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Chapter2
 

Chapter2

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    Chapter2 Chapter2 Presentation Transcript

      • CHAPTER 2 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
      • Our environment is not conducive to a healthy, physically active lifestyle. Why?
      • What environmental factors influence physical activity?
      • What environmental factors influence diet & nutrition?
      • 4) What is "traffic-calming?”
      • 5) What is "value marketing?”
      • 6) Define "locus of control."
      • 7) Describe a person with an internal locus of control.
      • 8) Describe a person with an external locus of control.
      • 9) What are the 3 impediments that can keep people from taking control of their lives?
      • 10) What does the 2-stage model of unhealthy & healthy behavior state?
      • 11) Summarize each of the following behavior change theories:
      • A) Learning Theories
      • B) Problem-Solving Model
      • C) Social Cognitive Theory
      • D) Relapse Prevention Model
      • E) Transtheoretical Model
      • 12) Summarize the acronym: SMART.
    • OUR ENVIRONMENT IS NOT CONDUCIVE TO A HEALTHY, PHYSICALLY ACTIVE LIFESTYLE. WHY?
    • WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY?
    • 1) MODERN-DAY CONVENIENCES. LULL US INTO PHYSICAL INACTIVITY.
    • 2) MODERN-DAY ARCHITECTURE. REINFORCES UNHEALTHY BEHAVIORS.
    • 3) SEDENTARY JOBS. MOST JOBS REQUIRE PEOPLE TO SIT MOST OF THE DAY
    • 4) SEDENTARY LEISURE. LIKE OUR JOBS, OUR LEISURE TIME IS SPENT BEING SEDENTARY
    • 5) OUR COMMUNITIES DO NOT MAKE PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES A HIGH PRIORITY.
    • WHAT ARE “TRAFFIC-CALMING” STRATEGIES? -INTENTIONALLY SLOWING TRAFFIC TO MAKE THE PEDESTRIAN’S ROLE EASIER.
    • WHAT ARE SOME ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON DIET & NUTRITION?
    • 1) THE OVERABUNDANCE OF FOOD. INCREASES PRESSURE ON FOOD SUPPLIERS TO ADVERTISE & TRY TO CONVINCE CONSUMERS TO BUY THEIR PRODUCTS.
    • 2) MANY OF OUR LEISURE ACTIVITES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH EATING.
    • 3) UNHEALTHY FOOD IS RELATIVELY INEXPENSIVE & READILY ACCESIBLE.
    • 4) FOOD PORTIONS. PARTICULARLY IN RESTAURANTS HAVE INCREASED SUBSTANTIALLY IN SIZE.
    • WHAT IS “VALUE MARKETING?” -OFFERING THE CUSTOMER A LARGER PORTION FOR ONLY A SMALLER PRICE INCREASE.
    • IN SPITE OF THE BEST INTENTIONS, PEOPLE MAKE UNHEALTHY CHOICES DAILY. WHAT ARE THE MOST COMMON REASONS FOR PEOPLE MAKING UNHEALTHY CHOICES?
      • LACK OF CORE VALUES
      • PROCRASTINATION
      • PRECONDITIONED CULTURAL BELIEFS
      • GRATIFICATION
      • RISK COMPLACENCY
      • COMPLEXITY
      • INDIFFERENCE & HELPLESSNESS
      • RATIONALIZATION
      • ILLUSIONS OF INVINCIBILITY
    • LOCUS OF CONTROL -THE EXTENT TO WHICH A PERSON BELIEVES HE/SHE CAN INFLUENCE THE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. INTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL: -PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE THEY HAVE CONTROL OVER EVENTS IN THEIR LIVES. -GENERALLY ARE HEALTHIER & HAVE AN EASIER TIME INITIATING & ADHERING TO A WELLNESS PROGRAM. EXTERNAL LOCUS OF CONTROL: -PEOPLE WHO BELIEVE THAT WHAT HAPPENS TO THEM IS A RESULT OF CHANCE OR THE ENVIRONMENT & IS UNRELATED TO THEIR BEHAVIOR. -AT GREATER RISK FOR ILLNESS.
      • 3 IMPEDIMENTS THAT KEEP PEOPLE FROM TAKING CONTROL OF THEIR LIVES
      • 1) PROBLEMS OF COMPETENCE
      • -LACKING THE SKILLS TO GET A GIVEN TASK DONE LEADS TO REDUCED COMPETENCE.
      • 2) PROBLEMS OF CONFIDENCE
      • -ARISE WHEN YOU HAVE THE SKILL BUT DON’T BELIEVE YOU CAN GET IT DONE.
      • 3) PROBLEMS OF MOTIVATION
      • -INDIVIDUALS HAVE COMPETENCE & CONFIDENCE BUT BUT ARE UNWILLING TO CHANGE BECAUSE THE REASONS TO CHANGE ARE NOT IMPORTANT TO THEM.
      • CAUSES OF UNWILLINGNESS TO CHANGE:
      • LACK OF KNOWLEDGE
      • LACK OF GOALS
    • 2-STAGE MODEL OF UNHEALTHY & HEALTHY BEHAVIOR EITHER YOU DO IT OR YOU DON’T.
      • BEHAVIOR CHANGE THEORIES
      • LEARNING THEORIES
      • PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL
      • SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY
      • RELAPSE PREVENTION THEORY
      • TRANTHEORETICAL MODEL
    • LEARNING THEORIES -MOST BEHAVIORS ARE LEARNED & MAINTAINED UNDER COMPLEX SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT & ANTICIPATED OUTCOMES. -THE PROCESS FOR LEARNING A NEW BEHAVIOR REQUIRES MODIFYING MANY SMALL BEHAVIORS THAT SHAPE THE NEW PATTERN BEHAVIOR.
    • PROBLEM-SOLVING MODEL -MANY BEHAVIORS ARE THE RESULT OF MAKING DECISIONS AS WE SEEK TO CHANGE THE PROBLEM BEHAVIOR. -THE PROCESS OF CHANGE REQUIRES CONSCIOUS ATTENTION, THE SETTING GOALS, & DESIGNING A SPECIFIC PLAN OF ACTION.
    • SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY -BEHAVIOR CHANGE IS INFLUENCED BY THE ENVIRONMENT, SELF-EFFICACY, & CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BEHAVIOR ITSELF. -YOU CAN INCREASE SELF-EFFICACY BY EDUCATING YOURSELF ABOUT THE BEHAVIOR, DEVELOPING THE SKILLS TO MASTER THE BEHAVIOR, PERFORMING SMALLER MASTERY EXPERIENCES SUCCESSFULLY, & RECEIVING VERBAL REINFORCEMENT & VICARIOUS EXPERIENCES.
    • RELAPSE PREVENTION MODEL -PEOPLE ARE TAUGHT TO ANTICIPATE HIGH-RISK SITUATIONS & DEVELOP ACTION PLANS TO PREVENT APSES & RELAPSES. -FACTORS THAT DISRUPT BEHAVIOR CHANGE: -NEGATIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL OR PSYCHOLOGICAL STATES (STRESS, ILLNESS) -SOCIAL PRESSURE -LACK OF SUPPORT -LIMITED COPING SKILLS -CHANGE IN WORK CONDITIONS -LACK OF MOTIVATION
    • TRANSTHEORETICAL MODEL -CHANGE IS ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH A SERIES OF PROGRESSIVE STAGES IN KEEPING WITH A PERSON’S READINESS TO CHANGE. -STAGES: 1) PRECONTEMPLATION -THE INDIVIDUAL IS UNWILLING TO CHANGE BEHAVIOR. 2) CONTEMPLATION -THE INDIVIDUAL IS CONSIDERING CHANGING BEHAVIOR WITHIN THE NEXT 6 MONTHS. 3) PREPARATION: -THE INDIVIDUAL IS GETTING READY TO MAKE A CHANGE WITHIN THE NEXT MONTH. 4) ACTION -THE INDIVIDUAL IS ACTIVELY CHANGING A NEGATIVE BEHAVIOR OR ADOPTING A NEW, HEALTHY BEHAVIOR. 5) MAINTENANCE -THE INDIVIDUAL MAINTAINS BEHAVIORAL CHANGE FOR UP TO 5 YEARS. 6) TERMINATION/ADOPTION -THE INDIVIDUAL HAS MAINTAINED A BEHAVIOR MORE THAN 5 YEARS.
    • SMART GOALS SPECIFIC: -STATE EXACTLY WHAT YOU WANT TO ACCOMPLISH. MEASURABLE: -GOALS & OBJECTIVES SHOULD BE MEASURABLE. ACCEPTABLE: -GOALS THAT YOU SET FOR YOURSELF ARE MORE MOTIVATIONAL THAN GOALS SOMEONE ELSE SETS FOR YOU. REALISTIC: -GOALS SHOULD BE WITHIN REACH. TIME-SPECIFIC: -A GOAL SHOULD ALWAYS HAVE A SPECIFIC DATE SET FOR COMPLETION.