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Drucker chapter 5
 

Drucker chapter 5

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    Drucker chapter 5 Drucker chapter 5 Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) Fill in the blanks from the Drucker quote at the beginning of page 157. "Management is about _________. Its task is to makepeople capable of ___________, to make their strengths _____________ and their weaknesses ________________.2) What 3 questions should everyone in an organization be able to answer "yes" to?3) How did Alcoa put Druckers ideas about putting people (employees) first into practice?4) Between 1987 & 2000:A) Alcoas lost workday rate fell from 1.87 to how many days per 100 workers?B) Productivity went up by a factor of what?C) Quality issues fell by a factor of what?5) By the end of 2000, Alcoa increased market value by what %?6) In 2005 Alcoas lost work-day rate was down to what?7) What term did Drucker coin in the late 1950s?8) What did Drucker use the above term to mean?9) What is the difference between efficiency & effectiveness?10) Today, knowledge & service workers together constitute just over what % of the US workforce?11) What is Whole Foods method for successfully finding the right people?12) Fill in the blank. "A mission statement should fit on your ___________________."13) What is FPUs mission statement?14) What is the mission statement of your favorite organization?15) Fill in the blanks. "Especially for knowledge workers, Drucker was a strong advocate for ________________ rather than____________________.16) There is no better motivation for working hard than what?17) What did the PARC scientists refer to Xerox officials as?18) Who is the worlds largest producer of appliances?19)  What general category of people & knowledge strategies typically involves the highest investment in knowledge?20) What general category of people & knowledge strategies has a smaller knowledge component in its offering?21) What general category of people & knowledge strategies is all about low price?22) What general category of people & knowledge strategies has a high knowledge content within its offerings & needs fewpeople to operate?
    • “MANAGEMENT IS ABOUT HUMAN BEINGS. ITS TASK IS TOMAKE PEOPLE CAPABLE OF JOINT PERFORMANCE, TO MAKE THEIR STRENGTHS EFFECTIVE & THEIR WEAKNESSES IRRELEVANT.”
    • WHAT DO EMPLOYEES EXPECT FROM THEIR MANAGERS?-EVERY PERSON IN AN ORGANIZATION SHOULD BE ABLE TO ANSWER YES TO 3 QUESTIONS:1) ARE YOU TREATED EVERY DAY WITH DIGNITY & RESPECT BY EVERYONE YOU ENCOUNTER?2) ARE YOU GIVEN THE THINGS THAT YOU NEED (EDUCATION, TRAINING, ENCOURAGEMENT, SUPPORT) SO THAT YOU CAN MAKE A CONTRIBUTION?3) DO PEOPLE NOTICE THAT YOU DID IT?
    • HOW DID ALCOA PUT DRUCKER’S IDEAS ABOUT “PUTTING PEOPLE FIRST” INTO PRACTICE? -MADE A CONNECTION BETWEEN HUMAN VALUES, EMPLOYEE SAFETY, & FINANCIAL SUCCESS.-SOUGHT OUT TO BE THE FIRST 100% INJURY FREE WORK PLACE.
    • WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN EFFICIENCY & EFFECTIVENESS?EFFICIENCY:-THE ABILITY TO GET THINGS DONE. (MANUAL WORK)EFFECTIVENESS:-THE ABILITY TO GET THE RIGHT THING DONE. (KNOWLEDGE WORKERS)WHY DOES MANAGEMENT NEED TO APPROACH KNOWLEDGE WORKERS &SERVICE WORKERS DIFFERENTLY FROM THE TRADITIONAL BLUE-COLLAR WORKER?
    • WHAT MUST MANAGEMENT OFFER KNOWLEDGE WORKERS?THE OPPORTUNITY TO:1) COMBINE THEIR EXPERTISE WITH OTHER PEOPLE’SCOMPLIMENTARY SKILLS, INSIGHT, & RELATIONSHIPS.2) WORK TOWARD A MISSION THAT HAS AN IMPACT ON THECUSTOMER.3) BE ABLE TO MEASURE THEIR EFFECTIVENESS.
    • AS MANAGERS, HOW CAN WE MOTIVATE OURKNOWLEDGE WORKERS SO THAT THEY WILL BE EFFECTIVE & ENGAGED EMPLOYEES?“PEOPLE WORK JUST HARD ENOUGH NOT TO GET FIRED.” PETER GIBBONS
    • •FIRST, WE MUST RECOGNIZE THAT PEOPLE ARE ANORGANIZATION’S MOST VALUABLE ASSET. -PEOPLE: CUSTOMERS & EMPLOYEES•SECOND, WE MUST FIGURE OUT WHAT MOTIVATES EACHOF OUR INDIVIDUAL EMPLOYEES. -THE CANDLE PROBLEM DANIEL PINK CLIP ON MOTIVATION
    • THE CANDLE PROBLEM
    • THE CANDLE PROBLEM-CREATED IN 1945 BY PSYCHOLOGIST KARL DUNCKER.-A COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE TEST THAT MEASURES THE INFLUENCEOF FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESS ON A PARTICIPANT’S PROBLEM SOLVINGCAPABILITIES.-FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESS: A MENTAL BLOCK AGAINST USING ANOBJECT IN A NEW WAY THAT IS REQUIRED TO SOLVE A PROBLEM. -CANDLE PROBLEM BLOCK: THE BOX OF MATCHES.
    • HOW THE CANDLE PROBLEM APPLIES TO EMPLOYEE MOTIVATIONWHY REWARDS, COMMISSIONS, & BONUSES TO MOTIVATE YOUR WORKERS DOES NOT WORK-SAM GLUCKSBERG (SCIENTIST FROM PRINCETON UNIV.)CONDUCTED AN EXPERIMENT TO SEE IF OFFERING AFINANCIAL REWARD HELPED PEOPLE PERFORM A TASK.-HE FOUND THAT WHEN A FINANCIAL INCENTIVE WASOFFERED FOR SOLVING A PROBLEM IN A SHORTERAMOUNT OF TIME, THE TEST GROUP TOOK LONGER TOSOLVE THE PROBLEM THAN THE GROUP THAT WAS NOTINCENTIVIZED. WHY?
    • -WHEN WE ARE OFFERED A REWARD/INCENTIVE FOR A BEHAVIOR,PART OF OUR BRAIN FOCUSES ON THAT REWARD. THAT’S HOWINCENTIVES WORK.
    • -HOWEVER, IF WE ARE DOING A TASK THAT REQUIRES CREATIVITY, NARROW FOCUS LIMITSTHE RANGE OF THOUGHT ESSENTIAL TO CREATIVE OUTPUT.-WHEN WE ARE NOT GIVEN AN INCENTIVE TO FOCUS ON, WE BECOME FREE TO COMPLETELYDEVOTE OUR MENTAL EFFORTS TO JUST SOLVING THE PROBLEM.-THUS, OUR MIND IS ABLE TO GENERATE CREATIVE SOLUTIONS FASTER.
    • -CONTINGENT MOTIVATORS (IF YOU DO THIS, THEN YOU GET THIS) OFTEN DO MORE HARMTHAN GOOD. THEY NARROW OUR FOCUS, & RESTRICT OUR POSSIBILITY.-STUDIES SHOW THAT AS LONG AS A TASK INVOLVES MECHANICAL SKILL, REWARDS WORKAS EXPECTED: THE HIGHER THE PAY, THE BETTER THE PERFORMANCE.-BUT ONCE A TASK REQUIRES EVEN BASIC COGNITIVE SKILL, A LARGER REWARD OFTENLEADS TO POORER PERFORMANCE.-IF/THEN REWARDS WORK WELL FOR NARROW FOCUSED 20TH CENTURY TASKS (BUILDING ACAR) BUT DO NOT WORK WELL FOR 21ST CENTURY TASKS THAT REQUIRE CREATIVITY(DEVELOPING THE NEXT IPOD).-STUDIES SHOW THAT FINANCIAL INCENTIVES OFTEN RESULT IN A NEGATIVE IMPACT ONOVERALL PERFORMANCE.-SO WHAT’S THE BEST WAY TO MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES?
    • HIRE EMPLOYEES THAT ARE INTRINSICALLY MOTIVATED & SELF- DIRECTED.-INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: BASED ON TAKING PLEASURE IN AN ACTIVITY RATHER THAN WORKING TOWARDS AN EXTERNAL REWARD FOR COMPLETING THE ACTIVITY.-INTRINSIC MOTITATION REVOLVES AROUND 3 ELEMENTS.1) AUTONOMY: THE URGE TO DIRECT OUR OWN LIVES.2) MASTERY: THE DESIRE TO GET BETTER AT SOMETHING THAT MATTERS.3) PURPOSE: THE YEARNING TO DO WHAT WE DO IN THE SERVICE OF SOMETHING LARGER THAN OURSELVES.
    • “THE ONLY THING THAT REQUIRES MORE TIME & WORK THAN PUTTING THE RIGHT PEOPLE INTO A JOB IS UNMAKING A WRONG PEOPLE DECISION.” DRUCKER’S 5 RULES FOR HIRING PEOPLE1) LOOK AT A NUMBER OF POTENTIALLY QUALIFIED PEOPLE2) THINK HARD ABOUT WHAT EACH CANDIDATE BRINGS TO THE POSITION & THE ORGANIZATION3) HAVE A VARIETY OF PEOPLE GET TO KNOW THE CANDIDATE AS A PERSON4) DISCUSS EACH OF THE CANDIDATES WITH SEVERAL PEOPLE WHO HAVE WORKED WITH THEM5) AFTER THE HIRE, FOLLOW UP TO MAKE SURE THE APPOINTEE UNDERSTANDS THE JOB
    • WHAT IS WHOLE FOODS METHOD FOR SUCCESSFULLY FINDING THE RIGHT PEOPLE?-EMPLOYEES OF EACH STORE ARE ORGANZED INTO SELF-MANAGING TEAMSRESPONSIBLE FOR THE OPERATIONS OF THE STORE (MERCHANDISING,SCHEDULING, HIRING).-THEY ARE ALSO CHARGED WITH WRITING JOB DESCRIPTIONS.-EVERY HIRE MUST BE APPROVED BY 2/3 MAJORITY VOTEOF THE TEAM AFTERA 30-DAY TRIAL PERIOD.-RESULT: HIGH MORALE & LOWER EMPLOYEE TURNOVER THAN THEINDUSTRY AVERAGE.
    • “WHAT DIFFERENTIATES ORGANIZATIONS IS WHETHER THEY CAN MAKE COMMON PEOPLE PERFORM UNCOMMON THINGS.”WHEN EMPLOYEES STOP BEING INTRINSICALLY MOTIVATED, IT’S TIME FOR THEM TO GO.
    • THREE TYPES OF PEOPLE TO FIRE IMMEDIATELYIF YOU WANT A HAPPY CULTURE, FIRE ALL THE UNHAPPY PEOPLE.
    • 1) THE VICTIMS“CAN YOU BELIEVE WHAT THEY WANT US TO DO NOW? AND OF COURSE WE HAVE NO TIME TO DO IT. I DON’T GET PAID ENOUGH FOR THIS. THE BOSS IS CLUELESS.”-PEOPLE WHO SEE PROBLEMS AS OCCASIONS FOR PERSECUTION RATHERTHAN CHALLENGES TO OVERCOME.-GLOOMY, PESSIMISTIC PEOPLE WHO ALWAYS FEEL PERSECUTED.
    • 2) THE NONBELIEVERS “WHY SHOULD WE WORK SO HARD ON THIS? EVEN IF WE COME UP WITH A GOOD IDEA, THE BOSS WILL PROBABLY KILL IT. IF HE/SHE DOESN’T, THE MARKET WILL. I’VE SEEN THIS 100 TIMES BEFORE.”-OFTEN, THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A WINNER & A LOSER IS WILLPOWER.-WINNERS BELIEVE THEY CAN DO IT, WHILE LOSERS DOUBTED IT WASPOSSIBLE.“IF YOU THINK YOU CAN OR YOU THINK YOU CANNOT, YOU ARE CORRECT.” HENRY FORD
    • 3) THE KNOW-IT-ALLS “YOU PEOPLE OBVIOUSLY DON’T UNDERSTAND THE BUSINESS WE ARE IN. THE REGULATIONS WILL NOT ALLOW AN IDEA LIKE THIS, & OUR STAKEHOLDERS WON’T EMBRACE IT.”-THE BEST INNOVATORS ARE LEARNERS, NOT KNOWERS.-TOO OFTEN THE SMARTEST, MOST-SEASONED EMPLOYEE EVENTUALLY BECOMESEXPERT IN USING HIS/HER KNOWLEDGE TO EXPLAIN WHY THINGS ARE IMPOSSIBLERATHER THAN POSSIBLE.“THIS ‘TELEPHONE’ HAS TOO MANY SHORTCOMINGS TO BE SERIOUSLY CONSIDERED AS A MEANS OF COMMUNICAION. THE DEVICE IS INHERENTLY OF NO VALUE TO US.” WESTERN UNION INTERNAL MEMO, 1876