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Chapter2

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  • 1. CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) When it comes to fitness & wellness, we live in a "toxic" environment. Explain.2) What environmental factors influence physical activity?3) What is "traffic-calming?”4) What environmental factors influence diet & nutrition?5) What is "value marketing?"6) Define self-efficacy.7) Define motivation.8) A concept examining the extent to which a person believes he/she can influence theexternal environment is known as what?9) What is the difference between internal & external locus of control?10) Briefly explain each of the following Behavior Change Theories A) Learning Theories B) Problem-Solving Model C) Social Cognitive Theory D) Relapse Prevention Theory E) Transtheoretical Model11) When setting goals, what does the acronym "SMART" stand for?
  • 2. Physical inactivity causes 1 in 10 deaths worldwide, study says
  • 3. 1) According to a series of studies released in British medical journal, out of 10 deaths worldwide, how many arecaused by physical inactivity?-1 (10%)2) Harvard researchers say, inactivity caused an increase in deaths from what?-CORONARY HEART DISEASE, TYPE 2 DIABETES, BREAT & COLON CANCERS3) Inactivity caused how many deaths in 2008 worldwide?-5.3 MILLION4) One-third of adults, and close to what % of adolescents worldwide, are at increased risk of disease as a result ofphysical inactivity?-80%5) Researchers found that inactivity levels are the lowest in what country?-BANGLADESH (5%)6) Researchers found that inactivity levels are the highest in what country?-MALTA (71%)7) What % of men worldwide are inactive?-28%
  • 4. 8) What % of women worldwide are inactive?-34%9) Free, public exercise events, creating an environment that was conducive to exercise (bike lanes and walking trails), andimproving what were more likely to improve physical activity?-PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION10) How many text messaging users are there worldwide?-4 BILLION11) What % of the worlds population lives in middle-income countries?-71%12) What % of World Health Organization member countries have some sort of plan to improve physical activity?-75%13) What % of the plans have been put into effect?-55%14) What % of the plans in effect are well-funded?-42%
  • 5. WHEN IT COMES TO FITNESS & WELLNESS, WE LIVE IN A “TOXIC” ENVIRONMENT. WHY?
  • 6. WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY?
  • 7. 1) MODERN-DAY CONVENIENCESLULL US INTO PHYSICAL INACTIVITY
  • 8. 2) MODERN-DAY ARCHITECTUREREINFORCES UNHEALTHY BEHAVIORS
  • 9. 3) SEDENTARY JOBSMOST JOBS REQUIRE PEOPLE TO SIT MOST OF THE DAY
  • 10. 4) SEDENTARY LEISURELIKE A LOT OF OUR JOBS, A LOT OF OUR LEISURE TIME IS SPENT BEING SEDENTARY
  • 11. 5) OUR COMMUNITIESMOST DO NOT MAKE PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES A HIGH PRIORITY
  • 12. WHAT ARE “TRAFFIC-CALMING” STRATEGIES?-INTENTIONALLY SLOWING TRAFFIC TO MAKE THEPEDESTRIAN’S ROLE EASIER.
  • 13. WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON DIET & NUTRITION?
  • 14. 1) THE OVERABUNDANCE OF FOOD INCREASES PRESSURE ON FOOD SUPPLIERS TOADVERTISE & TRY TO CONVINCE CONSUMERS TO BUY THEIR PRODUCTS.
  • 15. 2) MANY OF OUR LEISURE ACTIVITES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH EATING
  • 16. 3) UNHEALTHY FOOD IS RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE & READILY ACCESIBLE
  • 17. 4) FOOD PORTIONS HAVE INCREASED SUBSTANTIALLY IN SIZE
  • 18. WHAT IS “VALUE MARKETING?”-OFFERING THE CUSTOMER A LARGER PORTION FORONLY A SMALLER PRICE INCREASE.
  • 19. IN SPITE OF THE BEST INTENTIONS, PEOPLE MAKE UNHEALTHY CHOICES DAILY. WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON REASONS FOR PEOPLE MAKING UNHEALTHY CHOICES?
  • 20. 1) LACK OF CORE VALUES2) PROCRASTINATION3) PRECONDITIONED CULTURAL BELIEFS4) GRATIFICATION5) RISK COMPLACENCY6) COMPLEXITY7) INDIFFERENCE & HELPLESSNESS8) RATIONALIZATION9) ILLUSIONS OF INVINCIBILITY
  • 21. SELF-EFFICACY “THE BELIEF IN ONE’S OWN ABILITY TO PERFORM A GIVEN TASK”-STRONGLY INFLUENCES THE POWER A PERSON HAS TOFACE CHALLENGES COMPETENTLY & THE CHOICES APERSON IS MOST LIKELY TO MAKE SELF-ESTEEM “A PERSON’S OVERALL EMOTIONAL EVALUATION OF HIS/HER OWN WORTH.”-ALLOWS PEOPLE TO FACE LIFE WITH MORECONFIDENCE & OPTIMISM
  • 22. “FACEBOOK FRUSTRATION”-ACCORDING TO RESEARCHERS FROM 2GERMAN UNIVERSITIES FACEBOOK CANTRIGGER ENVY, MISERY, & LONELINESS-OF 600 PEOPLE STUDIED, 1 IN 3 FELT WORSEAFTER VISITING THE SITE-2 MOST COMMON CAUSES OF FACEBOOKFRUSTRATION:1)USERS COMPARING THEMSELVES SOCIALLYTO THEIR PEERS2)LACK OF ATTENTION (COMMENTS, LIKES,ETC.)-MEN ARE MORE LIKELY TO POST MORE SELF-PROMOTIONAL CONTENT-WOMEN ARE MORE LIKELY TO STRESS THEIRPHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS & SOCIABILITY
  • 23. LOCUS OF CONTROL-THE EXTENT TO WHICH A PERSON BELIEVES HE/SHE CANINFLUENCE THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT.INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL:-PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE THEY HAVE CONTROL OVER EVENTS INTHEIR LIVES.-GENERALLY ARE HEALTHIER & HAVE AN EASIER TIMEINITIATING & ADHERING TO A WELLNESS PROGRAM.EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL:-PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE THAT WHAT HAPPENS TO THEM IS ARESULT OF CHANCE OR THE ENVIRONMENT & IS UNRELATEDTO THEIR BEHAVIOR.-AT GREATER RISK FOR ILLNESS.
  • 24. 3 IMPEDIMENTS THAT KEEP PEOPLE FROM TAKING CONTROL OF THEIR LIVES1) PROBLEMS OF COMPETENCE-LACKING THE SKILLS TO GET A GIVEN TASK DONE LEADS TO REDUCED COMPETENCE.2) PROBLEMS OF CONFIDENCE-ARISE WHEN YOU HAVE THE SKILL BUT DON’T BELIEVE YOU CAN GET IT DONE.3) PROBLEMS OF MOTIVATION-INDIVIDUALS HAVE COMPETENCE & CONFIDENCE BUT BUT ARE UNWILLING TO CHANGE BECAUSE THE REASONS TO CHANGE ARE NOT IMPORTANT TO THEM.CAUSES OF UNWILLINGNESS TO CHANGE:A) LACK OF KNOWLEDGEB) LACK OF GOALS
  • 25. FOR MOST PEOPLE THE “DO IT OR DON’T DO IT”APPROACH SELDOM WORKS WHEN ATTEMPTING TO IMPLEMENT LIFESTYLE CHANGES
  • 26. BEHAVIOR CHANGE THEORIESA) LEARNING THEORIESB) PROBLEM-SOLVING MODELC) SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORYD) RELAPSE PREVENTION THEORYE) TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL
  • 27. LEARNING THEORIES-MOST BEHAVIORS ARE LEARNED & MAINTAINED UNDERCOMPLEX SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT & ANTICIPATEDOUTCOMES.-THE PROCESS FOR LEARNING A NEW BEHAVIOR REQUIRESMODIFYING MANY SMALL BEHAVIORS THAT SHAPE THE NEWPATTERN BEHAVIOR.
  • 28. PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL-MANY BEHAVIORS ARE THE RESULT OF MAKING DECISIONS ASWE SEEK TO SOLVE/CHANGE THE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR.-THE PROCESS OF CHANGE REQUIRES CONSCIOUS ATTENTION,SETTING GOALS, & DESIGNING A SPECIFIC PLAN OF ACTION.
  • 29. SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY-BEHAVIOR CHANGE IS INFLUENCED BY THE ENVIRONMENT, SELF-EFFICACY, & CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BEHAVIOR ITSELF.-YOU CAN INCREASE SELF-EFFICACY BY EDUCATING YOURSELFABOUT THE BEHAVIOR, DEVELOPING THE SKILLS TO MASTER THEBEHAVIOR, PERFORMING SMALLER MASTERY EXPERIENCESSUCCESSFULLY, & RECEIVING VERBAL REINFORCEMENT &VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES.
  • 30. RELAPSE PREVENTION MODEL-PEOPLE ARE TAUGHT TO ANTICIPATE HIGH-RISK SITUATIONS &DEVELOP ACTION PLANS TO PREVENT LAPSES & RELAPSES.-FACTORS THAT DISRUPT BEHAVIOR CHANGE: -NEGATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES (STRESS, ILLNESS) -SOCIAL PRESSURE -LACK OF SUPPORT -LIMITED COPING SKILLS -CHANGE IN WORK CONDITIONS -LACK OF MOTIVATION
  • 31. TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL-CHANGE IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH A SERIES OF PROGRESSIVE STAGES IN KEEPINGWITH A PERSON’S READINESS TO CHANGE.-STAGES:1) PRECONTEMPLATION-THE INDIVIDUAL IS UNWILLING TO CHANGE BEHAVIOR.2) CONTEMPLATION-THE INDIVIDUAL IS CONSIDERING CHANGING BEHAVIOR WITHIN THE NEXT 6 MONTHS.3) PREPARATION:-THE INDIVIDUAL IS GETTING READY TO MAKE A CHANGE WITHIN THE NEXT MONTH.4) ACTION-THE INDIVIDUAL IS ACTIVELY CHANGING A NEGATIVE BEHAVIOR OR ADOPTING A NEW,HEALTHY BEHAVIOR.5) MAINTENANCE-THE INDIVIDUAL MAINTAINS BEHAVIORAL CHANGE FOR UP TO 5 YEARS.6) TERMINATION/ADOPTION-THE INDIVIDUAL HAS MAINTAINED A BEHAVIOR MORE THAN 5 YEARS.
  • 32. SMART GOALSSPECIFIC: -STATE EXACTLY WHAT YOU WANT TO ACCOMPLISH.MEASURABLE: -GOALS & OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE MEASURABLE.ATTAINABLE: -GOALS THAT YOU SET FOR YOURSELF ARE MORE MOTIVATIONAL THAN GOALS SOMEONE ELSE SETS FOR YOU.REALISTIC: -GOALS SHOULD BE WITHIN REACH.TIME-SPECIFIC: -A GOAL SHOULD ALWAYS HAVE A SPECIFIC DATE SET FOR COMPLETION.