NINE INNINGS FROM GROUND ZERO DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1) How did sports help in the healing process for New York & America after 9/11? Cite specific examples from the film.
2) In the film Diamondbacks pitcher Curt Schilling says, “They had to win those 3 games at their place to make it right.” What did he mean?
SPORTS AFTER 9/11 ARTICLE DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
What were the only 2 things that got former NYC mayor Rudy Giuliani’s mind off of 9/11?
How did sports help America return to normalcy after 9/11?
According to a report in the October 2001 Sports Business Journal, how much money did sports teams spend to beef up security over the course of the year after 9/11?
What city hosted the first Olympics after 9/11, & how much did they spend on security?
How much did Athens spend on security for their Olympics?
CHAPTER 8 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1) Define: stress, stressors, distress, eustress.
2) Explain how state, nonspecifically induced changes, & specific syndrome contribute to Selye's stress definition.
3) State & explain the 3 stages of GAS (page 217).
CHAPTER 9 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
1) State & explain the 5 main physiological benefits of humor & laughter.
2) State & explain the 4 main psychological benefits of humor & laughter.
3) State & explain the 3 main social & interpersonal benefits of humor & laughter.
How did sports help in the healing process for New York & America after 9/11? Cite specific examples from the film/article.
1) VENUES USED AS STAGING GROUNDS FOR VOLUNTEERS & SUPPLIES FOR RESCUE WORKERS.
2) SPORTS HELP US RETURN TO NORMALCY.
3) SPORTS ARE THE ULTIMATE OUTLET TO ESCAPE.
In the film Diamondbacks pitcher Curt Schilling says, “They had to win those 3 games at their place to make it right.” What did he mean?
WHAT IS STRESS? -A PHYSICAL RESPONSE BY THE BODY TO A STIMULUS THAT DISTURBS OR INTERFERES WITH THE NORMAL PHYSIOLOGICAL EQUILIBRIUM OF AN ORGANISM. -STRESS CAN BE FELT AS PHYSICAL, MENTAL, OR EMOTIONAL STRAIN/TENSION.
WHAT IS A STRESSOR? -A STIMULUS (ACTIVITY, EVENT, ETC) THAT CAUSES STRESS.
WHAT IS DISTRESS? -NEGATIVE STRESS. -STRESS THAT CAUSES PAIN, SUFFERING, TROUBLE, ETC.
WHAT IS EUSTRESS? -POSITIVE STRESS. -STRESS THAT IS HELPFUL.
AS WE DISCUSS SELYE & THE GAS STAGES, THINK OF A SPORT YOU PLAY/PLAYED AS THE STRESSOR.
SELYE’S STRESS DEFINITION “ A state manifested by a specific syndrome that consists of all nonspecifically induced changes within a biological system.” 1) State -Stress is characterized by a particular state of being -Stress produces physiological changes that are evident in most people under stress -People under stress display common characteristics of their state of being 2) Nonspecifically Induced Changes -Stress can be induced anywhere and by anything -Thus, stress is nonspecifically induced 3) Specific Syndrome -Stress is characterized by a specific pattern of changes (GAS) -General Adaptation Syndrome
GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME
-Has widespread effect on biological system
-Many parts of the body are affected
-Stimulates a defense or adjustment to a stressor
-A set of coordinated stages that are dependent on one another
-GAS consists of 3 stages
Body has initial physical reaction to a stressor
Often called the Fight-or-Flight reaction
This prepares the body for life-threatening situations, channeling away resources from such as the digestive and immune system to more immediate muscular and emotional needs.
This leads to the immune system being depressed, making us susceptible to disease.
-Blood becoming more concentrated with hormones
Stage is short-lived
As we become used to the stress levels, we initially become more resistance to disease
Body is working at peak efficiency and is unlikely to succumb to stressor
-Blood becomes diluted
-Body weight returns to normal
This leads us to believe we can easily adapt to these more stressful situations
However, this is only the immune system fighting to keep up with demands and expectations, but requires it to work at abnormally high levels
Stage can last seconds, days, months
Body becomes weak and is vulnerable to stressor
Damage inflicted is depended on strength of the body and nature of stressor
Strong stressor could result in stress-related disease
Mild stressor may not cause any significant damage
-Minimal weight loss
CHAPTER 9 BENEFITS OF HUMOR & LAUGHTER
PHYSIOLOGICAL (PHYSICAL) BENEFITS (P. 243) 1) Tension Reduction -Muscles tense due to stress -Muscles tense due to laughter, but relax after 2) Stimulation Of The Sympathetic Nervous System -Responsible for control of sweat glands, blood vessels, eyes, heart, bronchi, kidneys, bladder….. -Frequent stimulation of system increases function and enables body to more effectively handle physical stress -Laughter results in release of hormones: epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine (attention & focus)
3) Increased Respiratory Activity -Diaphragm (main muscle of respiration between chest & abdomen) is needed to laugh -Contracts & expands massaging other surrounding organs (lungs & stomach) -During laughter, heart rate and blood pressure increase -After laughter, heart rate and blood pressure fall below normal level -Allows body to enter state of relaxation 4) Stimulation Of The Circulatory System -Laughter referred to as “internal jogging” -Increased heart rate and cardiac output 5) Pain Reduction -Physical pain can increase physical & emotional stress -Stress can induce physical pain (headaches, backaches) -Hypothesis: release of endorphins by brain during laughter results in pain reduction -Hypothesis: person’s attention diverted away from pain during laughter
PSYCHOLOGICAL (MENTAL) BENEFITS (P. 245) 1) Sudden shift in cognitive perspective -Distancing oneself from stressors provides opportunity to look at problem objectively and identify possible resolutions 2) Reducing negative emotions (anxiety, anger, depression) -Humor allows people to have an increased functioning level during stressful situations -Used excessively could become a form of denial 3) Creating & maintaining a positive attitude -Being able to see humor in a given situation reduces feelings of helplessness -Affirms that individual, not situation/emotion, is in control of his/her life 4) Feelings of well-being & euphoria - Laughter stimulates the release of arousal hormones -Hormones influence mind & body resulting in a feeling of euphoria (happiness, confidence)
SOCIAL & INTERPERSONAL BENEFITS (P. 247) 1) Acts as an ice breaker and helps establish communication -Laughter is an indicator of attitude similarities -Attitude similarities affect attraction among strangers -Acts as a social lubricant 2) Helps maintain relationships -Helps people handle relationship stressors -Helps get over not harp on petty differences -Minimizes conflict and friction 3) Facilitates communication of sensitive issues -Eases confrontational situations -Distances people from problem and allows maintenance of a proper perspective -Deflects anger so situation can be more readily resolved