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Chapters 8, 9 Chapters 8, 9 Presentation Transcript

    • NINE INNINGS FROM GROUND ZERO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    • 1) How did sports help in the healing process for New York & America after 9/11? Cite specific examples from the film.
    • 2) In the film Diamondbacks pitcher Curt Schilling says, “They had to win those 3 games at their place to make it right.” What did he mean?
    • SPORTS AFTER 9/11 ARTICLE DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    • What were the only 2 things that got former NYC mayor Rudy Giuliani’s mind off of 9/11?
    • How did sports help America return to normalcy after 9/11?
    • According to a report in the October 2001 Sports Business Journal, how much money did sports teams spend to beef up security over the course of the year after 9/11?
    • What city hosted the first Olympics after 9/11, & how much did they spend on security?
    • How much did Athens spend on security for their Olympics?
    • CHAPTER 8 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    • 1) Define: stress, stressors, distress, eustress.
    • 2) Explain how state, nonspecifically induced changes, & specific syndrome contribute to Selye's stress definition.
    • 3) State & explain the 3 stages of GAS (page 217).
    • CHAPTER 9 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
    • 1) State & explain the 5 main physiological benefits of humor & laughter.
    • 2) State & explain the 4 main psychological benefits of humor & laughter.
    • 3) State & explain the 3 main social & interpersonal benefits of humor & laughter.
  • How did sports help in the healing process for New York & America after 9/11? Cite specific examples from the film/article.
  • 1) VENUES USED AS STAGING GROUNDS FOR VOLUNTEERS & SUPPLIES FOR RESCUE WORKERS.
  • 2) SPORTS HELP US RETURN TO NORMALCY.
  • 3) SPORTS ARE THE ULTIMATE OUTLET TO ESCAPE.
  • In the film Diamondbacks pitcher Curt Schilling says, “They had to win those 3 games at their place to make it right.” What did he mean?
  • WHAT IS STRESS? -A PHYSICAL RESPONSE BY THE BODY TO A STIMULUS THAT DISTURBS OR INTERFERES WITH THE NORMAL PHYSIOLOGICAL EQUILIBRIUM OF AN ORGANISM. -STRESS CAN BE FELT AS PHYSICAL, MENTAL, OR EMOTIONAL STRAIN/TENSION.
  • WHAT IS A STRESSOR? -A STIMULUS (ACTIVITY, EVENT, ETC) THAT CAUSES STRESS.
  • WHAT IS DISTRESS? -NEGATIVE STRESS. -STRESS THAT CAUSES PAIN, SUFFERING, TROUBLE, ETC.
  • WHAT IS EUSTRESS? -POSITIVE STRESS. -STRESS THAT IS HELPFUL.
  • AS WE DISCUSS SELYE & THE GAS STAGES, THINK OF A SPORT YOU PLAY/PLAYED AS THE STRESSOR.
  • SELYE’S STRESS DEFINITION “ A state manifested by a specific syndrome that consists of all nonspecifically induced changes within a biological system.” 1) State -Stress is characterized by a particular state of being -Stress produces physiological changes that are evident in most people under stress -People under stress display common characteristics of their state of being 2) Nonspecifically Induced Changes -Stress can be induced anywhere and by anything -Thus, stress is nonspecifically induced 3) Specific Syndrome -Stress is characterized by a specific pattern of changes (GAS) -General Adaptation Syndrome
    • GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME
    • General
    • -Has widespread effect on biological system
    • -Many parts of the body are affected
    • Adaptation
    • -Stimulates a defense or adjustment to a stressor
    • Syndrome
    • -A set of coordinated stages that are dependent on one another
    • -GAS consists of 3 stages
    • GAS STAGES
    • 1) ALARM
    • Body has initial physical reaction to a stressor
    • Often called the Fight-or-Flight reaction
    • This prepares the body for life-threatening situations, channeling away resources from such as the digestive and immune system to more immediate muscular and emotional needs.
    • This leads to the immune system being depressed, making us susceptible to disease.
    • -Weight Loss
    • -Blood becoming more concentrated with hormones
    • Stage is short-lived
    • 2) RESISTANCE
    • As we become used to the stress levels, we initially become more resistance to disease
    • Body is working at peak efficiency and is unlikely to succumb to stressor
    • -Blood becomes diluted
    • -Body weight returns to normal
    • This leads us to believe we can easily adapt to these more stressful situations
    • However, this is only the immune system fighting to keep up with demands and expectations, but requires it to work at abnormally high levels
    • Stage can last seconds, days, months
    • 3) EXHAUSTION
    • Body becomes weak and is vulnerable to stressor
    • Damage inflicted is depended on strength of the body and nature of stressor
    • Strong stressor could result in stress-related disease
    • -Heart Attack
    • -Death
    • Mild stressor may not cause any significant damage
    • -Fatigue
    • -Minimal weight loss
  • CHAPTER 9 BENEFITS OF HUMOR & LAUGHTER
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL (PHYSICAL) BENEFITS (P. 243) 1) Tension Reduction -Muscles tense due to stress -Muscles tense due to laughter, but relax after 2) Stimulation Of The Sympathetic Nervous System -Responsible for control of sweat glands, blood vessels, eyes, heart, bronchi, kidneys, bladder….. -Frequent stimulation of system increases function and enables body to more effectively handle physical stress -Laughter results in release of hormones: epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine (attention & focus)
  • 3) Increased Respiratory Activity -Diaphragm (main muscle of respiration between chest & abdomen) is needed to laugh -Contracts & expands massaging other surrounding organs (lungs & stomach) -During laughter, heart rate and blood pressure increase -After laughter, heart rate and blood pressure fall below normal level -Allows body to enter state of relaxation 4) Stimulation Of The Circulatory System -Laughter referred to as “internal jogging” -Increased heart rate and cardiac output 5) Pain Reduction -Physical pain can increase physical & emotional stress -Stress can induce physical pain (headaches, backaches) -Hypothesis: release of endorphins by brain during laughter results in pain reduction -Hypothesis: person’s attention diverted away from pain during laughter
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL (MENTAL) BENEFITS (P. 245) 1) Sudden shift in cognitive perspective -Distancing oneself from stressors provides opportunity to look at problem objectively and identify possible resolutions 2) Reducing negative emotions (anxiety, anger, depression) -Humor allows people to have an increased functioning level during stressful situations -Used excessively could become a form of denial 3) Creating & maintaining a positive attitude -Being able to see humor in a given situation reduces feelings of helplessness -Affirms that individual, not situation/emotion, is in control of his/her life 4) Feelings of well-being & euphoria - Laughter stimulates the release of arousal hormones -Hormones influence mind & body resulting in a feeling of euphoria (happiness, confidence)
  • SOCIAL & INTERPERSONAL BENEFITS (P. 247) 1) Acts as an ice breaker and helps establish communication -Laughter is an indicator of attitude similarities -Attitude similarities affect attraction among strangers -Acts as a social lubricant 2) Helps maintain relationships -Helps people handle relationship stressors -Helps get over not harp on petty differences -Minimizes conflict and friction 3) Facilitates communication of sensitive issues -Eases confrontational situations -Distances people from problem and allows maintenance of a proper perspective -Deflects anger so situation can be more readily resolved