“ Should the color of some other person’s eyes have anything to do with how you treat them? Should the color of their skin?”
Developed the exercise in 1968 after the assassination of MLK Jr. to explain/demonstrate racism to her 3rd grade class in Riceville, Iowa.
Because most of her 8-year-old students had, like Jane, been born and were being raised in a small town in Iowa and had seen black people only on television, she felt that simply talking about racism would not allow her all-white class to fully comprehend racism's meaning and effects.
“ When white people sit down to discuss racism what they are experiencing is shared ignorance.”
She divided the class into 2 groups based on eye color.
The brown eyed students were told they were inferior to the blue eyed students.
“ A belief, conscious or unconscious , that people of different races differ in value.”
“ To make a distinction between people on the basis of class or category without regard to individual merit.”
The individual has no control over the trait. (Race, Religion, Gender, Sexual Orientation, Age)
“ Oversimplified generalizations assigned to groups of people.”
Example: All Irishmen are drunks.
“ A phobic attitude toward strangers, or of the unknown.”
It is typically used to describe fear or dislike of people different from one's self.
“ The tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own ethnic culture.”
In every society; ironically, ethnocentrism may be something that all cultures have in common.
NCAA RACE & GENDER DEMOGRAPHICS REPORT (2008/09)
4% OF ALL ATHLETIC DIRECTORS ARE BLACK.
BLACK AD POSITIONS INCREASED BY 1.1% SINCE 1995-96.
MOST PREVALENT POSITIONS: ACADEMIC ADVISORS/COUNSELORS, ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANTS, & STRENGTH COACHES.
124 BLACK MALE MEN’S BASKETBALL HEAD COACHES COMPARED TO 840 WHITE.
34 BLACK MALE WOMEN’S BASKETBALL HEAD COACHES COMPARED TO 371 WHITE.
59 BLACK FEMALE WOMEN’S BASKETBALL HEAD COACHES COMPARED TO 508 WHITE.
15 BLACK HEAD FOOTBALL COACHES FOR ALL 3 NCAA DIVISIONS.
2005 NCAA DIVISION I-A FOOTBALL RACE REPORT
School Presidents: 95% White
Athletic Directors: 93% White
Faculty Athletic Reps: 91% White
Conference Commissioners: 100% White
Student Athletes: 52% Black
Head Coaches: 2.6%(3) Black
Coordinators: 12.7% Black
IT IS EASY TO DISCRIMINATE BASED ON RACE IN A JOB INTERVIEW, BUT IT’S NOT AS EASY TO DISCRIMINATE BASED ON HEIGHT.
FORTUNE 500 CEO HEIGHT STUDY
MALCOLM GLADWELL LOOKED AT THE HEIGHT OF A RANDOM SAMPLE (250) OF THESE CORPORATIONS’ CEO’S FOR HIS 2005 BOOK, BLINK.
FORTUNE 500 CEO HEIGHT STUDY
-Annual list by Fortune magazine of the top 500 US corporations ranked by gross revenue.
Fortune 500 CEO’s are mostly male, white, and………..tall.
US Men 6 Feet & Above:
Fortune 500 CEO’s
US 6’2” & Above
Fortune 500 CEO’s
1 inch of height is worth $789 / year in salary.
Common argument: Not a lot of women and African Americans are entering the management ranks of American corporations (sports or business).
Anti-argument: It is possible to staff a large company with white men, but not possible to staff it with all tall people.
Of the tens of millions of people under 5’6”, 10 reached Fortune 500 CEO level. Shortness is as much of a handicapped to corporate success as being a woman or African American.
This is not a deliberate prejudice. We just, subconsciously , associate tallness with leadership ability and, subconsciously, negate the short candidates.
We do the same associations in athletics.
“ Players from a certain racial or ethnic group being either over- or under-represented at certain positions in team sports.”
Playing position is strongly related to the perception of the abilities of the athlete.
Traditionally, this has meant that African Americans were less likely to be found in ‘thinking’ positions.
Our attitudes towards things like race/gender operate on two levels.
1) Conscious Attitudes:
What we choose to believe.
Our stated values, which we use to direct our behavior deliberately (Laws prohibiting minorities from voting).
2) Unconscious Level:
The immediate, automatic associations that tumble out before we’ve had time to think.
We don’t deliberately choose our unconscious attitudes, and may not even be aware of them.
Our unconscious crunches all the data from experiences we’ve had, the people we’ve met, the lessons we’ve learned, the books we’ve read, movies we’ve seen, etc. and forms an opinion.
IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST (IAT)
Developed by 3 Princeton psychologists.
-Anthony G. Greenwald, Mahzarin Banaji, Brian Nosek
The IAT is a measure within social psychology designed to detect the strength of a person’s automatic association between mental representations of objects in memory.
Based on seemingly obvious, but nonetheless quite profound, observation.
We make connections much more quickly between pairs of ideas that are already related in our minds than we do between ideas that are unfamiliar to us.
When psychologists administer the IAT, they use a computer where words/objects are flashed on the screen. The responses are measurable down to the millisecond, and those measurements are used in assigning the test taker’s score.
One of the reasons that the IAT has become such a popular research tool is because the effects it is measuring are not subtle; you had to noticeably slow down during some of the tasks.
More than 80% of test takers end up having pro-white associations, meaning it takes longer to complete answers when required to put words into the Black category than when it is required to link bad things with Black people.
ARE WE THAT DIFFERENT?
ACCORDING TO A STUDY RELEASED IN NOVEMBER 2009: -WOMEN ARE EARNING THE MAJORITY OF COLLEGE DEGREES & MAKE UP MORE THAN 50% OF MIDDLE MANAGERS, YET VERY FEW ARE REACHING SENIOR MANAGEMENT LEVEL. -WOMEN ACCOUNT FOR ONLY 3% OF CEO’S OF THE FORTUNE 500 COMPANIES. -WOMEN MAKE 78.7 CENTS TO EVERY DOLLAR EARNED BY A MAN. -U.S. RANKS 71 ST OUT OF 189 COUNTRIES IN TERMS OF WOMEN’S REPRESENATION IN POLITICS.
NCAA RACE & GENDER DEMOGRAPHICS REPORT (2008/09) -20% OF ALL 3 NCAA DIVISIONS DIRECTORS OF ATHLETICS ARE FEMALE (UP 3% FROM 1995-96). -30% OF POSITIONS IN ATHLETICS TYPICLLY REGARDED AS AFFECTING DECISION-MAKING (AD, ASSOCIATE AD, ASSISTANT AD) ARE HELD BY WOMEN. -FEMALE COACHES OF WOMEN’S TEAMS DECREASED BY 4% FROM 1995-96 TO 2008-09. -ALL 3 DIVISONS WOMENS TEAMS: -3,862 HEAD COACHES ARE WOMEN (40%). -5,880 HEAD COACHES ARE MEN (60%). -ALL 3 DIVISIONS MENS TEAMS: -8,272 HEAD COACHES ARE MEN (96%). -328 HEAD COACHES ARE WOMEN (4%).