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Unit 3 violence Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 1) Define "deviance." (Chapter 6) 2) How does the "absolutist approach" explain deviance? (Chapter 6) 3) How does the "constructionist approach" explain deviance? (Chapter 6) 4) What is a "sport ethic?" (Chapter 6) 5) Explain the 4 general norms that form the sport ethic. (Chapter 6) 6) Explain the difference between "violence" and "aggression. (Chapter 7) 7) What are reasons for fan violence? (Article) 8) How does the mass media contribute to sports violence? (Article) 9) Explain the 3 major theories that seek to explain violent aggression in sports. (Article) 10) Reinforcement for acts of sports violence come from what 3 sources? (Article)
  • 2.
    • HOMICIDE RATES ARE 3 TIMES HIGHER IN THE US COMPARED TO COUNTRIES WITH SIMILAR POLITICAL & ECONOMIC SYSTEMS.
    • 16,000+ MURDERS IN THE US EACH YEAR (2 PER HOUR).
    • 11,000+ PEOPLE ARE KILLED EVERY YEAR IN THE US BY GUNS.
    • 95,000+ RAPES IN THE US EACH YEAR (11 PER HOUR).
    • IN 2005, 20-24 YEAR OLDS ACCOUNTED FOR 7% OF THE US POPULATION BUT WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR 17% OF ALL HOMICIDE OFFENSES.
  • 3. WHY IS THERE SO MUCH VIOLENCE IN AMERICA?
  • 4. VIOLENCE “ THE EXPRESSION OF PHYSICAL OR VERBAL FORCE AGAINST ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL(S).”
  • 5.  
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  • 8. VIOLENCE IN SPORTS “ PHYSICAL ACTS, AS WELL AS THREATS OF PHYSICAL HARM, COMMITTED BEYOND THE NORMAL LEVELS EXPECTED WHILE PLAYING/SPECTATING A SPORT.”
  • 9.  
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  • 13. VIOLENCE VS AGGRESSION VIOLENCE: “ THE EXPRESSION OF PHYSICAL OR VERBAL FORCE AGAINST ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL(S).” AGGRESSION: -”VERBAL OR PHYSICAL ACTIONS GROUNDED IN AN INTENT TO DOMINATE, CONTROL, OR DO HARM TO ANOTHER PERSON.”
  • 14. 2 FORMS OF AGGRESSION 1) INSTRUMENTAL AGGRESSION -NON-EMOTIONAL & TASK ORIENTED. *VIOLENCE IS AN OUTCOME OF REACTIVE AGGRESSION. 2) REACTIVE AGGRESSION -UNDERLYING EMOTIONAL COMPONENT WITH HARM AS ITS GOAL.
  • 15.
    • VIOLENCE IN SPORTS OCCURS IN 2 FORMS
    • ATHLETE VIOLENCE
    • SPECTATOR/FAN VIOLENCE
    • WHAT CAUSES VIOLENCE TO OCCUR FOR EACH GROUP?
  • 16. WHAT CAUSES SPECTATOR/FAN VIOLENCE?
  • 17. SOCIAL IDENTITY THEORY “ US VERSUS THEM” -STATES THAT GROUP MEMBERSHIP CREATES SELF-CATEGORIZATION & ENHANCEMENT IN WAYS THAT FAVOR THE IN-GROUP (US) AT THE EXPENSE OF THE OUT-GROUP (THEM). -THE GROUPS THAT WE BELONG (FRATERNITIES & SORORITIES) TO & THE TEAMS THAT WE CHEER FOR (YANKEES & RED SOX) INFLUENCE OUR SELF-IDENTITY. -GROUP SOLIDARITY WITH PLAYERS & TEAMS LEADS TO A VIEW OF OPPOSING PLAYERS & TEAMS AS ENEMIES & FOSTERS HOSTILITY TOWARDS THE OUT-GROUP.
  • 18.  
  • 19. WHAT CAUSES ATHLETE VIOLENCE?
  • 20. THEORIES TO EXPLAIN ATHLETE VIOLENCE
  • 21. BIOLOGICAL THEORY -AGGRESSION IS A BASIC, INHERENT HUMAN CHARACTERISTIC. -SPORT IS A SOCIALLY ACEPTABLE WAY TO DISCHARGE THE BUILT-UP AGGRESSION.
  • 22. PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY -AGGRESSION IS CAUSED BY FRUSTRATION. -IT IS SITUATIONAL. -FRUSTRATION RESULTS WHEN ONE’S EFFORTS TO REACH A PARTICULAR GOAL ARE BLOCKED.
  • 23. SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY -AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR IS LEARNED THROUGH MODELING & REINFORCED BY REWARDS & PUNISHMENTS.
  • 24. REINFORCEMENT FOR ACTS OF VIOLENCE
  • 25. 1) THE ATHLETE’S IMMEDIATE REFERENCE GROUP
  • 26. 2) STRUCTURE OF THE GAME
  • 27. 3) ATTITUDES OF FANS & MEDIA
  • 28. THE MASS MEDIA CONTRIBUTES TO ATHLETE & FAN/SPECTATOR VIOLENCE ________________________________________________ -IT OFFERS EXPOSURE TO SPORTS-RELATED VIOLENCE. -IT GLAMORIZES THE MOST CONTROVERSIAL & AGGRESSIVE INCIDENTS. -ITS COMMENTARY IS LACED WITH DESCRIPTIVE SUGGESTIONS SUCH AS: -BATTLE -WAR -COMBAT -SOLDIERS