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Defrosting cop19

  2. 2. GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 2
  3. 3. Acknowledgement Defrosting COP is a collective effort, a handbook inspired by the amazing, courageous and tireless effort by young people in the quest to secure a sustainable future, pushing the frontiers in this epic battle for survival as regards climate change, and acknowledging the key role that the COP plays in enhancing this very crucial quest. In this esteem able regard, the invaluable contribution made by the writers is worth special mention. Their contribution to this first edition of the series is an exhibition of what collective effort is all about and can lead to. It is a valiant attempt that not only inspires but challenges all of us. For this due regard and acknowledgment bestows itself upon them. Special mention goes to the inspiring young people who are leading the fight vide various inspiring initiatives, networks, organizations in the various regions and capacities they manifest themselves and through the many actions, mechanisms and exhibitions of industry and resilience and sacrifice. They have gone on to conceptualize and actualize incredible initiatives making their indelible and tangible contribution towards the global effort in collaboration with other stakeholders bearing in mind their role as regards current and future generations despite incredible challenges and constraints. It is their contribution that continues to refresh the arduous and difficult journey towards a cleaner, greener and sustainable future. Special regard also goes to those who have supported this and other such initiatives. It is upon that strength that more action and valiant effort manifests itself and it is that realization of the collaborative effort across the divide that pushes the frontiers as regards this epic battle. Their inspiration, words of advice, wisdom and many other manifestations of their backing has proven to be an anchor for such and many other initiatives For that special appreciation is warranted. GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 3
  4. 4. Foreword Once again, we are glad to introduce Defrosting COP19, a guidebook on the 19th UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of Parties (COP19) in Poland, Warsaw. In the spirit of My Little COP PocketBook, this book is written in a simple, fun and easy-to understand manner. This book has been made possible by a number of awesome young people, through the well-articulated articles that make up this guidebook. You can check out their profiles at the end of this book! It is a compilation of articles published on the popular Climate Bits Newsletter. We are also more than glad to hear from you; drop us a line at and we will revert a.s.a.p! Enjoy! GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 4
  5. 5. Table of Contents Bridge To Poland; 7 10 Long-term finance: Focus Areas for the 2013 Work Programme; Fixing Climate Finance; 11 Towards a 2015 Agreement: Elements of the Durban Platform; 12 14 Lost and Damaged in the UNFCCC; The Gender Question; 16 Fossil Fuels in The Developed World: The Case of Fracking in the UK; 18 Snapshot of the 2015 Climate Agreement; 19 21 The Question of Land Tenure: A “REDD” Area; ADP in Bits; 23 REDD and Carbon Mechanisms: Focusing on Indigenous Forest Communities’ 25 Rights; 2015 Agreement: A Balancing Act; 27 Technology Transfer: A Sneak Peak; 29 Participation: A Key Ingredient To Safeguarding REDD; 31 33 References; GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 5
  6. 6. Image Credit: UNFCCC GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 6
  7. 7. 1. Bridge To Poland adopted by the UNFCCC (Conference of Parties) COP The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) deals with the scientific aspect of the negotiations, especially providing technical and scientific support By: Kennedy Liti Mbeva This update is based on the official release by UNFCCC. You can get a fun and easy-to-read and understand guide to the international climate change negotiations here. From June 3-14, 2013, the Bonn Intercessional, which was a precursor to the upcoming international climate change negotiations, commenced. There were mixed reactions from different stakeholders regarding the outcomes, with some feeling that the talks did not amount to much; others held a contrary opinion. Nevertheless, we will explore the outcomes of the talks here. Triple Tracks The negotiations were divided into three tracks: Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP 2-2) – focuses on the design of the post 2020 global climate agreement The Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) – focuses on the implementation of decisions SBI Unfortunately, the SBI session was suspended because Russia, Belarus and Ukraine introduced an additional agenda item on procedural and legal issues that appertain to decision making under the COP This stemmed from the last-minute decision reached upon at COP18 that led to the renewal of the Kyoto Protocol; these three parties had opposed it. ADP 2-2 Post 2020 climate agreement • In this session, parties focused on: setting rules before any emission pledges were made; to enshrine the concept of transparency and accountability in the new agreement; to bring about a balance between mitigation and adaptation; to link the post 2020 climate agreement to the existing UNFCCC institutions, such as the Green Climate Fund, so as to enhance synergy
  8. 8. Raising near-term climate ambition • • • • Also, elements that would enhance the mobilization of finances to facilitate the transition to low-carbon investments were examined: risk management, long-term legally binding agreement; strong domestic institutions in recipient countries; publicprivate partnerships. The Energy Climate Map, prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), was presented and four policies were taken into consideration: improving energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transport; cutting construction and use of least efficient coal plants; minimizing methane emissions from oil and natural gas production; phasing out of some fossil-fuel consumption subsidies Also, the coordination of the Montreal Protocol and the Climate Change Convention were to reduce hydro fluorocarbons (HFCs) emissions was considered Reports on how the structures of the Green Climate Fund (GCF) were taking shape were also received GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 SBSTA SBSTA saw a wide array of discussions, with the following outcomes: Two draft decision texts on essential measuring and accounting rules were agreed upon. An assessment towards the adequacy of efforts to avoid the 2degree warming ceiling commenced, and it is expected to be completed by 2015. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) made a scientific case that climate change was accelerating. Also discussed was capacity building for implementation of the Kyoto Protocol, UNFCCC support systems as well as improved capacity building for adaptation action in developing countries in order to curb emissions at the national level. The response measures that would lead to a just transition for workforce during the switch to a low-carbon development pathway were discussed The scope of agriculture in fighting climate change was discussed A research dialogue on research relevant to governments took place. Of special interest were developments in global climate information, emerging scientific findings and developments in research related to capacity building. 8
  9. 9. Governments and NGOs also exchanged knowledge and experiences so as to foster education, training and public awareness on climate change. Image credit: UNFCCC GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 9
  10. 10. 2. Long-term finance: Focus Areas for the 2013 Work Programme By: Reuben Makomere Long-term finance for climate change has long been a critical issue in confronting climate change. It was given much more priority since the 17th UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP17) in Durban in the year 2011 when a decision was made to undertake a program on the issue. This was one of the ways to enhance efforts towards mobilizing climate change finance from the year 2012. This was the key agenda in the First Meeting of Experts on Long Term Finance held on the 16th-17th July 2013. Various avenues were explored and utilized in order to realize the desirable levels of climate change financial resources. Several sessions have been held on the issue with the first session held from the 9th-11th of July 2012 in the German city of Bonn. The main goal of the session was to enhance further understanding on long term finance and coming up with ways to further ensure effective deployment of the program. The workshop highlighted the work to be done in addition to addressing key GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 issues affecting long term finance such as information gaps and looking in to the options available for climate financing. The second meeting was held in Cape Town South Africa from the 1st-3rd of October 2012 focusing on enhancing climate finance and creating conducive environments for the same. At the 18th UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP18) in Doha the work program of the Long Term Finance was extended with two main areas of focus. The first was essentially to assist developing countries in looking into ways of mobilizing enhanced finance up to the tune of 100 Billion US Dollars by the year 2020. The other focus area was ensuring that there was a conducive environment to enhance the mobilization and utilization of the finance particularly in developing countries. Indeed these discussions went further into another meeting held in Bonn on the 3rd of May 2013 with further emphasis placed on scaling up mobilization efforts particularly from developed countries with the aim of obtaining the goal set to be achieved by 2020. Submissions on ways of achieving this were to be presented to the Conference of Parties 19, later this year. Image credit: 10
  11. 11. 3. Fixing Climate Finance behind this agreement to further delay their promises of climate finance. This is why there are calls to make COP19 a ‘finance COP’. Increased engagement from finance decision makers and finance Ministers looks likely but it is not clear if this will translate into the needed pledges. By: Jamie Peters In the lead up to COP19 in Poland, Parties and Observers will be setting their objectives and their game plans to strategize on what they can take from the talks in their own best case scenarios. Fair and adequate climate finance must be central to those plans. The developing world, who are now being thrown into a global climate deal, will have to not only adapt to the dire consequences of climate change but also have increased mitigation efforts under the 2015 treaty. To do this, as has been made clear already in UNFCCC, they need increased climate finance to facilitate adaptation and mitigation efforts. On top of climate finance being pledged there must also be a close eye kept on the form of the money. If the climate finance is simply moved from other aid budgets then this is unacceptable and the same goes for the use of loans as part of any pledges. Finance must be new, additional from other aid and adequate in order for it to make the difference that it needs to. Significant finance from public sources is the key to fair funding for the developing world to combat climate change. Image credit: Anton Brand The Fast Start Finance (FSF) period to facilitate flow of climate finance from the North to the South ended in 2012. The next agreement on finance focuses on $100bn each year by 2020 through the Green Climate Fund. That leaves a huge gap where finance is needed more than ever. The developed world cannot hide GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 11
  12. 12. 4. Towards a 2015 Agreement: Elements of the Durban Platform overarching term being ‘ambition’. These are: 1. Global Review of the global temperature goal There has been a raging debate as to whether the target of keeping global atmospheric temperatures, of 2 degrees, is appropriate. Thus a global review was proposed with the aim of using data and science so as to establish the appropriate temperature rise ceiling. By: Kennedy Liti Mbeva The current focus of the international climate change negotiations is on delivering a new climate agreement by 2015. This is due to the exacerbating effects of climate change, while efforts to tackle them are often deemed not sufficient. However, with the flurry of discussions, workshops, conferences and studies going on, it is easy to lose track of the process. It is in this light that we will have a series of articles breaking down the nitty gritties of the negotiations towards a global climate agreement. Setting the stage The stage for working towards a global climate agreement was set at COP17, in a package of decisions known as the Durban Platform. In essence, this package outlined four key areas that would form the roadmap for a global climate agreement by 2015, with the GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 1. Launch of a new track of negotiations At COP17, it was deemed that a new subsidiary body was needed in order to iron out the details of the new global climate agreement by 2015. This subsidiary body is called the Ad-hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, in short, ADP. ADP has an overarching mandate of delivering a global climate agreement in any of the three possible forms: i. A legal instrument ii. A Protocol iii. An agreed outcome with legal force 2. Conclusion of some existing stream of negotiations The Durban Platform called for the conclusion, in 2012, of the very broad Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action under 12
  13. 13. the Convention (LCA). The LCA was established at COP13 in the Bali Action Plan. 3. Renewal Protocol of the Kyoto The Kyoto Protocol was to run out at the end of 2012, thus, the Durban Platform called for the adoption of a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Conclusion Thus, the Durban Platform laid the ground for the 2015 climate agreement. Image credit: New Geography GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 13
  14. 14. 4. Lost and Damaged in the UNFCCC both the Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) and Least Developed Countries (LDCs), but it has not been easily discussed in the UNFCCC. Battle-lines drawn...?? By: Luke Kemp Deadlines The 2015 deadline for the next climate agreement is providing the opportunity for the emergence of controversial political time bombs. One of these potentially destructive issues is that of financially addressing loss and damages attributed to climate change. The Three siblings The idea is that countries suffering from the impacts of climate change can be aided through one of three interconnected mechanisms: international insurance; compensation and reparations; and risk management. International insurance would cover impacts such as extreme weather events while compensation would be for slowonset and progressive damages such as sea-level rise. The idea is dear to GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 At COP18 the issue created a fissure between developed countries such as the United States and Australia, and the proponents of AOSIS and LDCs. This almost resulted in a blocking of negotiations. That scenario was narrowly avoided by putting off any decision on ‘institutional arrangements’ for loss and damages until COP19. The controversy is primarily over the concept of compensation and reparations and any ‘institutional mechanism’ to address loss and damages. There is a well-founded fear amongst developed countries that institutionalization of loss and damages or any reference to ‘compensation’ or ‘reparation’ could denote legal responsibility and liability, creating the way for an avalanche of international litigation lawsuits. Hardliners But LDCs and AOSIS are adamant that funding for loss and damages cannot be counted as aid and streamlined under current arrangements. Both sides are unwilling to back down on this issue, and there is no clear technical solution or compromise in sight. 14
  15. 15. Time bomb Loss and damage may not be the sexiest issue on the COP19 agenda, but make no mistake that it is a political time bomb. The question is whether it will be defused before 2015 or if it explode, perhaps even in Warsaw. Image Credit: GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 15
  16. 16. 5. The Gender Question It was also decided that recommendations were to be made on how to specifically address the issue of gender parity within the framework convention and more so in the various bodies set up in order to ensure that there was effective participation from both sides. By: Amanda Asiago It is not in doubt that the gender issue remains sensitive when it comes to the climate debate. It is also not in doubt that women and children, particularly in developing countries bear the brunt of climate change impacts that include floods, famines and droughts among others. The position of women in society has also been recognized as being key in spearheading climate action. The role of gender in shaping climate action and policy was expressly put forward at COP 18 in Doha last year. It was recognized that there was a gender gap right up to the UNFCCC level hence the COP decided to promote gender balance and participation even within the UNFCCC framework. This included increased participation of women within the various bodies of the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol. GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 It follows that a report on the structure and composition of the gender situation within the framework convention and another one on ways to enhance gender participation and parity through-out the framework convention was to be complied and discussed in the 19th session of the conference of parties. The issue of gender cuts across various levels of climate action including adaptation, mitigation, technology transfer and finance. In all these mechanisms, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the question of gender parity needs to be answered and a sustainable mechanism for enhancing the same adopted. As per the decisions at COP 18 and the preparation of the documents on how to advance the goal of gender parity, the foundations might have been laid. It remains to be seen what the parties will agree to when it comes to discussion and adoption of the reports, noting that the mechanisms of Implementation will have to be at least discussed 16
  17. 17. at length sooner rather than later to have meaningful progress at the next conference of parties in Warsaw. Image credit: Bebe Rouse GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 17
  18. 18. 6. Fossil Fuels in The Developed World: The Case of Fracking in the UK Voices of reason....anyone?? Groups, organisations and individuals have come together to oppose fracking in Balcombe in England, citing the devastating impacts that fracking brings. They are correct to cite these dangers as reasons not to frack. Another reason, is that fracking is simply another fossil fuel… Wake up call...!! By: Jamie Peters Fracking, the "new blue eyed boy" In the UK there has been a climate change related story that has dominated headlines this month. The controversial method of obtaining gas from rocks has brought heartache to communities around the world and is now the pet project of the UK Government who have proudly announced that they will give fracking companies the 'most generous tax breaks in world'. Fracking has been one of the ‘unconventional’ means of fossil fuel extraction (others include tar sands). In reality unconventional = incredibly destructive way to maintain an unhealthy addiction to fossil fuels. The UK and the rest of the West must wake up to the fact that if we are serious about avoiding more than a 1.5 degree world and want to bring fairness and justice to climate action then we simply cannot use any more fossil fuels, conventional or otherwise. The continual extraction of fossil fuels, and now the opening of even more dangerous routes for fossil fuel extraction, is either a sign of governments being unwilling to come to terms with what climate change and climate science shows we must do or wanton disregard for what continued fossil fuel extraction means. Either way, people are fighting it at all levels and the size of the movement is going to get bigger and stronger as time passes. Image Credit: GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 18
  19. 19. 7. Snapshot of the Climate Agreement 2015 to inform and regulate the same through the creation of a new agreement-there lies the opportunity to improve on what we have had so far. Back to Rio: re-looking at the international economic model By: Amanda Asiago Opportunity for the ADP?? It is often said that life gives all of us an opportunity to improve ourselves, make ourselves better than we were. As the curtains on the 2011 UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP17) came down, one of the key outcomes was the launch of the AdHoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, or simply (ADP). The time frame for the same was expressly set out….no later than 2015. Indeed the limb of negotiation has two key objectives in mind which are i. Negotiating a legal agreement to bind that is binding and to be implemented by the year 2020 ii. Looking into ways of increasing the level of ambition before the year 2020 with regard to issues such as emissions reduction among others. As the “new era” of climate action under the wings of the UNFCCC gets underway, the Durban Platform of ADP was meant GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 Indeed the UNFCCC is inclined towards cross cutting collaborative and collective efforts aimed at addressing climate change. A good reference point is the 1992 RIO Declaration, where some of the key principles are indeed mirrored including equity, common but differentiated responsibilities among others. In upholding the same, developed countries have been expected to show true leadership in terms of climate action, recognizing their contribution to the climate change. Key is a look into economic progression, important in addressing climate change. It follows that measures and policy regimes aimed at tackling climate change and enhancing sustainable development at all levels are key in defining the intended international economic system, deviating from the “one sided” and often unfair model of the international trade system. That word-Commitments.!!! It is important that a future agreement take into account the commitments of especially developed countries towards emission reduction goals, focusing further on enhanced and specific commitment to support adaptation and mitigation 19
  20. 20. efforts with regard to climate action. Similarly, developing countries also have commitments with regard to among others a change in the “normal course of business” with mechanisms of such change needing to be reflected. This includes mainstreaming key focus areas including adaptation and finance mechanisms as they also seek to play their part in addressing climate change. Image Credit: GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 20
  21. 21. 8. The Question of Land Tenure: A “REDD” Area By: Reuben Makomere Setting out Links…..!! Even as the focus on REDD+ and Forest Carbon mechanisms continues and the issue of enhancing and strengthening the safeguards for the mechanisms continues, Land Tenure and forest property rights continues to be extremely important. Since the issue of rights to land is directly linked to the mechanisms, a clear and safeguarded tenure system is key in looking into the implementation of REDD+ and forest carbon mechanisms particularly with regard to equitable distribution of rights and benefits. Uncertainties tenure regarding land Land tenure informs access and use of land and its resources, who holds these resources, the period within which these are held and the conditions for holding the same. It follows that the form of land tenure has a direct impact on the GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 implementation of REDD+ and Forest Carbon projects. While the land tenure affects almost all matters dealing with land and its resources, uncertainties attached to REDD+ and Forest Carbon mechanisms such as those associated with to carbon rights’ assignment further complicate the situation. The risks are diverse ranging from leakage, to challenges in management of the forest resources and benefits attached to the same; in addition to disruption of the local land law regimes as the assignment of carbon rights comes into play. Multiplicity of laws and resultant gaps The Tanzanian case for instance where there is a multiplicity of laws relating to land, is key in highlighting the need to reconcile land tenure, REDD and forest carbon mechanisms. Gaps existing within the land law regime put village communities at risk of losing their rights to REDD+ benefits, arising from vast portions of community land. Couple this with inadequate recognition of the local indigenous communities’ tenure and by extension forest associations by the relevant authorities then the situation looks pretty grim for these communities. Safeguarding tenure..!! As governments ready themselves to capitalize on carbon mechanisms such as REDD+, the security of rights over land and land-based 21
  22. 22. resources becomes a key area of focus. It becomes vital to also have a look into the existing land law regimes within these countries, and more so developing countries in order to safeguard the rights of particularly indigenous communities with regard to land tenure. In safeguarding the same, not only does investor confidence grow but it is more likely that the village communities will invest in protection of their forests. Image Credit: GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 22
  23. 23. instrument or an agreed outcome with legal binding force under the Convention to address t stylization of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere – the main objective of the UNFCCC. While the final outcome has been slated for 2015, all elements of the negotiating text have to be considered latest at COP20 in 2014; also, it is expected that a negotiating text should be ready by May 2015, for adoption later in the year, during COP21. Currently, the Kyoto Protocol is the only legally binding instrument aimed at curbing greenhouse gas emissions. 9. ADP in Bits By: Kennedy Liti Mbeva The Ad-Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, otherwise known as the ADP, is a subsidiary body of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) It was established at COP 17 in 2011, with the following main objectives: i. To develop a Protocol or ii. Another legal instrument or iii. An agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention The ADP is divided into two work streams: i. The 2015 global agreement ii. Pre-2020 ambition climate i) 2015 global agreement climate ii) Pre-2020 ambition With the havoc that climate change continues to wreck being more apparent by the day, it is hard for the idealistic mind to grapple with the lack of ambition exhibited at the UNFCCC negotiations, so much that an entire work stream had to be dedicated to raising ambition for action on climate change! This ambition is meant to reduce the gap between pledged for emission reductions with actual reduction in emissions; this is mainly through raising of mitigation ambition. The 2013 work plan of this work stream focuses on identifying actions that would lead to increased ambition. This is being done with the aim of keeping the global temperature rise under 2 degrees Celsius. Also, this work stream is focusing on realizing a science-based policy making as regards combating climate change. The main objective of this work steam is to develop a Protocol, legal GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 23
  24. 24. Conclusion That is it with regard to the ADP, a critical cog in the climate change negotiations machine! The next article in this series will outline the various approaches being considered under ADP as regards crafting the 2015 global climate agreement as well as increasing pre-2020 ambition. Image credit: GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 24
  25. 25. 10. REDD and Carbon Mechanisms: Focusing on Indigenous Forest Communities’ Rights Centre (QNCC) dressed in traditional regalia bringing into focus the key issue of indigenous rights regarding REDD and carbon markets mechanisms. While the mechanism was part of the core discussions during the 18th COP, it is worth noting that little progress was made on the same with other issues such as finance for REDD taking centre stage. Safeguards....!! By: Reuben Makomere Way of life…. Indigenous people have always depended in the forests. They regard them home, depending in them for survival, food, shelter and much more. The Aborigines, the Native American Indians, among others have enriched the ecosystem and improved the biodiversity; deploying centuries old using centuries old techniques. However with the advent of REDD, indigenous community rights has been a key area of concern particularly regarding implementation of the same as evidenced by protests against REDD from Chiapas to California among other areas Doha positions… During the COP18 climate negotiations, one could not fail to notice people walking along the corridors of the Doha Convention GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 Going back to the COP negotiations in Cancun, checks and safeguards designed to take into account the rights of indigenous people through prevention of social and environmental harm while at the same time enhancing social and environmental benefits were adopted. These safeguards were to be the basis of all activities and issues pertaining to REDD. However, in Doha, the specific issue of the safeguards was not delved into at length even though the other issues were discussed in great detail and progress noted, such as finance for REDD. The moral and ethical issues pertaining to REDD+ mechanisms do require more care in terms of carving out solutions. The Issues range from corruption to lack of proper accountability mechanisms, leakages hence displacement of deforestation from one area to another and inadequacy of accounting and monitoring mechanisms especially in relation to carbon measurement among others 25
  26. 26. that have grave impacts on especially security of the indigenous people’s rights. Room for progress..?? Maybe 2013 can be the year when finally some concrete progress was made to safeguard this fragile community with regard to COP 19, certainly to this community; the alternative is by far the worse option. Image credit: GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 26
  27. 27. 11. 2015 Agreement: A Balancing Act decisions that made up the Durban Platform. b. Categorization If the UNFCCC climate negotiations were a political competition, then the main competing parties would be Annex I and non-Annex I. The elements of the 2015 Agreement do not categorize parties explicitly, and this is a marked departure from the design of the Kyoto Protocol, which the 2015 Agreement aims to replace. c. CBDRRC By: Kennedy Liti Mbeva If you have been keenly following UNFCCC climate change the negotiations, especially the ADP stream, then you should be aware of the tug of war parties are having in defining the 2015 Climate Agreement. As it is slowly coming into shape, several options are being considered, with concessions and compromises on positions being key to this process – these options are clearly outlined in the Durban Platform. a. Applicability One of the key areas of focus in the design of the 2015 Climate Agreement has been its applicability to all the parties. There have been parties that have called for a symmetrical approach, whereby all the parties to the UNFCCC will abide by the agreement. The EU fronted this position, as part of the GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 The Durban Platform did not mention the principle of Common But Differentiated Responsibilities and Respective Capabilities (CBDRRC). However, in subsequent climate change negotiating sessions, the issue of equity has been gaining traction, and this is mainly informed by the CDBRRC principle, essentially coming back into the design of the 2015 Agreement. d. Climate Effectiveness Climate Effectiveness has been one of the main concerns during the design of the 2015 Agreement. Since many critics have alluded to the Kyoto Protocol as being ineffective, the designers of the 2015 Agreement are keen on making it climate effective. There are two significant schools of thought regarding what constitutes climate effectiveness: 27
  28. 28. 1. Climate effectiveness depends on the stringency of an agreement towards commitments on emissions reductions Image Credit: 2. Climate effectiveness is a function of stringency of commitments, level of participation and compliance The other key issues being looked at by the Durban Platform, aside from climate effectiveness, are benefitcost optimization and climate justice. e. Key issues on the table The Durban Platform was designed with little content so that parties can agree on what will comprise the 2015 Climate Agreement. The key issues being worked out are: the regulatory approach, relation to the Kyoto Protocol, the process of creating the 2015 Agreement, the level of ambition, differentiation as well as the legal form. Conclusion Thus, as the 2015 Climate Agreement is taking shape, it is imperative for everyone involved in the process to make sure that an effective and well-thought out tool is finally designed to combat climate change. GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 28
  29. 29. 12. Technology Mechanism: A Sneak Peak Part 1 By: Amanda Asiago The role of technology in addressing the challenges curtailing sustainable development and climate change cannot be understated. The UNFCCC has gone on to recognize the key role that the same plays in ensuring that all parties comply to the provisions of the convention. This is done through sharing of information and environmental oriented and friendly technologies between particularly developed countries which have a higher capacity in terms of technological research and development and developing countries whose capacity for the same is greatly limited In doing this the effort towards mitigation and adaptation as against climate change would be greatly enhanced, particularly concerning developing countries. improving the participation and partnerships of all key actors, including the public and private sector. Another key objective was to enhancing the use of these technologies through clear and concise plans that would guide the deployment and management of such technologies in addition to improving on the research and development of new technologies. In doing this, harnessing the various levels of technology development centres including international national right down to the very grassroots, to enhance joint working plans and programs is key indeed. In enhancing such mechanisms within the framework, there are two main components that were set up to enhance effective implementation of the technology mechanism. Technology (TEC) Executive Committee COP16/CMP6 laid the grounds for the mechanisms of managing the key issue of technology transfer. The emphasis set forth by the agreements from Mexico was on The TEC is key in terms of making policy for the technology mechanism. In this regard, the TEC sees to it the implementation of the transfer framework in addition to laying emphasis on the needs of developing countries with regard to the most appropriate technological developments in addition to prioritization of the same. In doing this the TEC mechanism incorporates the use of Technology Needs Assessments (TNAs) that are under the umbrella of the Poznan Strategic Programme on Technology Transfer. GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 29
  30. 30. Climate Technology Network (CTCN) Centre and This key component of the technology mechanism was aimed at enhancing implementation of the same. This is through the guidance of the Conference of Parties (COP). In doing so, the CTCN seeks to enhance development and transfer of the technologies in addition to enhancing joint programs in the spirit of cooperation with regard to the development and deployment of these technologies. In doing so the CTCN is also focused on the development of capacity with regard to identification of the various needs of the parties in addition to enhancing the implementation and strategic management of these technologies through projects In addition the gender issue is also a key consideration with regard to the mandate of the CTCN in spurring adaptation and mitigation climate action. Image credit: GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 30
  31. 31. 14. Participation: A Key Ingredient To Safeguarding REDD By: Amanda Asiago Inclusion and involvement Participation from all stakeholders in implementing REDD and forest carbon projects is a vital component to safeguarding the integrity of the whole mechanism. This involvement trickles down to all levels, from the very top echelons to the local communities at the very grassroots level. In mainstreaming participation at all levels of decision making and implementation, particularly at the national, regional and local level, effective management of the benefits attached to implementation of REDD and forest carbon mechanisms. In doing so, key risks that might attach to such implementation can be effectively avoided including corruption in REDD and Forest Carbon projects. REDD Risks Indeed the risk of corruption in REDD and Forest Carbon projects is GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 high, to the detriment of the local indigenous communities depending on forest resources. Issues to do with undue influence at the decision making level, inefficient reporting mechanisms, bribery among many other risks lurk in the shadows in so far as implementation of REDD is concerned. In all these practices, the crucial element of effective participation is often missing; engagement is minimal and restricted hence the risks. The end result is a compromised local implementation program in so far as REDD is concerned with the effects of the same devastating particularly to local indigenous communities. This in turn forms part of the reasons that funnel the fires of discord and scepticism amongst the same communities as against REDD mechanisms hence the protests. Empowerment in Participation Participation is however linked with empowerment. It is not enough to just include the local indigenous communities in decision making with regard to REDD but also empower them to make critical decisions regarding management of the forest resources. In Kenya for instance, key stakeholders including the local communities and young people are pushing for ways to effect this key aspect of management of forest resources, through avenues such as Participatory Forest the Management Plan brought forth by the Kenya Forest Service, and initiatives of key stakeholders, including learning institutions, youth 31
  32. 32. groups, civil society, and stakeholder working groups among others. Real Potential The potential for a successful participation mechanism for REDD and forest Carbon mechanisms at the local level is immense in so far as enhancing the safeguards created for REDD, at least those adopted at Cancun. Image credit: GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 32
  33. 33. References: Anup Shah, “Climate Justice and Equity” 2012 Asian Indigenous Peoples Climate Change Monitoring and Information Network, REDD and Indigenous People’s; emid=27 Association of Small Island States; Bonn Intercessional Meeting held in June 3rd to 14th 2013 Climate Leaders What is the UNFCCC and COP? Daniel Bodansky, Sandra Day O’Connor “The Durban Platform: Issues and Options for a 2015 Agreement” 2012 Centre for Climate and Energy Solutions; Daniel Bodansky, Durban Platform Negotiations, Goals and Options, July 2012 Harvard Project on Climate Agreements; Draft Decision CP/17 Establishment of an Ad-Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action; op17_durbanplatform.pdf European Commission, Climate Action The 2015 International Agreement tm Foundation for International Environmental Law and Development, “2015 Climate Change Agreement” Energy Climate Map prepared by the Energy Information Administration; FAO’s conceptualization of “Land Tenure” FAO Corporate Documents Depository; Greenbits Initiative “My Little COP Pocket Book “ GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 33
  34. 34. Henry Campbell Black, Black’s Law Dictionary (2nd Ed) 1910; reference to the term “Agreement”, West Publishing Company Jo Tyndall Ambassador for Climate Change, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade “ADP Workshop on Ambition” on/pdf/adp1_wsnewzealand_21052012.pdf Kenya Forests Working Group Participatory Forest Management Plans; pdf Legal Definition of the term “Legal Agreement”; Legal Definition of the term “Protocol”; http://legal- Legal Definition of the term http://legal- “Agreement” http://legal- Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer; Organizations such as Extreme Energy Action Network and their initiative Frack-Off; Peter Veit, Darryl Vhugen, Jonathan Miner Threats to Village Land in Tanzania: Implications for REDD+ Benefit- Sharing Arrangements World Resources Institute, January 12th 2012; Scott Barret and Robert Stavins “Increasing Participation and Compliance in International Climate Change Agreements” 2002: Barrett&Stavins.pdf Terry Macalister, Fiona Harvey, “George Osborne unveils 'most generous tax breaks in world' for fracking”, The Guardian, 19th July 2013; The Green Climate Fund; GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 34
  35. 35. Transparency International, Keeping REDD+ clean: A Step-by-Step Guide to Preventing Corruption, 2012; UNFCCC Durban Climate Conference November/December 2011; UNFCCC Doha Climate Conference held in November/December 2012; UNFCCC Warsaw Climate Conference held from November 11th to 28th 2013; UNFCCC “Fast Start Finance”; e/items/5646.php UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP-19) and Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP-9) held in Warsaw Poland in November of 2013; UNFCCC Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP); UNFCCC Subsidiary Body for Implementation; UNFCCC Convention Bodies 629.php UNFCCC Kyoto Protocol; UNFCCC “2013-2015 Review”; UNFCCC, Approaches to address loss and damage associated with climate change impacts in developing countries that are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change; UNFCCC “Gender and Climate Change GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 Portal”; 35
  36. 36. UNFCCC 2013 Report on Gender and Climate Change for the 19th Session of the Conference of Parties; UNFCCC Submissions by Parties and Observer Organizations on Options and Ways to advance Gender Balance to the 19th Session of the Conference of Parties; UNFCCC 16TH SESSION OF THE Conference of Parties (COP-16) held at Cancun, Mexico on November 2010; UNFCCC, “Durban: Towards full implementation of the UN Climate Change Convention”; UNFCCC “List of Annex-1 Parties to the Convention”; UNFCCC “List of Non-Annex-1 Parties to the Convention” s/2833.php UNFCCC Technology work portal; UNFCCC Technology Executive Portal; Committee UNFCCC Technology Needs Assessment Portal; UNFCCC Support for Implementation Portal; UNFCCC Climate Technology Centre and Network Portal; UNFCCC “Conference of Parties”; UN General Assembly, “Rio Declaration on Environment and Development”; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 36
  37. 37. UN Office of the High Representative of the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island States List of the LDC’s; “What Goes In and GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 Out of Hydraulic Fracturing”; 37
  38. 38. Team Awesome This is the awesome team that wrote the articles comprising this book: Kennedy Liti Mbeva Co-founder & GreenBits Initiative Reuben Makomere Co-founder & Director of Strategy: GreenBits Initiative Jamie Peters COP18 International Policy Trainer| UK Youth Climate Coalition (UKYCC)| Focal Point to the UNFCCC Secretariat YOUNGOs | Youth Constituency at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Contributor: International Political Forum Amanda Asiago Luke Kemp GreenBits Initiative: Defrosting COP19 Director: Bachelor of Interdisciplinary Studies (Honours) (ANU), PhD Scholar (ANU) Research Fellow, Ea rth System Governance Project Fenner School of Environment and Society 38