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# Factoranalysis & annova

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• 1. FACTOR ANALYSIS AND ANOVA DIVESH SHARMA ROBIN JINDAL YUVRAJ JHAMB VALESHWAR GUPTA
• 2. FACTOR ANALYSIS  A data reduction technique designed to represent a wide range of attributes on a smaller number of dimensions. DEFINITION “ A statistical approach that can be used to analyze interrelationship among a large number of variables and a explain these variables in terms of their common underlying dimension(factor).”
• 3. What is Factor Analysis ?   Factor analysis is a general name denoting a class of Procedures primarily used for data reduction and summarization. Variables are not classified as either dependent or independent. Instead, the whole set of interdependent relationships among variables is examined in order to define a set of common dimensions called Factors.
• 4. Purpose of Factor Analysis  To identify underlying dimensions called Factors, that explain the correlations among a set of variables.  lifestyle statements may be used to measure the psychographic profile of consumers.  To identify a new, smaller set of uncorrelated variables to replace the original set of correlated variables for subsequent analysis such as Regression or Discriminant Analysis.  psychographic factors may be used as independent variables to explain the difference between loyal and non loyal customers.
• 5. Types of Factor Analysis  Exploratory Factor Analysis  Summarizing data by grouping correlated variables  Investigating sets of measured variables related to theoretical constructs  Usually done near the onset of research
• 6. Types of Factor Analysis  Confirmatory Factor Analysis  More advanced technique  When factor structure is known or at least theorized  Testing generalization of factor structure to new data, etc.
• 7. ASSUMPTIONS  Models are usually based on linear relationships  Models assume that the data collected are interval scaled  Multi collinearity in the data is desirable because the objective is to identify interrelated set of variables.  The data should be amenable for factor analysis. It should not be such that a variable is only correlated with itself and no correlation exists with any other variables. This is like an Identity Matrix. Factor analysis cannot be done on such data.
• 8. ANOVA
• 9. ANOVA • ANOVA is an abbreviation for the full name of the method: Analysis Of Variance Invented by R.A. Fisher in the 1920’s. • ANOVA is used to test the significance of the difference between more than two sample means and to make inferences about whether our samples are drawn from population having same means.
• 10.  ANOVA is comparison of means. Each possible value of a factor or combination of factor is a treatment.  The ANOVA is a powerful and common statistical procedure in the social sciences. It can handle a variety of situations.
• 11. Why ANOVA instead of multiple ttests?  If you are comparing means between more than two groups, why not just do several two sample t-tests to compare the mean from one group with the mean from each of the other groups?  Before ANOVA, this was the only option available to compare means between more than two groups.  The problem with the multiple t-tests approach is that as the number of groups increases, the number of two sample ttests also increases.  As the number of tests increases the probability of making a Type I error also increases.
• 12. ANALYSIS OF HYPOTHESIS:ASSUMPTONS • • We assume independent random sampling from each of the r populations We assume that the r populations under study: – are normally distributed, – with means i that may or may not be equal, – but with equal variances, i2. 1 Population 1 2 Population 2 3 Population 3
• 13. The Null hypothesis for ANOVA is that the means for all groups are equal: The Alternative hypothesis for ANOVA is that at least two of the means are not equal. The test statistic for ANOVA is ANOVA Fstatistic.
• 14. APPLICATION OF ANNOVA  ANOVA is designed to detect differences among means from populations subject to different treatments.  ANOVA is a joint test. The equality of several population means is tested simultaneously or jointly.  ANOVA tests for the equality of several population means by looking at two estimators of the population variance (hence, analysis of variance).
• 15. APPLICATION OF ANNOVA IN MARKETING  Product testing, ad copy testing and concept testing are some common applications, though ANOVA Analysis Surveys can be used in retail environments or simulated lab-type environments.  We can manipulate certain variables (like promotion, ad copy, display at the point of purchase), and observe changes in other variables (like sales, or consumer preferences, behavior or attitude). The application areas for experiments are wide .
• 16. OTHER ANNOVA PROCEDURES  One-way ANOVA is Analysis of Variance for one factor.  More than one factor can be used for a two, three or four- way ANOVA.  A continuous variable can be added to the model – this is Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA).  Repeated Measures ANOVA can handle replicated measurements on the same observation unit (subject).
• 17. Gartner
• 18. Type Public company Traded as NYSE: IT Industry Research Founded 1979 Headquarters Stamford, Connecticut United States Key people Gene Hall (CEO) Christopher J. Lafond (CFO) Darko Hrelic (CIO) Products Research Consulting Events Revenue \$1.615 billion (2012) Net income \$165.9 million (2012) Employees 5,300 (2013) Website www.gartner.com
• 19. GARTNER DIVESH SHARMA
• 20. INTRODUCTION  Gartner, Inc. (NYSE: IT) is the world's leading      information technology research and advisory company. We deliver the technology-related insight necessary for our clients to make the right decisions, every day. We are the valuable partner to clients in over 13,000 distinct organizations. Through the resources of Gartner Research, Gartner Executive Programs, Gartner Consulting and Gartner Events. We work with every client to research, analyse and interpret the business of IT within the context of their individual role. Founded in 1979, Gartner is headquartered in Stamford, Connecticut, USA, and has 5,700 associates, including more than 1,435 research analysts and consultants, and clients in 85 countries.
• 21. SERVICES We bring together Research insight, Benchmarking data, problem-solving methodologies and hands on experience to improve the return on your IT investment. UNDERSTANDING: WE KNOW THE ISSUES YOU FACE  80% of the Fortune 500 use Gartner for their key technology initiatives.  We deliver business value in over 1500 high-impact initiatives a year.  Every year, we deliver over 5,500 IT cost and performance benchmarks. CAPABILITIES: THE DATA, TOOLS AND CAPABILITIES TO HELP  Gartner solutions address the specific needs of each industry  All of our solutions are based on Gartner's extensive Research  Every solution makes use of our performance benchmarking data  We employ seasoned consultants, with an average of 15 years experience EXPERIENCE: WE HELP YOU DELIVER TANGIBLE RESULTS  Our clients spend 38% less than their peers for the same workload  Gartner Contract Optimization Services help our clients realize hundreds of millions of dollars of real and measured savings annually .  Our consulting engagements help clients improve performance... and reduce risk
• 22. PRESS RELEASE  Telecomm Client Saves €40 Million  When a large telecommunications company needed to improve service provider relationships, lower costs and reduce long procurement cycles, Gartner Consulting was called on to help.
• 23. BUSINESS CHALLENGES:  Unproductive relationships with service providers.  Unclear contract pricing structures.  Issues over value for services received. APPROACH / DIFFERENTIATION:  Supported pricing discussions with service providers using up-to-date benchmarks.  Developed new governance model to improve service provider relationships.  Helped guide productive contract reviews. RESULTS:  Over €40 million in savings identified.  Reduced time to negotiate new agreements by using benchmark data.  Improved relationship with major service provider to achieve higher service value.
• 25. INTRODUCTION Kadence is an international research company with 28 offices across India. We are part of Kadence International Research Group with offices in USA, UK, Singapore, Indonesia, Vietnam and China. Founded in 1992, Kadence works with some of the worlds largest brands, providing global coverage at a local level. Our specialist researchers work with clients across a wide range of business markets to deliver insight and knowledge rather than just data. They value access to our leading-edge, web-based data capture systems (including CATI call centres in each location), centralized reporting (24/7), advanced analytics. An ISO 9001 / ISO 20252 quality accredited processes, and total piece of mind.
• 26. COMMERCIAL AFFILIATIONS  We have 28 offices across India and international offices located in USA, UK, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and China PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS  MRSI; MRQSA; AIMRI; BIG; MRS; AQR CERTIFICATION AND ENDORSING BODIES  ISO 9001; ISO 20252
• 27. RESEARCH CONDUCTED IN
• 28. SCOPE OF BUISNESS
• 29. WHO WE WORK WITH
• 30. PRESENTATION ON MANPOWER GROUP ROBIN JINDAL
• 31. VISION THE VISION is to lead in the creation and delivery of innovative workforce solutions and services that enable our clients to win in the changing world of work.
• 32. ABOUT US  Manpower Group is the world leader in innovative workforce solutions, connecting human potential to the power of business. Manpower Group serves both large and small organizations across all industry sectors through four main brands and offerings: Manpower Group Solutions, Expertise , Manpower and Right Management.  They operate a worldwide network of offices in 80 countries and territories. With global insight and local expertise, Manpower Group partners with clients to accelerate their business by providing the people and services that raise the quality, productivity and efficiency of their total workforce, including recruitment and assessment, training and development, workforce consulting, outsourcing and career management.
• 33. FACTS • 3,500 offices in 80 countries and territories • 3.4 million individuals placed into jobs annually and 600,000 associates on assignment each day • The Manpower Group Training and Development center has enhanced the skills of over 12 million individuals • 400,000 clients worldwide
• 34. BRANDS
• 35. PRESS RELEASE  NEW YORK, Oct. 30, 2013  New york, 25th October 2013  Advised that closing gender gaps is not about hitting quota numbers; rather, it's about making companies stronger. This is critical to ensure the continuing talent sustainability of the world's workforce and to drive competitive advantage for businesses and economies.  Manpower Group , the world leader in innovative workforce solutions, today celebrates 65 years of transforming communities by connecting people to meaningful work and helping businesses win.
• 36. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY  Manpower Group has a reputation for operating at the highest level of integrity.  Manpower Group's approach to social responsibility is driven by their Global Values, Vision and Strategies that determine the way in which we do business.  They are committed to respect for people, clients and community and the role of work in their lives ; sharing our knowledge and expertise to develop sustainable workforce practices throughout the world; and striving for excellence through innovation to develop socially inclusive working environments for the long-term.
• 37. AWARDS AND ACHIEVEMENTS  In 2013, ManpowerGroup  Manpower Group was was named to the Ethisphere Institute’s 2013 World’s Most Ethical Companies list for its proven commitment to ethical leadership, compliance, corporate social responsibility and business practices at large. named to Fortune magazine’s list of the World’s Most Admired Companies in 2012 for the 10th consecutive year
• 38. ABOUT  Fieldwork and Tabulation Founded in: 1985 Employees: 12 Interviewers: 400 Turnover: AUD 8.000.000
• 39. INTRODUCTION  National Field Services (NFS) was founded in 1985 and has been setting the standard for field and tabulation services in Australia. “Excellence in data” is the cornerstone of the philosophy. We are committed to operational excellence and superior customer servicing and are known for collecting independent, accurate, reliable and cost-effective data.  All NFS operations are conducted in-house from our Australian-based offices, placing us in an enviable position as one of only a few fully locally-based field and tabulation agencies in the country.
• 40. NFS VALESHWER GUPTA
• 41. DATA PROCESSING  We use Quanvert, Surveycraft, Dimensions and SPSS as the initial data entry points for all survey analysis and processing. We can support and provide data in all data formats, with particular emphasis on Quantum, SPSS and ASCII outputs.
• 42. Field and Tabulation Services Include Telephone (CATI) - Over 140 CATI stations fully in-house * Face-to-face - Central location/ Executive * Online/web-based * Recruitment (Groups & F2F) * In-house Focus Group facilities - Client and Web viewing availability * Scripting, data processing and coding
• 43. RESEARCH CONDUCTED IN  Countries: • Asia(Pacific) • Asia • Australia • New Zealand
• 44. SCOPE OF BUSINESS Market Sectors: * Advertising / Public Relations * IT / Software / Hardware * Public Sector / Government * Travel / Tourism / Sport
• 45.  Research Solutions: * Business-to-business * Consumer Research * Opinion Polling * Tracking Studies * Usage & Attitude Studies  Research services: PAPI CAPI CATI Mail Online