CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) When it comes to fitness & wellness, we live in a "toxic" environment. Explain.2) What en...
Physical inactivity causes 1 in 10 deaths worldwide, study says
1) According to a series of studies released in British medical journal, out of 10 deaths worldwide, how many arecaused by...
8) What % of women worldwide are inactive?-34%9) Free, public exercise events, creating an environment that was conducive ...
WHEN IT COMES TO FITNESS & WELLNESS, WE LIVE IN A             “TOXIC” ENVIRONMENT.                     WHY?
WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON            PHYSICAL ACTIVITY?
1) MODERN-DAY CONVENIENCESLULL US INTO PHYSICAL INACTIVITY
2) MODERN-DAY ARCHITECTUREREINFORCES UNHEALTHY BEHAVIORS
3) SEDENTARY JOBSMOST JOBS REQUIRE PEOPLE TO SIT MOST OF THE DAY
4) SEDENTARY LEISURELIKE A LOT OF OUR JOBS, A LOT OF OUR LEISURE TIME            IS SPENT BEING SEDENTARY
5) OUR COMMUNITIESMOST DO NOT MAKE PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES A HIGH                PRIORITY
WHAT ARE “TRAFFIC-CALMING” STRATEGIES?-INTENTIONALLY SLOWING TRAFFIC TO MAKE THEPEDESTRIAN’S ROLE EASIER.
WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON            DIET & NUTRITION?
1) THE OVERABUNDANCE OF FOOD   INCREASES PRESSURE ON FOOD SUPPLIERS TOADVERTISE & TRY TO CONVINCE CONSUMERS TO BUY        ...
2) MANY OF OUR LEISURE ACTIVITES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH EATING
3) UNHEALTHY FOOD IS RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE & READILY ACCESIBLE
4) FOOD PORTIONS HAVE INCREASED SUBSTANTIALLY IN SIZE
WHAT IS “VALUE MARKETING?”-OFFERING THE CUSTOMER A LARGER PORTION FORONLY A SMALLER PRICE INCREASE.
IN SPITE OF THE BEST INTENTIONS, PEOPLE MAKE          UNHEALTHY CHOICES DAILY. WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON REASONS FOR  PEOPL...
1) LACK OF CORE VALUES2) PROCRASTINATION3) PRECONDITIONED CULTURAL BELIEFS4) GRATIFICATION5) RISK COMPLACENCY6) COMPLEXITY...
SELF-EFFICACY  “THE BELIEF IN ONE’S OWN ABILITY TO PERFORM A                   GIVEN TASK”-STRONGLY INFLUENCES THE POWER A...
“FACEBOOK FRUSTRATION”-ACCORDING TO RESEARCHERS FROM 2GERMAN UNIVERSITIES FACEBOOK CANTRIGGER ENVY, MISERY, & LONELINESS-O...
LOCUS OF CONTROL-THE EXTENT TO WHICH A PERSON BELIEVES HE/SHE CANINFLUENCE THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONT...
3 IMPEDIMENTS THAT KEEP PEOPLE FROM TAKING CONTROL OF THEIR LIVES1) PROBLEMS OF COMPETENCE-LACKING THE SKILLS TO GET A GIV...
FOR MOST PEOPLE THE “DO IT OR DON’T DO IT”APPROACH SELDOM WORKS WHEN ATTEMPTING TO       IMPLEMENT LIFESTYLE CHANGES
BEHAVIOR CHANGE THEORIESA) LEARNING THEORIESB) PROBLEM-SOLVING MODELC) SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORYD) RELAPSE PREVENTION THEORY...
LEARNING THEORIES-MOST BEHAVIORS ARE LEARNED & MAINTAINED UNDERCOMPLEX SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT & ANTICIPATEDOUTCOMES.-T...
PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL-MANY BEHAVIORS ARE THE RESULT OF MAKING DECISIONS ASWE SEEK TO SOLVE/CHANGE THE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR.-TH...
SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY-BEHAVIOR CHANGE IS INFLUENCED BY THE ENVIRONMENT, SELF-EFFICACY, & CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BEHAVIOR...
RELAPSE PREVENTION MODEL-PEOPLE ARE TAUGHT TO ANTICIPATE HIGH-RISK SITUATIONS &DEVELOP ACTION PLANS TO PREVENT LAPSES & RE...
TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL-CHANGE IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH A SERIES OF PROGRESSIVE STAGES IN KEEPINGWITH A PERSON’S READINESS T...
SMART GOALSSPECIFIC:     -STATE EXACTLY WHAT YOU WANT TO     ACCOMPLISH.MEASURABLE:     -GOALS & OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE MEAS...
Chapter2
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Chapter2

  1. 1. CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) When it comes to fitness & wellness, we live in a "toxic" environment. Explain.2) What environmental factors influence physical activity?3) What is "traffic-calming?”4) What environmental factors influence diet & nutrition?5) What is "value marketing?"6) Define self-efficacy.7) Define motivation.8) A concept examining the extent to which a person believes he/she can influence theexternal environment is known as what?9) What is the difference between internal & external locus of control?10) Briefly explain each of the following Behavior Change Theories A) Learning Theories B) Problem-Solving Model C) Social Cognitive Theory D) Relapse Prevention Theory E) Transtheoretical Model11) When setting goals, what does the acronym "SMART" stand for?
  2. 2. Physical inactivity causes 1 in 10 deaths worldwide, study says
  3. 3. 1) According to a series of studies released in British medical journal, out of 10 deaths worldwide, how many arecaused by physical inactivity?-1 (10%)2) Harvard researchers say, inactivity caused an increase in deaths from what?-CORONARY HEART DISEASE, TYPE 2 DIABETES, BREAT & COLON CANCERS3) Inactivity caused how many deaths in 2008 worldwide?-5.3 MILLION4) One-third of adults, and close to what % of adolescents worldwide, are at increased risk of disease as a result ofphysical inactivity?-80%5) Researchers found that inactivity levels are the lowest in what country?-BANGLADESH (5%)6) Researchers found that inactivity levels are the highest in what country?-MALTA (71%)7) What % of men worldwide are inactive?-28%
  4. 4. 8) What % of women worldwide are inactive?-34%9) Free, public exercise events, creating an environment that was conducive to exercise (bike lanes and walking trails), andimproving what were more likely to improve physical activity?-PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION10) How many text messaging users are there worldwide?-4 BILLION11) What % of the worlds population lives in middle-income countries?-71%12) What % of World Health Organization member countries have some sort of plan to improve physical activity?-75%13) What % of the plans have been put into effect?-55%14) What % of the plans in effect are well-funded?-42%
  5. 5. WHEN IT COMES TO FITNESS & WELLNESS, WE LIVE IN A “TOXIC” ENVIRONMENT. WHY?
  6. 6. WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY?
  7. 7. 1) MODERN-DAY CONVENIENCESLULL US INTO PHYSICAL INACTIVITY
  8. 8. 2) MODERN-DAY ARCHITECTUREREINFORCES UNHEALTHY BEHAVIORS
  9. 9. 3) SEDENTARY JOBSMOST JOBS REQUIRE PEOPLE TO SIT MOST OF THE DAY
  10. 10. 4) SEDENTARY LEISURELIKE A LOT OF OUR JOBS, A LOT OF OUR LEISURE TIME IS SPENT BEING SEDENTARY
  11. 11. 5) OUR COMMUNITIESMOST DO NOT MAKE PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES A HIGH PRIORITY
  12. 12. WHAT ARE “TRAFFIC-CALMING” STRATEGIES?-INTENTIONALLY SLOWING TRAFFIC TO MAKE THEPEDESTRIAN’S ROLE EASIER.
  13. 13. WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON DIET & NUTRITION?
  14. 14. 1) THE OVERABUNDANCE OF FOOD INCREASES PRESSURE ON FOOD SUPPLIERS TOADVERTISE & TRY TO CONVINCE CONSUMERS TO BUY THEIR PRODUCTS.
  15. 15. 2) MANY OF OUR LEISURE ACTIVITES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH EATING
  16. 16. 3) UNHEALTHY FOOD IS RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE & READILY ACCESIBLE
  17. 17. 4) FOOD PORTIONS HAVE INCREASED SUBSTANTIALLY IN SIZE
  18. 18. WHAT IS “VALUE MARKETING?”-OFFERING THE CUSTOMER A LARGER PORTION FORONLY A SMALLER PRICE INCREASE.
  19. 19. IN SPITE OF THE BEST INTENTIONS, PEOPLE MAKE UNHEALTHY CHOICES DAILY. WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON REASONS FOR PEOPLE MAKING UNHEALTHY CHOICES?
  20. 20. 1) LACK OF CORE VALUES2) PROCRASTINATION3) PRECONDITIONED CULTURAL BELIEFS4) GRATIFICATION5) RISK COMPLACENCY6) COMPLEXITY7) INDIFFERENCE & HELPLESSNESS8) RATIONALIZATION9) ILLUSIONS OF INVINCIBILITY
  21. 21. SELF-EFFICACY “THE BELIEF IN ONE’S OWN ABILITY TO PERFORM A GIVEN TASK”-STRONGLY INFLUENCES THE POWER A PERSON HAS TOFACE CHALLENGES COMPETENTLY & THE CHOICES APERSON IS MOST LIKELY TO MAKE SELF-ESTEEM “A PERSON’S OVERALL EMOTIONAL EVALUATION OF HIS/HER OWN WORTH.”-ALLOWS PEOPLE TO FACE LIFE WITH MORECONFIDENCE & OPTIMISM
  22. 22. “FACEBOOK FRUSTRATION”-ACCORDING TO RESEARCHERS FROM 2GERMAN UNIVERSITIES FACEBOOK CANTRIGGER ENVY, MISERY, & LONELINESS-OF 600 PEOPLE STUDIED, 1 IN 3 FELT WORSEAFTER VISITING THE SITE-2 MOST COMMON CAUSES OF FACEBOOKFRUSTRATION:1)USERS COMPARING THEMSELVES SOCIALLYTO THEIR PEERS2)LACK OF ATTENTION (COMMENTS, LIKES,ETC.)-MEN ARE MORE LIKELY TO POST MORE SELF-PROMOTIONAL CONTENT-WOMEN ARE MORE LIKELY TO STRESS THEIRPHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS & SOCIABILITY
  23. 23. LOCUS OF CONTROL-THE EXTENT TO WHICH A PERSON BELIEVES HE/SHE CANINFLUENCE THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL:-PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE THEY HAVE CONTROL OVER EVENTS INTHEIR LIVES.-GENERALLY ARE HEALTHIER & HAVE AN EASIER TIMEINITIATING & ADHERING TO A WELLNESS PROGRAM.EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL:-PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE THAT WHAT HAPPENS TO THEM IS ARESULT OF CHANCE OR THE ENVIRONMENT & IS UNRELATEDTO THEIR BEHAVIOR.-AT GREATER RISK FOR ILLNESS.
  24. 24. 3 IMPEDIMENTS THAT KEEP PEOPLE FROM TAKING CONTROL OF THEIR LIVES1) PROBLEMS OF COMPETENCE-LACKING THE SKILLS TO GET A GIVEN TASK DONE LEADS TO REDUCED COMPETENCE.2) PROBLEMS OF CONFIDENCE-ARISE WHEN YOU HAVE THE SKILL BUT DON’T BELIEVE YOU CAN GET IT DONE.3) PROBLEMS OF MOTIVATION-INDIVIDUALS HAVE COMPETENCE & CONFIDENCE BUT BUT ARE UNWILLING TO CHANGE BECAUSE THE REASONS TO CHANGE ARE NOT IMPORTANT TO THEM.CAUSES OF UNWILLINGNESS TO CHANGE:A) LACK OF KNOWLEDGEB) LACK OF GOALS
  25. 25. FOR MOST PEOPLE THE “DO IT OR DON’T DO IT”APPROACH SELDOM WORKS WHEN ATTEMPTING TO IMPLEMENT LIFESTYLE CHANGES
  26. 26. BEHAVIOR CHANGE THEORIESA) LEARNING THEORIESB) PROBLEM-SOLVING MODELC) SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORYD) RELAPSE PREVENTION THEORYE) TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL
  27. 27. LEARNING THEORIES-MOST BEHAVIORS ARE LEARNED & MAINTAINED UNDERCOMPLEX SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT & ANTICIPATEDOUTCOMES.-THE PROCESS FOR LEARNING A NEW BEHAVIOR REQUIRESMODIFYING MANY SMALL BEHAVIORS THAT SHAPE THE NEWPATTERN BEHAVIOR.
  28. 28. PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL-MANY BEHAVIORS ARE THE RESULT OF MAKING DECISIONS ASWE SEEK TO SOLVE/CHANGE THE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR.-THE PROCESS OF CHANGE REQUIRES CONSCIOUS ATTENTION,SETTING GOALS, & DESIGNING A SPECIFIC PLAN OF ACTION.
  29. 29. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY-BEHAVIOR CHANGE IS INFLUENCED BY THE ENVIRONMENT, SELF-EFFICACY, & CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BEHAVIOR ITSELF.-YOU CAN INCREASE SELF-EFFICACY BY EDUCATING YOURSELFABOUT THE BEHAVIOR, DEVELOPING THE SKILLS TO MASTER THEBEHAVIOR, PERFORMING SMALLER MASTERY EXPERIENCESSUCCESSFULLY, & RECEIVING VERBAL REINFORCEMENT &VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES.
  30. 30. RELAPSE PREVENTION MODEL-PEOPLE ARE TAUGHT TO ANTICIPATE HIGH-RISK SITUATIONS &DEVELOP ACTION PLANS TO PREVENT LAPSES & RELAPSES.-FACTORS THAT DISRUPT BEHAVIOR CHANGE: -NEGATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES (STRESS, ILLNESS) -SOCIAL PRESSURE -LACK OF SUPPORT -LIMITED COPING SKILLS -CHANGE IN WORK CONDITIONS -LACK OF MOTIVATION
  31. 31. TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL-CHANGE IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH A SERIES OF PROGRESSIVE STAGES IN KEEPINGWITH A PERSON’S READINESS TO CHANGE.-STAGES:1) PRECONTEMPLATION-THE INDIVIDUAL IS UNWILLING TO CHANGE BEHAVIOR.2) CONTEMPLATION-THE INDIVIDUAL IS CONSIDERING CHANGING BEHAVIOR WITHIN THE NEXT 6 MONTHS.3) PREPARATION:-THE INDIVIDUAL IS GETTING READY TO MAKE A CHANGE WITHIN THE NEXT MONTH.4) ACTION-THE INDIVIDUAL IS ACTIVELY CHANGING A NEGATIVE BEHAVIOR OR ADOPTING A NEW,HEALTHY BEHAVIOR.5) MAINTENANCE-THE INDIVIDUAL MAINTAINS BEHAVIORAL CHANGE FOR UP TO 5 YEARS.6) TERMINATION/ADOPTION-THE INDIVIDUAL HAS MAINTAINED A BEHAVIOR MORE THAN 5 YEARS.
  32. 32. SMART GOALSSPECIFIC: -STATE EXACTLY WHAT YOU WANT TO ACCOMPLISH.MEASURABLE: -GOALS & OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE MEASURABLE.ATTAINABLE: -GOALS THAT YOU SET FOR YOURSELF ARE MORE MOTIVATIONAL THAN GOALS SOMEONE ELSE SETS FOR YOU.REALISTIC: -GOALS SHOULD BE WITHIN REACH.TIME-SPECIFIC: -A GOAL SHOULD ALWAYS HAVE A SPECIFIC DATE SET FOR COMPLETION.

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