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British administration


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British administration

British administration

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  • 1. Company Rule• 1765: Company acquired the diwani of Bengal• 1765-1833: Company had dual role of traderand ruler– 1833: its commercial role was abolished• Civil Services under the company divided into– Covenanted Civil Service: consisted only ofEnglishmen– Uncovenanted Civil Service: included Indians,Parsis, English and the Portuguese
  • 2. • Regulating Act 1773– Laid down the skeleton of the present governmental system inthe country– Gov Gen and council appointed in Bengal– Provided that a Supreme Court of justice be established• Pitt’s India Act, 1784– Board of Control established in England– The Court of Directors was retained but was subjected to theauthority of the Board of Control– BoC became the real ruling authority over India– Gov Gen was given more effective power over the council– Positives• After years of irresponsible administration, Act was a measure torationalise the system
  • 3. • Hastings– Civil service became structured– Company became a govt and took up functions ofrevenue and maintenance of law and order.– Establishment of the secretariat system– The post of collector was introduced– He laid the foundation on which Cornwallis built asuper-structure– Civil and Criminal courts established– Supreme court
  • 4. Cornwallis• Area administration– Consolidated Indian districts into definite administrative units– Each district placed under a magistrate and a collector• Law and order– Each district was divided into a number of police circles, or thanas• Judicial Administration– Comprehensive system of justice• Introduced highly liberal system of remuneration• Efforts to remove patronage and see that all important offices areheld by covenanted CS• Cornwallis Code: concerned with correctives against the abuse ofpower by the officials• Separated customs from the revenue department• Permanent Settlement• Boards were set up for administration: board of trade, board ofrevenue, military board and medical board
  • 5. Cornwallis• Positives– Introduced into the organisation of civil service a definitive, legal andrational principle, expressed in the separation of revenue and judicialfunctions– Cornwallis Code• Defined the powers of civil servants in each capacity, with fixed salariesassigned according to the degree of responsibility• Drawback– Europeanisation of Civil Service: his systematic effort to excludeIndians from taking part in the administration– Could not give India a modern code of law• Conclusion– Cornwallis created certain basic conditions for the growth ofbureaucratization– Apart from consolidating the foundations of state authority, hebrought corporate, legal and professional concepts into bear upon theorganisation of his administrative staff
  • 6. • Wellesley– Contribution in the field of training: Fort William College in Calcutta in1800. (abolished in 1802).– Hartford Castle (1806): the qualification of candidates was tested by awritten and an oral examination• Bentinck: evolved the modern concept of district magistrate• Charter Act of 1833– Centralisation was the guiding principle– Gov Gen’s council enlarged– Presidency of Bengal divided into two parts: Bengal and Agra (nullifiedin 1835)– Gov Gen of Bengal became Gov Gen of India– The activities of the Company as a commercial body came to an end– Mentioned that Indians should not be debarred from holding officeunder the company
  • 7. • Dalhousie– Post and telegraph– Public Works department– Division of governmental functions into well-defineddepartments was yet another of his reforms• Charter Act of 1853– Introduced a system of open competition for recruitment– Released the gov gen from direct involvement in the details ofprovincial administration• Macaulay Committee Report, 1854– Laid the foundations for administrative reforms in India– Competitive recruitment and training– Proposed a detailed scheme of the examination
  • 8. • Consequences of the Company rule– Decadence of the indigenous institution of self-government– Provinces grouped arbitrarily– Enormous growth in public taxation and expenditure– Insufficient attention to education, public health,irrigation– Neglect of indigenous industry and agriculture ->famines– Excessive curbs on the political activities of the people
  • 9. • Act of 1858• 1859: Portfolio system by Canning– Work of the govt, divided into several branches, was entrustedto different members of the Gov Gen’s council• Act of 1861– Initiated the process of decentralisation– Member in-charge of his dept could issue final orders withregard to matters which concerned his department– Restored some of the powers of the legislative councils ofMadras and Bombay– Provided for setting up of new councils in other provinces aswell– Provision for inclusion of some Indians in the council of the govgen
  • 10. • Aitchison Commission (1886-87)– Supported the formation of a lower, local civilservice to be called the provincial civil service– Covenanted CS was abolished and three serviceswere carved out• Imperial Civil Service• Provincial CS• Subordinate CS
  • 11. • Councils Act 1892– Enlarged the functions of the legislative councils– Elected representatives in LC• Councils Act 1909– Provided for a distribution of powers between the centre andthe provinces– The division however, did not make India federal. Centre wasstill very powerful– Further increased the size of legislative councils– Communal Award• Decentralisation Commission (1909) maderecommendations for the revival and growth of panchayats
  • 12. • Govt of India Act 1919– Dealt with the structure of provincial governments– Dyarchy: provincial subjects were divided into‘reserved’ and ‘transferred’– LSG became a provincial and transferred subjectunder a responsible Indian minister
  • 13. • Why dyarchy failed?– Dividing the govt into branches proved to be unscientificand unnatural– Destroyed the unity of purpose of govt activities– Governor had the last word. No system of collectiveresponsibility.– Finance was a reserved subject• 1923: Royal Commission on superior civil services inIndia– Chair: Lord Lee of Farham– Recommended the establishment of a Public ServiceCommission
  • 14. • Act of 1935– Abolished dyarchy in the provinces but introduced it in thecentre– Provincial autonomy– Three lists: Union, state and concurrent– Relaxed some autocratic control of the Crown in certain spheresand replaced it with a popular government– Created an All-India Federation• Drawbacks– It was not mandatory for the princely states to join thefederation– Federal features of the constitution were thus not implemented
  • 15. • Features of the British rule can be discussed under thefollowing heads– Creation of the ICS– Secretariat system– Pay, promotions and transfers– Provincial civil service– Financial administration– Financial accountability– Law and order– Administration of justice– Local self government– Bureaucratic leadership
  • 17. Bureaucratic Development• Three phases under Company rule– Phase 1: Upto 1765 when it emerged as a territorial power– Phase 2: 1765-1798 – period of parliamentary interventionwithout definite political policy– Phase 3 – 1798 onwards – developments by Wellesley• Phase 1– Royal charter of 1661 authorised the company to appointgovernor to the provinces– Writers were appointed– Organisation of CS contained modern ingredients such as acentralised agency of recruitment, graded heirarchy, contractualservice and a body of rules governing the transaction of itscorporate business– Patronage was rampant
  • 18. • Phase 2– To check nepotism and abuse of nomination, the Charter Act of 1793laid down that all vacancies occuring in Civil offices below the Councilshould be filled by the members of the Convenant CS belonging to thatprovince– Made CS a compact body of officers who were paid according to thenumber of years of service• Phase 3– Wellesley– Fort William College for training of CS established– Charter of 1813– During this phase there were two competing principles ofadministration• First recognised the rule of law as the ruling force• Second advocated a form of rule by discretion of executive inter-position– Selection on merit and promotion on seniority
  • 19. • 1858-1919– Efforts at rationalisation of the bureaucracy– Was a period of bureaucratic despotism where every level of hierarchy tried totighten the chains around the subordinates– Act of 1858 provided for recruitment to CCS through open competitive examheld at London– Indian Civil Service Act, 1861: reserved certain high posts in administration forthe members of ICS– 1876: age limit for recruitment reduced to 19– 1892: min age raised to 21 and max to 23• 1919-1947– Towards decentralisation– 1907: decentralisation commission• Collector to be recognised as the head of the district in all administrative matters• Rural and municipal councils– 1935: provincial autonomy
  • 21. • Even before 1765, the company had set up an elaboratesystem of administration– Apparantice and Writers constituted the lowest level• Two types– Covenanted– Un-covenanted• Beginning of Civil Services– Hastings took steps to separate the commercial andadministrative activities of the company– Gave large powers to the covenanted civil servants– Mixed system of administration• Both Europeans and Indians in the CS• Though Europeans were at higher posts.
  • 22. • Europeanisation of Civil Services– Cornwallis abandoned the system of mixedadministration– Since he introduced rule of law and security ofproperty (European concepts) he neededEuropeans to man the administration
  • 23. Organisation and Recruitment• Divided into two main classes– Covenanted– Uncovenanted– (After 1892 these were called ICS and Provincial CSrespectively)• ICS consisted of only that body of civil servantsrecruited according to provisions of the GoI Act, 1858and for whom certain posts were reserved• Later other methods besides open competition werealso used• Between 1858 and 1919 recruitment to the ICS wasmade chiefly by open competition held in London
  • 24. • Act of 1833 made two major changes regardingrecruitment– Cornwallis’ policy of excluding Indians was repudiated– The policy of combining nomination with examination wasadopted (early it was mostly nomination)• Act of 1853– Removed the provision of nomination to the covenantedCS– All recruitment hence was to be through an opencompetition• First competitive exam held in 1855• First Indian civil servant: Satyendra Nath Tagore (1864)
  • 25. Statutory Civil Service• Instituted in 1879 by Lord Lytton– Was a device to appease educated Indian whowere agitating for employment in the covenantedcivil service– Appointments were generally confined to youngmen of ‘good family’ and social positionpossessing fair abilities and education
  • 26. Indian Civil Service• 1892, the two services rechristened as– Indian Civil Service– Provincial Civil Service• Macaulay Report: Led to the establishment of a merit based bureaucracy• 1858-1919– Recruitment to ICS made on the basis of an open competitive examination which was held inLondon– Emphasised that this be a service of men endowed with the best intellectual traditions, ideasand sentiments– Macaulay’s ideas of recruitment lent support to the power elite theory of bureaucracy beingthe ruling class• Idea of specific age limit for taking the exam evolved with Macaulay’s report• By 1920, there were a total of five methods of entry into the higher civil service• Competitive exam conducted by and independent agency• Another substantial contribution was institutionalizing a training system
  • 27. Indianisation of ICS• 1870: Parliament passed an Act making provision forappointment of Indians to certain posts reserved for ICS• This arrangement proved to be unsatisfactory and wasabolished on the recommendation of the AitchisonCommittee (1889)• 1877-79: Indian Association organised agitation on the civilservices question• This resulted in the creation of Statutory CS• Congress also took up the issue• Curzon’s govt reiterated the policy of English occupying thehighest posts• By 1913 only 5 pc of the ICS were Indians
  • 28. • 1886: Public Service Commission– Chair: Lord Aitchison– Upheld the recruitment policy of 1858– Provincial and Indian CS– Continuance of the London test was strongly defended• Through the commission’s recommendations, a three tier structure wasadopted– ICS, PCS and Subordinate CS– This structure continues to till date– In a sense, the commission imparted finality to the public service structure• 1912: Royal Commission on Public Services in India– Chair: Lord Islington– Rejected the demand for simultaneous exam– Recommended that recruitment to be made through two channels• One in London open to all• One in India open to statutory natives only
  • 29. Creation of a provincial civil service• On the recommendation of the AitchisonCommission the following changes were made– Covenanted CS renamed as Indian Civil Service– Uncovenanted CS renamed as Provincial CS• An element of reservation existed in PCS toprovide representation to different classes
  • 30. Secretariat• Portfolio System (1858)• Staffing– Central pool for drawing manpower– Recruitment to the upper division of the secretariat madethrough direct appointments– 1937: Maxwell committee recommended that the ministerialstaff should be divided into two main grades – assistants andclerks• Features of the secretariat system– Reliance on precedents– Incapacity of the lower grades of officials to share responsibility– Practice of excessive record keeping and noting
  • 31. Secretariat Reforms• Secretariat Procedure Committee, 1919– Recommended a pyramidal organisation• Lewellyn Smith Committee (1920)– Recommended that tenure of the secys and dy secys befixed to bring stability• Secretariat Committee (Wheeler), 1935– Studied the problem of delays in working– Rec. practice of double notings to speed work• Tottenham Committee (1945-46)– Reported on the organisation of departments, thequestion of staffing and reorganisation of the entiresecretariat system
  • 32. Pay, promotions and transfers• Posts divided into superior and inferiorcategories. Pay depended on this.• The system of promotion brought about anonslaught on the traditional-bound Indiansociety– Promotion provided an element of social mobility,especially for the lower castes• The frequency of transfers sapped the vitalityof the British administration
  • 33. Area Administration• After the revolt, a four tier structure wasadopted– District Administration– Provincial Government– Government of India– Home Government• The administrative links between these fourtiers were provided by statures, rules andconventions
  • 34. Revenue Administration• Permanent Settlement of Cornwallis
  • 35. Financial Administration• Initially the Accountant General of Fort William of Bengal controlled the finances• From 1846, the Secy to the Govt of India in the Finance Dept was nominated theex-officio Accountant General of India• Creation of the general department of accounts in place of separate accounts foreach presidency• During Company rule, revenue came from– Land and taxes on trade and personal property• Expenditure– Security or defence– Social and development services• 1860: The most important administrative innovation was the introduction of thebudget sytem– Financial resources to be ascertained before the start of the year• 1860– Central Revenue Department created– Imperial Audit Department was set up
  • 36. • Creation of reform committees in the field ofrevenue administratiion– Resolution of 1860 provided for the creation of aBudget and Audit Committee• Introduction of govt paper currency in 1860
  • 37. Financial Accountability• 1772: Supervisors as collectors in district• 1781: Board of Revenue became the controllingauthority for revenue purposes• 1829: Divisional commissioners appointed to supervisethe collectors• 1919: C&AG was made responsible to the centraladmin• 1922: Central Public Accounts Committee created• 1926: given power to inspect any government office ofaccount• 1934: RBI established
  • 38. Law and Order Administration• Foundations of the contemporary police administration laid duringBritish rule• Indian Police Act, 1861• IGP head of state police. SP at district level.• Subordinate police force consisted of the inspectors, headconstables, sargeants and constables• Prior to the Police Act, the magistrate was the head of the districtpolice• After 1861, magistrate ceased to be a direct police functionary butstill had some control over police matters, in addition also retainedjudicial authority.• Thus, DM now had powers over the district police as well oversubordinate magistracy. Over centralisation of authority in oneofficial paved the way for administrative despotism at the districtlevel.
  • 39. • Report of the Police Commission (1902-03)– A European service to be recruited entirely in England– A provincial service to be recruited entirely in India– Upper subordinate service consisting of inspectors andsub-inspectors– Lower subordinate service comprising head constables andconstables• A province to be divided into ranges• IPC, 1960, CrPC, 1861, Indian Evidence Act etcconstituted the legal framework of criminal justiceadministration that helped the police system toexercise its functions effectively
  • 40. Judicial Administration• Hastings organised two courts in each district– Exercising civil and criminal jurisdiction• Cornwallis introduced the separation of power between executive andjudiciary– Cornwallis code of 1793 took away the judicial powers of the Collector.– Laid the foundation of independent judiciary• Code provided for a three tier system– European judges with the zilla and city courts at the bottom– Four Provincial court of appeal at the middle level– Sadar Diwani and Nizamat Adalat at the top. Besides, Privy Council at the top• Criminal justice was in the hands of the four provincial courts– Called Circuit Courts– At the top was the Sadar Nizamat adalat to hear appeals from the CircuitCourts• Holt Mackenzie– Removed the intermediate tier as it slowed down the process– Recommended that primary jurisdiction in all cases, except a few, be vested inIndians
  • 41. Judicial Administration• Judicial admin created perpetual problems– People did not know the laws of the rulers– Rulers did not know the traditions of the people• Bentinck introduced major reforms to improve thesituation– The district judges of Cornwallis’ creation had to surrendertheir magesterial powers to the district collectors– Thus there emerged the district officer who was the DM,collector and the head of the police force– DM of Bentick continued till the end of the BritishAdministration
  • 42. Local Self Government• 1864: statutory recognition was granted to panchayats as petty courts inBombay and Madras• 1870: Mayo included the panchayats in the management of funds devotedto education, public works etc• Ripon– 1882: recommended the extension of the elected element in rural bodies,reduction in the size of the official element, an elected non-official as thechairman of rural bodies and financial decentralisation• Decentralisation Commission of 1909 recommended– Three tier system– Village Panchayat– Local tehsil– District board• 1919– LSG became a provincial and transferred subject under a responsible Indianminister
  • 43. Conclusion• Indian Administration built on its British heritage– Eg. All India services, recruitment, training, secretariatsystem, district admin, revenue admin, police system,fin admin• Uniform system of administration– The princely states had different systems ofadministration• Their Acts and statutes are still in use• Innovation and stuff