13. 13. England’s 3 spoken language used by different people with different purpose:<br /><ul><li>English for the native English
  14. 14. French for the new ruling elite
  15. 15. Latin for the religious, science and learning</li></ul>New words to express the new concepts as French rule changed the society  borrowing French words<br /><ul><li>new ways of governing the country, new laws, new food, new fashions</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Prestigiousnamesneeded to do withadministarion, warfare, and arts.</li></ul>Latin continued to be an influentiallanguage and to be a source for new English words.<br />The contact withwrittenlanguagebrought the borrowingwordsenteringEnglish.<br />The words are more formal and stylisticallyelevatedthanFrench borrowings.<br />
  16. 16. Examples<br /><ul><li>Nouns beauty, beef, button, complaint, fashion, government, marriage, paper, prince, punishment, toast, volume
  17. 17. Verbs advise, arrest, compile, furnish, marry, pay, rejoice, reply, roast, seize, stew, summon, wait
  18. 18. Adjectives courteous, foreign, honest, innocent, large, luxurious, natural, perfect, poor, pure, safe, tender, usual</li></li></ul><li>Wordsmean the samethings but different connotations<br />
  19. 19. Borrowing III: fromEarly Modern to Present-Day English<br />
  20. 20. <ul><li> In 17th century: the decline of latin-enormousincrese in specialistknowledge in the science
  21. 21. Inadequatelanguage ‘enrichment’ of language
  22. 22. Turning to Latin and alsoGreek to expand English vocabulary
  23. 23. The expression of ‘inkhornterm’ </li></ul>  useless and artificialadditions of the massive influx of borrowing<br />  disappearedwords: adminiculation ‘aid’, accersited ‘summoned, sent for’, deruncinate ‘to weed’ <br />
  24. 24. The remained and form an essential part of the English lexicontoday:<br /> Nouns: atmosphere, dexterity, disrespect, expectation<br />  Adjectives: conscipicious, habitual, malignant<br />  Verbs: assassinate, excavate, extinguish, meditate<br />Latin and French borrowings: more elevated and formal style.<br />Otherlanguageswereadded to the inventory of English<br /> written sources, direct contact withother cultures <br />
  25. 25. Internal Lexical Change<br />
  26. 26. Compounding combining of 2 or more existing words to form a new words.<br /><ul><li>Example: diciple’leorning’ & ‘cniht’ (‘learning’ & ‘boy/ attendant’) </li></ul>Derivation/ Affixation  creating new words by adding affixes (prefixes and suffixes) to existing words.<br />Conversion (zero derivation) changing the word class of a lexical item without changing its form <br /><ul><li>Example: to drink – to have a drink </li></ul>(V to N)<br />
  27. 27. <ul><li>Shortening shortening of an existingwordby dropping part of it.
  28. 28. Clipping: influenza – flu
  29. 29. Back formation : editor – edit
  30. 30. Acronyms: NATO – pronounced as single wholeword; BBC – pronounced as separateletter
  31. 31. Blending (Portmanteaux) combining parts of existingwords to form new ones
  32. 32. Example: smoke + fog  smog</li></ul> breakfast + lunch  brunch <br />
  33. 33. VeryrecentLecixal Change<br />The enormous expansion of the internet has revolutionized the communication patterns in number of ways.<br />Writingdoesn’tinvolverigideditingprocess.<br />Speech-like production of writtenlanguage.<br />The new creations do not mean the new words but othersspread and makeitintogeneral usage.<br />Researchthatlanguageis not onlychangingfast and in interstingways but alsocharting the changes more easilyconducted. <br />
  34. 34. Driving the changing offers the basis for establishing a thorough linguistic description of what is going on. <br />Example on page 298: the very recent borrowing.<br />Although uber- has become a productive prefix, it is infrequent prefix. <br />