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This is the Swahili version of the popular COP Pocketbook

This is the Swahili version of the popular COP Pocketbook

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  • 1. Kijitabu changu cha COP
  • 2. Waliojumuika
  • 3. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cShukraniKitabu hiki kimeelezea kwa undani taarifa zipatikanazo kwenye wavuti maalumu (http://www.unfccc.int) ya UNFCCC nakimekusudia kuwa mwongozo rahisi wa usomaji kuhusu shughuli za UNFCCC COP. Kitabu hiki hakiuzwi; tafadhali sambazakwa wingi zaidi, hasa kwa wale watakaopenda kufahamu kuhusiana na shughuli za UNFCCC COP. Kitabu hiki ni matokeoya jitihada ya vijana wenye kujitoa, na ni muhtasari wa mabango ya Blogi ambayo kwa mara ya kwanza ilionekana kwenyehttp://kenyanclimateyouth.blogspot.com!Cover design by: Charles KyetiDesigners: Vise Gilbert ChinYenaye Rene MkerkaChief Editor: Kennedy Liti MbevaEditors: Reuben Mako mere Kenny WahomeTranslation: Ntiokam Divine2
  • 4. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagec3Part 1: Introduction and history of climate change negotiations...............................................................................6Introduction........................................................................................................................................................7Inspiration for this series......................................................................................................................................7Brief history of climate change negotiations...........................................................................................................7The Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee.......................................................................................................7Part 2: Battle Lines Are Drawn.............................................................................................................................8The Heart of UNFCCC.........................................................................................................................................9Enter the Rock Star: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).................................................................9The North – South Divide............................................................................................................... ....................9Issues! Issues! Issues!.......................................................................................................................................10Common but Differentiated Responsibilities.........................................................................................................10Annex Parties................................................................................................................................................... 10Part 3: The Good, The Bad and The Kyoto Protocol...............................................................................................11Birth of Kyoto Protocol.......................................................................................................................................12Climate Change Convention vis-a-vis The Kyoto Protocol.......................................................................................12Principle underpinning the Kyoto Protocol...........................................................................................................12Gases covered under the Kyoto Protocol..............................................................................................................13The Good..........................................................................................................................................................13The Bad...........................................................................................................................................................13Part 4: Under the Hood of The Kyoto Protocol......................................................................................................14In a nutshell.....................................................................................................................................................15a. Emissions Trading......................................................................................................................................15How it works.....................................................................................................................................................16Other trading units used....................................................................................................................................16Tracking, Checks and Balances..........................................................................................................................17Success Story....................................................................................................................................................17b. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) ............................................................................................................17Origins.............................................................................................................................................................17Yaliyomo:
  • 5. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cManagement of CDM.........................................................................................................................................18A simple example..............................................................................................................................................18c. Joint Implementation (JI)...............................................................................................................................18Example project................................................................................................................................................18Operation of JI..................................................................................................................................................18Guidelines........................................................................................................................................................19Eligibility requirements for Kyoto Protocol Mechanisms.........................................................................................19Part 5: Examining the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism...........................................................................................20Introduction......................................................................................................................................................21Brief overview of the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism.............................................................................................21Role of the COP in the UNFCCC financial mechanism...........................................................................................21Current Funds...................................................................................................................................................22Brief history of the GEF......................................................................................................................................22Linkage between UNFCCC and GEF.....................................................................................................................23Main objectives of the GEF.................................................................................................................................23Onset of problems.............................................................................................................................................23Changes in context............................................................................................................................................24Efforts to strengthen the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism.......................................................................................24• Establishment of level of ambition..............................................................................................................24• Standing Committee..................................................................................................................................25• Long-term Finance.....................................................................................................................................25Conclusion.......................................................................................................................................................25Part 6: Where is the Money?..............................................................................................................................261. Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF)..........................................................................................................272. Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF).......................................................................................................273. Adaptation Fund........................................................................................................................................284. Green Climate Fund (GCF)..........................................................................................................................28Tasks of the GCF Board:.....................................................................................................................................29Conclusion........................................................................................................................................................294
  • 6. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecPart 7: Structure of the COP..............................................................................................................................301. Structure of COP...................................................................................................................................... 31a. Subsidiary Body for Scientific Technological Advice (SBSTA).........................................................................31b. Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI).................................................................................................. 312. COP Timeline............................................................................................................................................32COP 1: Establishing the Basics...........................................................................................................................33COP 2: Geneva Declaration................................................................................................................................33COP 3: Kyoto Protocol.......................................................................................................................................33COP 4: Plan of Action.......................................................................................................................................33COP 5:Finalizing the Kyoto Protocol....................................................................................................................33COP 6: Kyoto Protocol Operation Rulebook..........................................................................................................33COP 7: Marrakech Accords.................................................................................................................................34COP 8: New Delhi Work Program........................................................................................................................34COP 9: Adaptation Fund....................................................................................................................................34COP 10: Post-Kyoto Mechanisms........................................................................................................................34COP 11: Montreal Action Plan............................................................................................................................34COP 12: Nairobi Conference...............................................................................................................................34COP 13: Bali Action Plan...................................................................................................................................34COP 14: Poznan Climate Change Conference.......................................................................................................35COP 15: Copenhagen Accord............................................................................................................................. 35COP 16: Cancun Agreements.............................................................................................................................35COP 17: Durban Platform..................................................................................................................................35COP 18:.......................................................................................................................................................... 35Conclusion........................................................................................................................................................35Final Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................365
  • 7. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cSura 1: Usulisuli na Historia ya Mazungumzo yahusuyoMabadiliko ya Hali ya Tabia ya nchi.Tumesikia kuhusu mabadiliko ya hali ya tabia ya nchi Na Yale yote yanayohusiana na mabadiliko hayo.Harakati dhidi ya hali ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi yamekuwa ni mambo yenye kujadiliwa kwa muda sasa.Lakini pia, mambo haya yaweza kuwa makubwa zaidi katika nyakati tulizonazo na imekuwa ni sababu ili-yopelekea kwa mara ya kwanza kulifikiria kwa kina jambo hili. Mkutano wa 18 wa Vyama (18th Conferenceof the Parties) utajiri hivi karibuni ambapo mambo kadha wa kadha yatazungumziwa.6
  • 8. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagec7Chachu ya Mfululizo huuKatika kutazama mambo yanayohusiana na makubaliano ya mabadiliko ya ya tabia ya nchi, tumegunduakwamba mengi ya mambo hayo yameandikwa kwa ajili ya wataalamu na kuyafanya kutoeleweka vizuri kwawale watakaopenda kujifunza njia mbalimbali za mazungumzo ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. Kwa hiyo, tu-mechukua jukumu la kuandaa mfululizo uitwao “Peeling Back the COP” wenye madhumuni kuchambua njiaza makubaliano ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi kwenye makala fupi, na zenye mvuto.Historia Fupi ya Mazungumzo juu ya Mabadiliko ya Hali ya Tabia ya NchiJe! Njia za makubaliano ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi zilianza vipi? Ki ukweli, ulikuwa ni muono wa maso-mo, majadiiliano na mambo yaliyopita ambayo yalitokea miaka kadhaa iliyopita, na ilipofika 1990 mabadil-iko makubwa yalionekana katika namna ambayo mambo haya yalivyokuwa yakifahamika.Katika mkutano waBaraza kuu la Umoja wa mataifa la mwaka 1990, kulikuwa na makubaliano mengi yaliyofikiwa katika mlengowa kuandaa chombo rasmi kitakacho zungumzia mambo yahusianayo na mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. Chom-bo hicho kilijulikana kwa jina la “Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee” (INC)Kamati ya Makubaliano ya Umoja wa SerikaliKamati hii ilitumia miezi kumi na mitano na hatimaye kuibusha mambo kadhaa yaliyoelezea namna yakukabiliana na tabia ya mabadiliko ya hali nchi, pia ulitajwa kuwa “Mkakati wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi”(Climate change Convention). Mkakati huo uliwasilishwa kwenye Mkutano wa Umoja wa Mataifa wa Mazin-gira na Maendeleo (UN CED) kwa kusainiwa, huu ulikuwa ni Mkutano mkubwa wa Ulimwengu.
  • 9. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cSura 2: Mwanzo wa Mazungumzo8
  • 10. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagec9Hiki ni kipengele kifupi, kama kilivyoainishwa na mada husika! Katika sura iliyopita imeelezea kuundwa kwaTaswira ya Mkakati juu ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi (UNFCCC). Na katika sehemu ya pili ya muendelezo huututajadili Mkakati wa Mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi.Kitovu cha UNFCCCMkakati wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi ni kitovu cha Taswira ya Mkakati wa mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi nakila kitu chochote kihusianacho. Inavutia ni jinsi gani Mkakati huu ulianzishwa. Kwa kuanzia, utakuwa um-ewahi kusikia juu ya Mkutano Mkubwa wa Vienna wenye madhumuni ya kulinda Tabaka Hewa (Ozone Layer)wa 1985 na pia mkutano wa “Stellar Montreal Protocol” juu ya vitu visababishavyo uharibifu wa Tabaka Angahewa, uliofanyika 1987. Mikutano hii miwili ilijadili Green House Gases (GHGs) ambazo zimekuwa zikiharibuanga hewa, ingawaje kwa mujibu wa shahidi za kitaalamu kulikuwa pia na gesi nyingine zaidi zilizokuwa ziki-fanya athari zaidi katika mazingira hata kudhibitiwa.Lakini pia kulikuwa na uhitaji wa kupata muendelezo washahidi za kitaalamu ambazo zitapelekea uundwaji wa sera zenye kupunguza gesi hizo.Enter the Rock Star: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)IPCC ni chombo maalumu kilichopelekea sayansi ya tabia ya nchi kwenye sayansi rahisi yenye kueleweka.Chombo hiki kilishinda zawadi ya Nobeli (Nobel Prize) hapo awali katika kuzungumzia gesi zilizobaki, Shirikala Uanajimu Duniani (World Meteorological Organization) na Programu ya Mazingira ya Ummoja wa Mataifa,ziliunda IPCC mwaka 1988. Kazi yao kuu ilikuwa ni kutoa mpya za tafiti za kisayansi na pia kuijulisha sera kwakuzingatia namna ya kutokomeza athari za mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi.Mgawanyiko wa Kaskazini-KusiniTafiti zilizofanywa na IPCC zilionesha kwamba kitu Fulani kilihitajika kufanyika ili kutokomeza athari zilitazwona mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi, taarifa hiyo hatimaye ilipelekea mgawanyiko wa mataifa kuwa “Kaskazini” ama“Kusini.” Lakini haikuhusiana na sehemu za kijiografia ila ilihusu Mataifa yaliyoendelea “Kaskazini” na yanay-oendelea “Kusini” mgawanyiko huu ulishuhudiwa katika Mkutano wa Pili wa Dunia wa Tabia ya nchi, Geneva(2nd World Climate Conference)
  • 11. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cIssues! Issues! Issues!Ni kama mahusiano ya kibinadamu, kulikuwa na mambo yaliyohusishwa katika “mgawanyiko” wa mataifa.Nchi za “Kusini” walilalamikia nchi za “Kaskazini” kwa kuhusika na uchafuzi wa mazingira kwa utoaji wagesi kijani tangu Mapinduzi ya Viwanda. Hii ilimaanisha nini? Ilimaanisha kuwa nchi za “Kaskazini” lazimawachukue hatua madhubuti katika kutokomeza gesi hizo..Na kwa kuongezea, nchi zinazoendelea zisaidieharakati na mikakati hiyo ya kutokomeza athari hizo. Ajabu! Hii ilikuwa ni jambo kubwa na zito hata ku-pelekea “uhasama” (storm in a tea cup)Common but Differentiated ResponsibilitiesKulikuwa na hisia nyingi kwamba hatua zinahitajika kuchukuliwa ili kudhibiti mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi,na kulikuwa na ridhaa za pamoja na nchi zinazoendelea walishirikishwa katika harakati hizo. Hatua hiimadhubuti ilibaini kuwa nchi zote zilikumbwa na matatizo sawa ingawaje yalitofautiana kwa mbali. Jambolililofuata lilikuwa ni kugawanya mataifa hayo katika nafasi mbalimbali: (Annex I, non-annex I, and Annex IIParties)Annex PartiesIli kugawanya majukumu kwa mataifa katika kuelezea mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi kwa kupunguza Gesi Uki-jani (GHG’s), Mfumo wa Mgawanyo uliundwa. Makundi mawili yaliundwa (Annex I na non-annex I). Annex Iilijumuisha nchi zilizoendelea ambazo zilichangia kwa kiasi kikubwa utoaji wa gesi ukijani tangu mapinduziya viwanda na Non-annex I ni mjumuisho wan chi zinzoendelea. Tutazungumzia kwa undani zaidi juu yamataifa ya Annex I na non-annex I hivi punde!10
  • 12. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecSura 3: Mazuri, Mabaya na Mkakati wa Kyoto11
  • 13. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cNdio! Sasa tupo Sura ya 3 ya mfululizo wa “Peeling Back the COP” Kama ilivyoahidiwa kwenye Sura iliyotangulia,tutajadili kwa protokoli zilizofanikisha madhumuni ya kupunguza utolewaji wa gesi ukijani (Kyoto Protocol) .katikasehemu hii itajumuisha sura kadhaa.Haya yalikuwa ni mataifa yaliyosifika kwa utoaji wa gesi ukijani mpaka leo.Kuzaliwa kwa Itifaki ya KyotoKyoto Protokoli ulifanyika mwaka 1995 baada ya Muungano wa Warusi kuudhihinisha, na kukubaliwa katika Mkuta-no wa 3 wa Vyama (3rd Conference of Parties) mwaka 1997 kule Kyoto, Japan. Kipindi cha kwanza cha makubalianoya Mkutano huu ulikuwa 2008 – 2012.Climate Change Convention vis-a-vis The Kyoto Protocol“Oh! Subiri kidogo, nachanganyikiwa! Je! Ipi ni tofauti kati ya Mkutano wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi (ClimateChange Convention) na Kyoto Protocol (KP)?”Vizuri, usipoteze matumaini; uhusiano kati ya mikutano hiyo miwili ni rahisi mno. CCC ulidhamiria kwa kushinikizamataifa kupunguza utolewaji wa gesi ukijani (GHG’s) wakati KP uliwajumuisha kwa pamoja mataifa kutambua jitihadaili kutokomeza utolewaji wa gesi hizo. Ni rahisi kama hivyo!Principle underpinning the Kyoto ProtocolMlengo madhubuti unaopatikana kwenye mkutano wa Kyoto Protocol ni mlengo wa “Usawa lakini wenye majukumutofauti” Kwa mfano, fikiria kuhusu Pizza, lakini wakati huu kiwe kitu kisichokuwa na ladha. Hakika, watu wengi wa-taepuka ulaji wa pizza hiyo, na kama itawalazimu kula itawabidi kujaribu kula kipande kidogo – Asili ya mwanadamu!Sasa, tufikirie Pizza isiyo ladha inawakilisha wajibu wa kupunguza utoaji wa gesi kijani. Kwa maana, wote tu-mechangia utolewaji wa gesi hizo, lakini tutapewa kipande cha Pizza kisicho ladha ambacho chafanana na jitihadazetu za kupunguza utolewaji wa gesi kijani.Hivyo, wote tumechangia utolewaji wa gesi hizo, lakini wale ambao wamechangia zaidi watahitajika kuchukua maju-kumu makubwa zaidi ya kupunguza utolewaji wa gesi hizo.12
  • 14. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecGesi zinazotambulika ya Itifaki ya KyotoKyoto Protocol inajumuisha gesi ukiijani sita, zijulikanazo kama; carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro-fluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons na sulphur hexafluoride.MazuriIdadi kadhaa ya mataifa imeupitisha na kuukubali Mkutano wa Kyoto Protocol na wanawachukulia ni kama“Watu/Jamaa Bora”MabayaUSA, Australia na Uchina, miongoni mwa mataifa mengineyo, ni baadhi ya wachafuzi wakubwa wa utoaji wagesi ukijani, pia bado wamekuwa wakijifanya ni mstari wa mbele katika kuhimiza msimamo wa Kyoto Protocol.Waweza kutazama orodha kamili ya mataifa yaliyoukubali na kuhidhinisha mkutano wa Kyoto Protocol na piawale walioukataa, hapa.13
  • 15. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cSura 4: Under the Hood of The Kyoto Protocol14
  • 16. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecKatika sura iliyopita, tumeona kulikuwa na siasa nyingi zilizohusiana na Kyoto Protocol Lakini pia, utawezakushangazwa nini hasa huunda Protocol? Vizuri, Sura hii itakupatia muono wa haraka kuhusu Kyoto Proto-col.Kwa Uhalisia, hii huweza kuwa mlolongo wa kama miguu 10,000 kutoka juu mpaka chini, lakini tutajaribukadiri tuwezavyo kukujulisha mambo kwa ufupi wenye kueleweka; usijali! Lakini pia, itakulazimu kuchukuahatua ya kujisomea zaidi ili kupata uelewa thabiti juu ya mjadala huu.Kwa MuhtasariKwa ufupi, vipengele kazi vya Kyoto Protocol hujulikana kama “Shughuli za Kyoto Protocol” Hizi ni vipen-gele kazi ambavyo huunda Kyoto Protocol, na vyenyewe ni;1) Biashara Utoaji2) Shughuli za usafishaji maendeleo (CDM)3) Utekelezaji wa Pamoja (JI)Kwanza tuelewe malengo ya kila shughuli kabla ya ufafanuaji wa kina:i) Kushawishi maendeleo endelevu kupitia uhamishaji wa teknolojia na uwekezajiii) Kusaidia mataifa kufikia makubaliano ya Kyotoiii) Kushawishi sekta binafsi na mataifa endelevu kuchangia katika mapambano ya otolewaji wa gesi za ukaazitokazo majumbani.a. Biashara ya UtoajiHii ni shughuli ya awali tutakayoitazama na kama jina liashiriavyo, ni muundo husaidiao mbadilishano wasehemu za carboni. Mataifa Annex B ambayo yamejizatiti chini ya Kyoto Protocol, hutumia mfumo huu. Nchihizi mara nyingi huwa na malengo ya kupunguza gesi ukaa aidha kwa kudhibiti ama kupunguza. Na malengohayo hujulikana kama “assigned amount units” (AAUs)15
  • 17. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cInafanyaje KaziKwa kawaida, ungeweza kukisia sawa; huu utaratibu ni Soko, ambapo kuna ununuaji na uuzwaji wa bidhaa(carbon units) Soko hili mara nyingi hujulikana kama “Soko la Kaboni”, ikiwa kabonidayoksaidi (carbon dioxide)ni kanuni gesi ukaa za majumbani (GHG)Hivyo, taifa limekuwa na kiwango cha kiasi cha gesi ukaa watakazo zitoa angani.Kwa hiyo, kuna nchi zitakazotoagesi nyingi zaidi na zile ambazo zitazingatia upunguzwaji wa utoaji gesi ukaa Nini hasa kitatokea kwa nchi zita-kazo toa gesi ukaa kwa wingi? Nchi hizi mara kwa mara zitawaelekea mataifa ambayo yatakuwa hayajatoa gesiukaa kwa wingi na kununua akiba ya uniti za kaboni, na hii ndiyo huitwa mabadilishano utoaji.Vipimo vingine vya biashara vitumikavyo.Kuna mabadilishano mengine mengi, mbali na AAUs, ambayo hutumika katika soko la kaboni. Nayo ni:i)Utoaji Uniti (RMU): imejikita katika matumizi ya ardhi, mabadilisho ya matumizi ya ardhi na shughuli zamisitu(LULUCF) mfano: upandaji miti.ii)Upunguzwaji utoaji uniti (ERU): huundwa na miradi ya utekelezaji wa pamojaiii)Upunguzwaji utoaji uliothibitishwa (CER): huundwa na miradi ya CDMKwa kila uniti ni sawa na tani moja ya CO216
  • 18. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagec17Tracking, Checks and BalancesNa kwa mifumo mengine, utaratibu huu lazima ufuatiliwe na kwa uangalizi wa makini.• Mfumo wa usajili chini ya Kyoto Protocol hutumika kufuatilia uhamishwaji na upatikanaji wa utoaji upunguz-waji uniti.• Log ya kimataifa ya usafirishwaji uhakiki usafirishwaji wa utoaji upunguzwaji unit kati ya mataifa ni salama.• Ili kuepuka “ongezeko zaidi la ununuzi unit”, kila taifa linahitajika kushikilia kiwango cha upunguzwaji utoajiwa gesi ukaa na pia kisishuke chini ya asilimia tisini (90%) ya kiwango kilichokubaliwa.Historia ya MafanikioVizuri, utaratibu huu huonekana wa kuvutia sana, na umekuwa simulizi ya stellar iliyofanikiwa: Mfumo wa Umoja waBiashara wa Ulaya (European Union Trading Scheme). Ni mfumo mkubwa sana katika ufanyaji kazi.b. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)Ni lazima utakuwa umesikia kuhusiana na utaratibu huu, na inavutia sana. Imeelezwa katika makala ya 12 ya KyotoProtocol. Inaruhusu nchi za annex B kutekeleza miradi ya upunguzwaji wa utoaji wa gesi ukaa. Kwa hivyo ni nyenzomadhubuti iliyo bora.ChimbukoUtaratibu huu ulianza mwaka 2006 na zaidi ya miradi 1,650 ilisajiliwa. Hii ilitegemewa kutokea kwa punguzo la tanibillion 2.9 za CO2 katika mlengo wa kwanza ndani ya kipindi cha (2008 – 2012)
  • 19. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cUsimamizi wa CDMBodi kuu ya CDM husimamia CDM, na hujibu maswali yote kwa nchi zilizokubali Kyoto Protocol.Mfano rahisiKenGen (Kampuni ya uzalishaji Umeme Kenya) imekuwa na miradi sita ambayo ipo chini ya CDM, ambayohushughulika zaidi na nguvu za miamba.Miongoni mwa miradi hiyo ni: Mradi wa Eburru Geothermal na Olkaria,pia Mradi wa Upanuzi wa Miamba Moto (Geothermal)c. Utekelezaji wa Pamoja (JI)Utekelezaji huu umeelezewa katika makala ya sita ya Kyoto Protocol, na inaruhusu taifa la annex B kujifunzaUpunguzaji wa utoaji gesi ukaa (ERU) toka Mradi wa upunguzaji wa utoaji au mradi wa utokomezaji wa utoajikatika taifa la annex B.Nchi inayoendesha mradi mara nyingi hupata faida kutoka uwekezaji wan je na usafirishwaji wa teknolojia.Mfano wa mradi.Kwa mfano, taifa tajiri laweza tekeleza miradi yenye kujizalishia nguvu, kama (e.g geothermal power plant)katika mataifa ya EIT (Economy in Transition) kama Ukraine kwa kubadilisha matumizi ya nguvu za makaa yamawe.Operation of JIKuna mikabala miwili ya utekelezwaji wa miradi ya JI• Track 1 ProcedureHutokea pindi upande mwezeshaji anapokidhi matakwa ya kusafirisha na kupata unit za upunguzaji wautoaji unit (ERU), na kuweza kupelekea kwa makubaliano kati ya pande husika.18
  • 20. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagec• Track 2 ProcedureHuwa pindi upande wa uwezeshaji tu unapokidhi sehemu ya mahitaji lengwa. Hii pia ina maana uthibitishowa taratibu na utunzwaji wa ERUs husimamiwa na Kamati shirikishi ya Usimamizi wa Utekelezaji (JISC).Kamatihii huweza kubaini na kutambua upande unaojitegemea kama umekidhi mahitaji.Ingawaje, ni muhimu kuzingatia kuwa upande unakidhi mkabala wa 1 waweza pia kukidhi utaratibu wa mka-bala wa 2.MiongozoMiradi ya JI imekuwa na sheria na taratibu ambazo ni lazima kufuatwa, na ni kama zifuatazo:I) Mradi wa JI ni lazima utoe mchango wa upunguzwaji wa utoaji gesi ukaaII) Upande wa uwezeshaji ni lazima uhakiki mradi wa JIIII) Washiriki lazima wathibitishwe kushiriki na upande unaoshiriki kutekeleza mradi.IV) Mradi ulioanza mwaka 2000 ni halali kama Miradi ya JI na kama itaweza kukidhi mahitaji kadhaa.v)ERUs utashughulikiwa tu katika kipindi cha wawali baada ya mwanzoni mwa mwaka 2008Eligibility requirements for Kyoto Protocol MechanismsIli Upande wa 1 kukubalika kuchukua nafasi katika shughuli hizi, hupaswa kukidhi mahitaji yafuatayo:I) Lazima watambue Kyoto Protocol19
  • 21. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cSura 5: Examining the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism20
  • 22. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecUtanguliziUNFCCC ni mojawapo ya mambo yanayopiganiwa dhidi ya hali ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi, na kwa kutazamakazi zake hupelekea mambo kadhaa ambayo yamekuwa ni vyanzo vya mafarakano miongoni mwa mataifa.Hili ni suala ya kisiasa na baada ya majadiliano mengi, imefikiriwa huenda ikapelekea mambo yatakayopiganiamabadiliko hayo mbali na tofauti za kisiasa.Brief overview of the UNFCCC Financial MechanismTunahakika mtakuwa mmesikia umaarufu wa ripoti ya Brundland ya mwaka 1987. Ripoti hii hujulikana zaidikama “Our common Future” na ni maarufu kwa kuuletea ulimwengu habari za maendeleo endelevu. Ingawaje,ni vyema kutambua kwamba kulikuwa na mambo yenye kuvutia yaliyojadiliwa kwenye ripoti hiyo; na moja kati yalinalohusiana katika ripoti hiyo ni “kutambua rasilimali fedha muhimu ili kupambana na changamoto za kimazin-gira”Role of the COP in the UNFCCC financial mechanismNi muhimu kutambua wajibu wa Mkutano wa Mataifa (Conference of Parties) katika juhudi za UNFCCC ili kue-puka mwingiliano wakati wa utekelezaji. COP ni chombo kinachosimamia Mkutano wa mabadiliko ya tabia yanchi kwa kujikita katika Sera, Vipaumbele vya Programu na maeneo muhimu ya utekelezaji wa kifedha.21
  • 23. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cMifuko ya Fedha ya SasaNyenzo za Mazingira Ulimwenguni (GEF) ina jukumu la kusimamia mifuko na fedha na mikakati yake ndani yaUNFCCC. Kuna mifuko maalumu ya fedha ifuatayo:i) Mfuko maalumu wa fedha kwa ajili ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi – husimamiwa na GEFii) Mifuko ya fedha kwa ajili ya nchi masikini – husimamiwa na GEFiii) Mfuko wa fedha wa kijani– hudondokea ndani ya mkutano wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi.iv) Mfuko wa Mabadiliko – upo chini ya Kyoto ProtocolKatika sura hii, zaidi tutajikita katika kazi kuu za Nyenzo ya mazingira Ulimwenguni (GEF) wakati mfuko wafedha chini ya UNFCCC utajadiliwa katika sura itakayofuata.Historia Fupi ya GEFNI muhimu kutambua kuwa shughuli za kifedha za UNFCCC hutoa fedha kwa madhumuni Fulani.Kuanzishwa kwa GEF kulikuwa ni sehemu iliyosababishwa na Taasisi ya rasilimali Duniani (World ResourcesInstitute) somo ambalo lilipelekea mapendekezo manne juu ya kuanzishwa kwa Mfuko wa kimataifa wa Mazin-gira Duniani. GEF ikawa chombo muhimu cha UNFCCC mwaka 1990, ambapo kilijaribiwa kwa mara ya kwanza.Mwaka 1992, kikawa ni chenye kujitegemea kwa shughuli zote ndani ya UNFCCC na Convectional for BiologicalDiversity (CBD)22
  • 24. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecMwingiliano ulipo kati ya UNFCCC na GEFTangu GEF ilipokuwa ni chombo muhimu cha UNFCCC na CBD, kulikuwa na uhitaji wa kuanzishwa kwa umojahalali kati ya UNFCCC na GEF. Muungano huu ulipelekea kuundwa tena kwa GEF na kuwa:i) A trustee – mkutano wa washiriki ambao utakuwa ukikutana kila baada ya miaka 3ii) Barazaiii) Sekretarietiiv) Mawakala wa Utekelezajiv) Mkutano wa Wanasayansi na Wataalamu Washauri ((STAP)Malengo Makuu ya GEFMadhumuni makuu ya GEF yalikuwa ni kutoa fedha kwa nchi zilizovutiwa kuanzisha miradi au kupendekezaviashiria vya mazingira katika mmiradi iliyopo. Maeneo makuu ya GEF yalikuwa:i) Kupungua kwa tabaka anga hewaii) Utolewaji wa gesi ukaa majumbaniiii) Aina za viumbe hai na mazingira yaoiv) Uchafuzi wa mikondo ya maji ya kimataifa.Onset of problemsKutokea mwanzoni kabisa, GEF ilikumbwa na majanga kadha wa kadha, hasa mengi ya hayo majanga yal-ipelekea kudorora kwa GEF. Moja kati ya majanga hayo ilikuwa ni kuingia kwa Resource Allocation Framework,ambayo iliathiri na kuidunisha GEF. Kabla ya hayo kutukia, nchi masikini walikuwa wakiomba Green Fund, nahatimaye walichokuja kutambua ni kwamba GEF ilikuwa ni kwa ajili ya nchi tajiri tu. Pia ushiriki na uwazi waGEF uliibua maswali mengi kwani nchi tajiri zilizokuwa zikiwekeza katika GEF, zilikuwa na mamlaka makubwaukitofautisha na mataifa mengine hasa yale masikini.T23
  • 25. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cangu Benki ya Dunia na Shirika la kimaendeleo la Umoja wa Mataifa (UNDP) kuchukua nafasi ya kuendeshamfuko huo,kulikuwa na makisio kuwa hizi taasisi mbili hazikuwa na uwezo wa kutosha ili kusimamia na kuzung-umzia masuala mazito ya kimazingira.Changes in contextKwa sababu tunazungumzia masuala yahusuyo fedha, ni muhimu kukumbuka kwamba mtazamo wa kiuchumiulimwenguni kwa sasa na katika miaka ya 80’s na 90’s ni tofauti sana. Matokeo ya mabadiliko ya kiuchumiulimwenguni ya miaka kadhaa iliyopita bado yameendelea kuathiri na kuzorotesha mfuko wa fedha ndani yashughuli za UNFCCC.Pia, kuna njia nyingi zaidi ambazo fedha zimekuwa zikitumika katika kuwakilisha matatizo ya mabadiliko ya tabiaya nchi, mfano ni kama “Clean Development Mechanism”, “Innovative green energy” na “carbon-friendly tech-nologies” Mengi ya mikabala hii ni ya kibiashara.Efforts to strengthen the UNFCCC Financial Mechanism• Establishment of level of ambitionGEF ilidumisha na kujilinda kutoka pande zote, na jitihadi za kuundwa upya kulipelekea mabadiliko machache.Bali Action Plan, kwa mfano, ulianzishwa hatua ya juu, na pia hatua za rasilimali, kwa ajili ya kuwezesha shu-ghuli za mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi katika nchi masikini.24
  • 26. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagec• Standing CommitteeKatika COP 16, wadau waliamua kuanzisha kamati maalum ili kusaidia COP katika kufanya kazi zake kwakutegemea jitihadi za mfuko wa fedha wa mikutano.• Long-term FinanceKatika COP 17 (Durban Platform), wadau wake pia waliamua kuanzisha mfuko wa Ulimwengu wa tabia ya nchikama chombo cha utekelezaji wa shughuli za mikutano, hii ilikuwa sawa na makala ya II ya mkutano. COP 18(Doha, Qatar), utazingatia kuhitimisha makubaliano kati ya COP na GCF. Mhimizo mkubwa utakuwa ni katikakuhakikisha uwajibikaji.HitimishoHivyo, ni rahisi kuona kuwa GEF haikuimarishwa, na milango kwa ajili ya kupata fedha za utekelezaji, inafungwa.Katika ukurasa utakaofuata, tutajadili na kuchambua mfuko maalumu tulioutaja awali kwa kina na pia muone-kano ujao wa UNFCCC. Tuonane tena!25
  • 27. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cSura 6: Pesa iko wapi?26
  • 28. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecKatika sura iliyopita, tumejadili jinsi ambavyo Global Environmental Facillity inavyofanya kazi. (GEF). Katika surahii, tutatazama Mfuko maalaumu wa fedha ambao ulikuwa umeanzishwa ili kuwakilisha matokeo ya mabadilikoya tabia ya nchi. Mifuko ambayo itajadiliwa ni kama ifuatavyo:i) Mfuko maalumu wa fedha kwa ajili ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi – husimamiwa na GEFii) Mifuko ya fedha kwa ajili ya nchi masikini – husimamiwa na GEFiii) Mfuko wa fedha wa kijani– hudondokea ndani ya mkutano wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi.iv) Mfuko wa Mabadiliko – upo chini ya Kyoto Protocol1. Mfuko maalumu wa Fedha wa Mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi (SCCF)Climate Change Convention ulipelekea kuanzishwa kwa SCCF mwaka 2001, na kazi yake kuu ilikuwa ni kuweze-sha miradi inayohusiana na “Adaptation” “Industry Agriculture” “ Forestry” “Waste management” “Technologytransfer” na “Capacity building” “Energy” “Economic diversification” na “Transport”Haya yalikuwa ni majukumu makubwa na GEF ilipewa jukumu la kuendesha mfuko huu. Kwa kuanzia, Barazala GEF lilianzisha taarifa ya programu iliyosimamia shughuli za kifedha chini ya SCCF.Katika COP17 katika nchiya Durban ,South Africa, GEF ilipewa jukumu la kubaini mawazo fedha za ziada ndani ya SCCF na pia kuongezauelewa wa uhitaji kwa nchi wadhamini kuwezesha kwa kutoa rasilimali za kutosha kuufanya mfuko uwe bora nahasa katika kusaidia miradi inayofanyika ndani ya nchi wanachama.2. Mfuko wa Fedha wa Nchi masikini (LDCF)Mfuko huu pia umesimamiwa na GEF, na mamlaka yaligawiwa ndani ya COP7. Madhumuni makubwa ya mfukohuu yalikuwa ni kusaidia nchi masikini kutekeleza miradi yao ya National Adaptation Programmes of Action(NAPA). Hivyo, katika COP11, wadau walikubaliana juu ya mgawano ambao utabaini gharama zote na uwezesh-waji wa mfuko huo.Katika COP17, GEF ilielekezwa kuandaa msingi wa mradi na pia jinsi gani wadau wataweza kuandaa maombi ya27
  • 29. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage c3. Adaptation FundMfuko huu ulianzishwa kuwezesha miradi ya nchi masikini ambazo ni wadau wa Kyoto Protocol, na ambao piani wahanga wakuu wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) bado inaendeleakuwezesha mfuko huu,na vyanzo vingine. Adaptation Fund Board (AFB) husimamia na kuendeleza mfuko huu.AFB hukutana walau mara mbili kila mwaka na ina wanachama 16.Benki ya Dunia ni sehemu ya Mfuko huu, lakini ni katika madhumuni Fulani. Pande husika zilialika GEF ili kutoahuduma ya sekretarieti kwenye Bodi ya Mfuko huu, lakini pia katika malengo maalumu. Mwaka 2011, mapitiojuu mipangilio hiyo ilianza, na hatimaye AFD iliwasilisha kwenye COP17.Bodi ya ziada ya Utekelezaji (SBI) hutoa ushauri kwenye COP juu ya masuala yote yahusuyo; hivyo SBI ilipewajukumu la kuja na maamuzi ambayo yatawasilishwa kwenye COP18 tayari kwa kupitishwa..4. Mfuko wa mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi ya Ukijani (GCF)Mfuko huu ulianzishwa wakati wa COP16, cancun, mexico kama chombo cha utekelezaji wa shughuli zakifedha. Mfuko wa Bodi ya tabia ya nchi ulimwenguni ulichaguliwa kuendesha Mfuko huu. Madhumuni ya GCFyalikuwa ni kusaidia miradi, programu, sera na shughuli nyingine za nchi wadau.Benki ya Dunia ilichaguliwa pia kama sehemu ya Global Climate Fund, ingawaje mpangilio huo ulikuwa na mad-humuni ya kupitia miaka mitatu ya utekelezaji wa Mfuko wa Kijani wa Tabia ya nchi (Green Climate Fund)GCF ilianzishwa wakati wa COP16 kule Cancun, Mexico, kama chombo cha kushughulikia masuala ya kifedha.Bodi ya Mfuko wa Fedha wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi Ulimwenguni ulichaguliwa kusimamia na kuendeshamfuko huo.Dhumuni kubwa la kuanzisha ilikuwa ni kusaidia baadhi ya Miradi, Programu, Sera, pamoja na shu-ghuli nyingine za upande wa nchi wadau masikini.28
  • 30. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecBenki ya Dunia pia iliteuliwa kama mshirika mmojawapo wa Mfuko wa Fedha wa mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi.Mpangilio huu ijapokuwa ulijikita katika kupitia ndani ya miaka mitatu mara baada ya utekelezaji wa Kamati yampito ya tabia ya nchi ukijani (Green Climate Transitional Committee (TC), ambao pia uliundwa ili wakati waCOP16 na kupewa jukumu la kubuni Mfuko wa Fedha wa Tabia ya nchi Ukijani (GCF). Uanachama wa Kamatihii umetoka kwa wanachama 40 (15 kutoka nchi Tajiri na 25 nchi Masikini).Wakati wa COP17 kule Durban,South Afrika, TC ilikuja na chombo maalumu cha kusimamia GCF; na pia baadae COP iliiga vivyo hivyo.Sekreta-rieti ya UNFCCC na Sekretarieti ya GEF kwa pamoja walitakiwa kuunda sekretarieti hadi sekretarieti ya kujitege-mea ya GCF itakapokuwa imeundwa.COP18 ya Doha, Qatar, mpangilio baina ya COP na GCF utakuwa umehitimishwa kwa hiyo kuna uwazi mkubwana uwajibikaji kwenye shughuli za GCF; pia COP ilipewa jukumu la kutoa muongozo kwenye Bodi ya GCF. Nchimwenyeji wa GCF ataamua kwenye COP18 na hata pia Wanachama wa Bodi ya GCFMajukumu ya Bodi ya GCF:• Kuchambua na kupitia majukumu ya GCF• Kuchagua washirika wa GCF kwa kutumia njia ya wazi na ushindani• Kutoa ripoti za kila mwaka kwa COPHitimishoHuu ndio mwisho wa sura hii, ingawaje umebebwa na kusheheni maelezo ya kina. Lakini pia umeweza kuelewani namna gani mifuko hii hufanya kazi na ni jnsi gani huendeshwa. Sura ijayo itakupeleka kwa mgawanyo waCOP kwa hiyo utakuwa na uelewa mpana na wa kutosha wa kazi zake za ndani.29
  • 31. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cSura 7: Muundo wa COP30
  • 32. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecHatimaye. Tumefikia sehemu muhimu, na sura hii itapelekea mwisho wa mfululizo wa Peeling Back the COPambao umekuwa ukifafanua kinaganaga shughuli za UNFCCC na utendaji kazi wake.Sura hii itajumuisha mada ndogo ndogo mbili:i) Muundo wa COP (Conference of Parties)ii) The timeline of the UNFCCC COPMpangilio wa COPHakuna shaka kuwa COP limekuwa ni neno linalozungumziwa tu kwenye mikutano ya mabadiliko ya tabia yanchi, na hakuna chochote ambacho hakitambuliki. COP ni chombo cha hatua ya juu ya maamuzi ambachohukutana kila mwaka na mwaka huu kufanyika Doha, Qatar na kufanya kuwa Mkutano wa kumi na nane .Malengo MakuuMalengo makuu ya COP ni kupitia utekelezaji wa maazimio ya mikutano.DevolutionCOP imegawanyika katika vyombo viwili vidogo, na ni vitovu vya COP. Kuna vyombo viwili vya kudumu ndani yaCOP, ambavyo ni Subsidiary Body for Scientific Technological Advice (SBSTA) na Subsidiary Body for Implemen-tation (SBI)a. Subsidiary Body for Scientific Technological Advice (SBSTA)Madhumuni makubwa ya SBSTA ni kuipa COP ushauri juu ya teknolojia ya utaalamu na mbinu mbadala. Hiiufafanua:31
  • 33. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage ci) Kushawishi maendeleo na usafirishwaji wa teknolojia rafiki ya mazingira.ii) Kusimamia kazi maalumu ili kuboresha taratibu za kuandaa National communications and emissioninventories.SBSTA ni muungano kati ya wataalamu wa vyombo vya utafiti kama IPCCC na COP, ambao mara nyingi hu-jikita katika masuala yahusuyo sera.b. Bodi ya Ziada ya Utekelezaji (SBI)Chombo hiki hutoa ushauri kwa COP kuhusu mambo yote yanayohusiana na utekelezwaji wa mikutano. Na zaidihutafiti mwendelezo kupitia National Communication na Emission Inventories.SBI pia husaidia masuala ya kiuchumi ambayo mara zote huelekezewa kwenye nchi ambazo ni non-annex I napia hutoa ushauri juu ya Bajeti na masuala ya kiutawala.Ni muhimu kukumbuka kuwa kuna maeneo ambayo SBSTA na SBI huingilana kiutawala, na hii hujumuisha:i) Kujenga Uwezoii) Mataifa yaliyo katika hatari ya mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi na mbinu mbadala.iii) Kyoto Protocol2. COP TimelineSafari ya kuelekea COP 18 na hatua za mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi kwa ujumla yamekuwa ni marefu, nayamejaribu kufuatilia mizizi yake katika Mkutano wa Mazingira na Maendeleo wa Umoja wa Mataifa uliofanyikaMei, 1992 kule Rio de Janeiro Brazil. Makubaliano ya mkutano yalitekelezwa mnamo 1994 na kuliundwa COPchombo ambacho ni hatua ya juu ya mchakato wa maamuzi.32
  • 34. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecCOP 1: Kuanzisha MisingiMkutano wa kwanza wa COP (COP1 ) ulifanyika mwaka 1995 kule Berlin, na ulidhamiria kuelezea iwezo wanchi wanachama katika kutekeleza Bodi ya Wanasayansi wa Wataalamu wa Teknolojia ya Ushauri (SBSTA) naBodi ya Ziada ya Utekelezaji (SBI). Mamlaka ya Berlin yalikuwa ni matokeo ya mkutano huu, na majukumu yakemakuu ya kuandaa mpangilio wa Protokoli au chombo halali cha kuunganisha na kupelekea nchi kuainishamabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi.COP 2: Maazimio ya GenevaCOP 2 ulifanyika Geneva katika mwaka 1996 na ulilenga kufuatilia uhitaji wa kupelekea mazungumzo ya jinsi yakuendeleza Makubaliano ya Mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi.COP 3: Kyoto ProtocolCOP 3 ulifanyika kule Kyoto katika mwaka 1997 ambako Kyoto Protokoli uliundwa. Protokoli kilikuwa ni chombocha jitihada ya kutokomeza utoaji wa gesi ukaa za majumbani, na kilikuja na mikakati kama Biashara ya Utoaji,Mkakati wa maendeleo ya Usafi (CDM) na Utekelezaji wa Pamoja.COP 4: Mkakati wa VitendoCOP 4 ulifanyika kule Buenos Aires, Argentina mwaka 1998 na madhumuni ya kuongeza utekelezaji wa KyotoProtokoli kwa kupitia Mkakati Kazi wa Miaka miwili.COP 5:Kuhitimisha Kyoto ProtocolCOP 5 ulifanyika Bonn, Germany mwaka 1999, na iliweka ratiba ya kumaliza kazi juu ya Kyoto Protokoli.COP 6: Kyoto Protocol Operation RulebookAwamu ya kwanza ya COP 6 ilifanyika, The Hague. Baadae Netherlands katika mwaka 2000. Awamu ya Pili yaCOP 6 ilifanyika Bonn, Germany na ulilenga shughuli madhubuti, Carbon sinks, Makubaliano na kuwezeshajitihada za Mabadiliko ya Tabia ya nchi.33
  • 35. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cCOP 7: Marrakech AccordsCOP 7 ulifanyika Marrakech, Morocco katika mwaka 2001 na ulihitimisha juu ya Mpango Kazi wa Buenos Airesna uhalalishaji wa Kyoto Protokoli. Makubaliano pia yaliiga Marrakech Accords.COP 8: Programu Kazi ya New DelhiCOP 8 ulifanyika New Delhi mwaka 2002, na ulifuata Maazimio ya Delhi Ministerial na Programu Kazi ya NewDelhi.COP 9: Adaptation FundCOP 9 ulifanyika Milan, na Italia katika mwaka 2003 na uliiga miongoni mwa Adapation Fund ili kusaidia nchimasikini katika kuiga mipango mipya ya kutokomeza mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi.COP 10: Post-Kyoto MechanismsCOP 10 ulifanyika Buenos Aires, Argentina mwaka 2004, na ulidhamiria katika kusherehesha harakati za ku-punguza mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi na kuiga mikakati ya Usafi na bila kusahau Mkakati wa badae wa Kyoto.COP 11: Mpango Kazi wa MontrealKatika mwaka 2005, COP 11 ulifanyika kule Montreal Canada. Pia ulipelekea mkutano wa kwanza kabisa wanchi (MOP-1) kwenye Kyoto Protokoli.Mkutano ulizaa Mpango Kazi wa Montreal.COP 12: Mkutano wa NairobiCOP 12 ulifanyika Nairobi mwaka 2006, ambako Mpango wa Miaka Mitano uliundwa.COP 13: Mpango Kazi wa Bali.Mwaka 2007 ulifanya COP 13 kule Bali, Indonesia ambako Mpangilio wa Badae wa mwaka 2012 pamoja naMpango Kazi wa Bali kwa pamoja viliundwa.34
  • 36. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecCOP 14: Mkutano wa Mabadiliko ya Tabia ya Nchi wa Poznan.Ndani ya mwaka 2008, COP 14 ulifanyika kule Poznan. Katika mkutano, washiriki walipendekeza mfumo wa ku-wezesha nchi masikini katika kutokomeza mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi.COP 15: Copenhagen AccordUlifanyika Copenhagen Denmark mwaka 2009, ukiwa na madhumuni ya kuanzisha Makubaliano ya Mabadiliko yatabia ya nchi Ulimwenguni kupelekea kufanikiwa kwa Kyoto Protokoli. Ingawaje haya yote hayakutambulika.COP 16: Makubaliano ya Cancun.Katika mwaka 2010, COP 16 ulifanyika Cancun Mexico. Yaliyojiri katika Mkutano huu yalikuwa ni kuanzishwa kwaMfuko wa Kijani wa mabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi.COP 17: Durban PlatformCOP 17 ulifanyika Durban kule Afrika ya Kusini. Hapa, chombo cha kuendesha na kusimamia Mfuko wa Kijani waMabadiliko ya tabia ya nchi ulianzishwa.COP 18Kati ya Novemba 26 na Desemba 7, 2012, COP 18 utafanyika Doha, Qatar na utatafuta kuundwa tena kwamakubaliano juu ya Kyoto ProtocolBetween November 26 and December 7, 2012, COP 18 will happen in Doha, Qatar, and it will seek to renew com-mitments on the Kyoto Protocol.TamatiTunatumai umefurahia mfululizo huu juu ya “Peel Back the COP” na kwa hilo pia umejifunza mengi; kwa waleambao ni wataalamu wa mambo haya, ni matumaini yetu kuwa umeweza kujikumbusha.Hitimisho KuuNi matumaini yetu kuwa umefurahia katika kupitia kitabu hiki, na pia kuweza kujifunza mambo mapya au zaidi;35
  • 37. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cTimu ya WaandajiWafuatao ni watu maalumu waliohakikisha Mradi huu unatokea:1. Kennedy Liti Mbeva – African Youth Initiative on Climate Change – Kenya2. Reuben Makomere – African Youth Initiative on Climate Change – Kenya3. Charles Kyeti – African Youth Initiative on Climate Change – Kenya.4. Kenny Wahome – African Youth Initiative on Climate Change - Kenya5. Ntiokam Divine – Children of the Earth and UN CSD Education Caucus Youth Leader.36
  • 38. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagec37Rejea1. Climate Action”Emission Trading System (EU ETS)” http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets/ index_en.htm2. ECBI Policy Brief: The Field Mechanism of the UNFCCC: A Brief History. http:// www.oxfordclimatepolicy.org/publications/documents/ecbiBrief-FMHistory.pdf3. Finance Portal for Climate Change “Resource Allocation Framework 4”http://www3.unfccc.int/pls/ /f?p=116:42:20115270750189794. Global Environment Facility “Investing in Our Planet” http://www.thegef.org/gef/5. Greenhouse Policy Coalition “Overview of Kyoto Protocol” http://www.gpcnz.co.nz/Site/ The_Kyoto_Protocol_/Overview.aspx6. Kyoto Protocol on the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1998) http:// unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.pdf7. Official website of the Conference of Parties 3 (COP 3) http://unfccc.int/cop3/8. Professor Laurence Boisson de Chazournes, “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change” Audiovisual Library of International Law http://untreaty.un.org/cod/avl/ha/ccc/ccc.html9. Report of The World Commission on Environment and Development; Our Common Future (1987) http://conspect.nl/pdf/Our_Common_Future-Brundtland_Report_1987.pdf10. Steve Zwick, “Voluntary Carbon Markets funnelled $42 Million into clean cookstoves: Report” Ecosystems Marketplace http://www.ecosystemmarketplace.com/pages/dynamic/article.page.php? page_id=9069&section=news_articles&eod=1&gclid=CIj0rPPk6bICFYZ2cAodpEY AkA11. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) http://unfccc.int/files/ essential_background/background_publications_htmlpdf/application/pdf/conveng.pdf12. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) “A Brief History of UNFCCC” http://unfccc.int/cop7/issues/briefhistory.html
  • 39. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage c13. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Adaptation Fund” http://unfccc.int/ coopera tion_and_support/financial_mechanism/adaptation_fund/items/3659.php14. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Background on the United Nations Frame work Convention on Climate Change: The International Response to Climate Change” http:// unfccc.int/ essential_background/items/6031.php15. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Clean Development Mechanism” http:// unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/mechanisms/clean_development_mechanism/items/2718.php16. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Conference of Parties” http://unfccc.int/ bodies/body/6383.php17. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Convention Bodies” http://unfccc.int/ essen tial_background/convention/convention_bodies/items/2629.php18. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Emissions Trading” http://unfccc.int/ kyoto_ protocol/mechanisms/emissions_trading/items/2731.php19. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Green Climate Fund” http://unfccc.int/ coop eration_and_support/financial_mechanism/green_climate_fund/items/5869.php20. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Joint Implementation” http://unfccc.int/ kyoto_protocol/mechanisms/joint_implementation/items/1674.php21. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “Kyoto Protocol” http://unfccc.int/ kyoto_pro tocol/items/2830.php22. United Nations Franework Convention on Climate Change “Least Developed Countries Fund” http:// unfccc.int/cooperation_support/least_developed_countries_portal/ldc_fund/items/4723.php23. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change,”Report on the Conference of Parties on its Thirteenth Session, held in Bali from 3 to 15 December 2007 ” http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/ 2007/ cop13/eng/06a01.pdf38
  • 40. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagec3924. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ”Status of Ratification of Kyoto Protocol” http://unfccc.int/kyoto_protocol/status_of_ratification/items/2613.php25. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change “The Mechanisms Under the Kyoto Protocol; Emissions Trading; The Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation” http:// unfccc.int/ kyoto_protocol/mechanisms/items/1673.php26. United Nations Franework Convention on Climate Change “The Special Climate Change Fund” http://un fccc.int/cooperation_and_support/financial_mechanism/special_climate_change_fund/items/ 3657.php27. World Meteorological Organizatiom “United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ” http:// www.wmo.int/pages/themes/climate/international_unfccc.php
  • 41. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPage cI am a sophomore-year student of Faculty of Social Science. Economics is my ma-jor, in which planning and development studies help me develop strategic thinking. Iam a friendly young person with excellent communication skills and various hob-bies. Playing basketball brings me energy as well as excitement. Reading makes meknowledgeable and thoughtful.Founded an initiative which was based on educating students in secondary schoolsabout environmental conservation, Students Green Journey Climate Change Initia-tive. Listed a semi finalist for by Anzisha Award Prize and received the Jane GoodallInstitute Global Leadership Award for Roots and Shoots Youth Leadership.Experienced in planning, community empowerment, Strategic Planning, Organi-zational Management, Public Speaking, Negotiation skills, Facilitation, Resourcemobilization and fundraising, Lobbying and Advocacy, Events Planning and Man-agement, Interpersonal and communication skills, Report writing, Project Planningand Management, Project Monitoring and Evaluation and Leadership where I havehad had both practical training and experience.ADAM ANTHONY ABRAHAM40
  • 42. My Little COP Pocket BookKennedy Liti MbevaPagecJAMES JOHN is young energetic Tanzanian aged 24, but currently as a final year studentpursuing Bachelor Degree of Arts in Project Planning Management and Community Develop-ment from University of Dodoma. While at school, He did extracurricular training on the is-sues related to environment, empowerment, leadership, gender, capacity building and socialcapital where he had acquired both theory and Practical experiences.James is passionate about ethical leadership and indeed he likes drawing. Drawing to himis something crucial that he believed helps some more people interested in helping preserveour natural surroundings and think about how the consequences of their actions will im-pact the environment. For instance; James depicted an image represented government andglobal businesses idle held over the world. In the background he drew the reds, oranges andyellows represented the fossil fuel power plants and warming of the planet while those thatcould act use the umbrella to shelter behind. The umbrella pictures the world being turnedinside out and upside down by the wind.Also he has been organizing different events and supervising different environmental andother social projects of which in return he has been able to build a good relation among staffmembers and ordinary members as well as the relationship between organization and com-munity at large.James has also been involved by participating in voluntary activities in cleaning the environ-ment from wastes, plant some trees in his College agricultural section where until he foundeda platform that connected his fellow student to discuss and act positively to their environ-ment.Currently, James is volunteering at Youth of United Nations Association of Tanzania as theRegional Coordinator in which he is tasked to supervise several UN Clubs for Secondary anda number of Chapters in Higher Learning in his region, Dodoma and making sure they are allconnected to the Vision and Mission of the Organization at large!JAMES JOHN41
  • 43. UnityStrength

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