• Akbar introduced major changes inadministration• Akbar’s theory of state
Features• Mughals imported certain foreign elements into theiradministrative system– Perso-Arabic system in the Indian setting.• Based on the military system: Mansabs• Centralized despotism• Blend of religion and politics existed• Paper administration: growth of official records• Aim: police duties and revenue collection• System of public corporations• Administration of justice largely left to local administration• Villages and small towns enjoyed ‘parochial’ self-government ratherthan local autonomy. They had no political freedom
Personnel Administration• All civil servants were enrolled in the army as mansabdars– Although no military obligation was always incumbant on themansabdar• Principle of hierarchy and job classification can be seen• Recruitment: entirely in king’s hand• Transfer: king had the final say• Pay: Each grade had a pay out of which one had to also maintain atroop. Jagir system was also prevelant.• Despite job classification an officer could be at any time entrustedwith a new duty; all offices were inter-changeable• Doctrine of escheat: jagir and mansab were not hereditary. Theproperty escheated to the crown on the death of themansabdar/jagirdar. <later made hereditary>
Personnel Administration• Worked on the maxim: ‘career open to talent’• Appointment: rested with the emperor• Qualification: no hard and fast rule• No rules of promotion
Provincial Administration• Provincial admin was a miniature of the central admin• Divided the empire into 15 subahs– Incharge: subedar– Number of Subahs increased later– Subedar concentrated in his hands the civil and military powers of theprovince– Subedar’s court was the highest court of appeal in the subah– He was transferred every 3-4 years• Subedar and Diwan had almost similar status in a subah.– This led to conflicts and violation of the principle of unity of command• Sadar, ulema, qazi, fauzdar etc• Provincial Bakshi was incharge of the military establishment• Kotwal was incharge of police in big towns• The central govt maintained a regulating chain of communication betweenitself and the provincial governments.
Local Administration• Subah divided into sarkars. Sarkars divided into Paraganas. Paraganas intovillages.• District governed by a shiqdar or a faujdar• Amalguzar: head of revenue administration (aka Krori)– Revenue collectors were under orders not to oppress the cultivators whilecollecting the state demands• Other officers– Bitikchi: record keeper of land revenue– Khazandar: treasury officer• Sarkar divided into paraganas (tehsils)– Tehsils had a batch of subordinate officers– Shiqdar, amil, fotdar and qanungo• Each tehsil had about 12 villages• Villages were the lowest units of administration– Mughals gave legal sanction to the panchayats– Patwari and Chaukidar
Law and Order Administration• The king and PM primarily responsible formaintaining peace• Provincial level: Faujdar. Below him kotwal.• Villages neglected
Judicial Administration• Emperor was the fountainhead of justice and highestappeal lay to him• Sadr-i-Sudur decided important civil cases especially ofa religious character• Chief Qazi (Qazi-ul-Quzat) was the highest judicialofficer• Main judicial funcationaries– Mufti: expounded the law– Qzai: investigated the evidence– Miradi: delivered the judgement• Miradi acted as a counterpoise to the Qazi’s influence
• No definite codes of law existed• Quran and Hadis were major sources of law• Officers were expected to know Hinducustoms while dealing with cases concerningthem• Qazi’s court had civil and criminal jurisdication• Criminal law is uniform irrespective of thereligion
Revenue Administration• It adhered to the old practices, procedures andtraditions of the country• Revenue Dept under Wazir/Diwan• Diwans also at the provincial level• Krori at local level to collect revenue• Mughal state was essentially a revenue collectingstate.• Bitikchi– Land records and deeds– First time?
Mansabdari System• No division between civil and militaryfunctions of the state• The mansabdari system determined the rank,pay-scale and the position of the imperialofficer in the royal court in respect of othergovernment officers
Evaluation of the Mansabdari System• Merits– A systematic and progressive system to reorganise thearmy within the fold of despotic monarchy– First such system in India– Improvement over the system of tribal chieftainshipand feudalism– Offices were not hereditary– Every mansabdar was held personally responsible tothe monarch• This eliminated all chances of dis-affection and revolts by themilitary officers
• Demerits– This system did not give birth to a national army• About 2/3rd of the mansabdars were either foreigners or theimmediate descendents of the foreign immigrants– Non-regimentation of the army– Hesitation on the part of the imperial govt to recruitall the soldiers of the mansabdars– No uniform rules were prescribed for systematictraining of the soldiers– The nature and the quality of the war weapons borneby them differed from contingent to contingent
Provincial and Local• Centre• Subah - Subedar• Sarkar - Fauzdar• Pargana - Shiqdar• Village
Communication and Intelligence• Waqaya Nafis– Posted newswriters and spies all over the province
Aspects of Secularism• Hindus were given high mansabs• Hindu customs were followed in cases relatedto them
Welfare• Revenue collectors were under orders not to oppressthe cultivators while collecting the state demands• Panchayats had some powers for local taxation• Responsibility for social development
Centralised Despotism• For– The state was based on a military system with themansabdars responsible to the emperor– No division between civil and military power gaveimmense power to the officials• Against– Some elements of decentralisation– Mughals had given a legal sanction to thepanchayati raj
Legacy of MA for Indian Admin• Provincial administration– Akbar was the first to develop an elaborate system of ProvincialAdministration– Provinces had an administrative structure that was miniature of the imperialadministration– Similar to modern day states?• Kotwals– The system of Kotwals was inherited by the British in modified form andhelped in the development of the modern police system– Kotwal was primarily a police chief who combined in his office the functions ofa municipal commissioner as well– Municipal Commissioner• Revenue administration– Todar mal’s bandobast– Revenue officers continue to this day in some modified form: eg patwari– Division of provinces/districts.
Conclusions• The monarchy, though benevolent, was backward in itsoutlook.• Elements of democracy were conspicuous by theirabsence.• It contained no element of self-criticism andendogenous reforms• Through their administration they installed an elementof homogeneity in the governance of the country• A useful element introduced by them was of compilingand codifying all the records.• Although it was a muslim state, no discrimination wasmade in the selection of personnel