Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

  1. 1. CHAPTER 8 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) Answer the following questions from the FAQ box on page 272:A) Will stretching before exercise prevent injuries?B) Does strength training limit flexibility?C) Will stretching exercises help me lose weight?D) How much should stretching hurt to gain flexibility?2) Define flexibility.3) Define stretching.4) Approximately what % of all low-back problems in the US are a direct result of inflexible & weakmuscles?5) What are 2 benefits of good flexibility?6) Explain the difference between plastic elongation & elastic elongation.7) What do most health & fitness centers rely on as an indicator of flexibility?8) Define the following modes of stretching exercises:A) Static StretchingB) Passive StretchingC) Ballistic StretchingD) Dynamic StretchingE) Controlled Ballistic StretchingF) Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation9) What are the 2 sensory organs whose function is to protect muscles from injury during stretching?10) What is the recommended warm-up time before doing steady activities?11) What is the recommended warm-up time before doing stop-&-go activities?
  2. 2. DO YOU STRETCH BEFORE YOU EXERCISE?
  3. 3. 1A) WILL STRETCHING BEFORE EXERCISE PREVENT INJURIES?-DATA SUGGESTS:-INTENSE STRETCHING PRIOR TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITYMODESTLY INCREASES THE RISK FOR INJURIES & LOSS OFMUSCLE STRENGTH & POWER-MOST IMPORTANT FACTOR PRIOR TO VIGOROUS EXERCISE TOPEVENT INJURY IS TO GRADUALLY INCREASE EXERCISEINTENSITY-WHEN PARTICIPATING IN ACTIVITIES THAT REQUIREFLEXIBILITY, STRETCH FOLLOWING AN APPROPRIATE WARM-UP-STATIC VS DYNAMIC STRETCHING (ARTICLE FOR THURSDAY)
  4. 4. 1B) DOES STRENGTH TRAINING LIMIT FLEXIBILITY?-MYTH: BIG MUSCLES = INFLEXIBILITY-DATA SHOWS THAT STRENGTH-TRAINING EXERCISES,WHEN PERFORMED THROUGH A FULL RANGE OF MOTION,DO NOT LIMIT FLEXIBILITY-BODY BUILDERS & GYMNASTS, WHO TRAIN HEAVILY WITHWEIGHTS, HAVE BETTER THAN AVERAGE FLEXIBILITY
  5. 5. 1C) WILL STRETCHING EXERCISES HELP YOU LOSE WEIGHT?-FLEXIBILITY EXERCISES HELP DEVELOP OVERALL HEALTH-RELATED FITNESS BUT DO NOT CONTRIBUTE MUCH TO WEIGHTLOSS/MAINTENANCE-THE ENERGY (CALORIC) EXPENDITURE OF STRETCHINGEXERCISES IS EXTREMELY LOW-30 MINUTES OF AEROBIC EXERCISE CAN BURN ANADDITIONAL 250-300 CALORIES COMPARED TO 30 MINUTESOF STRETCHING-MOST PEOPLE WILL BURN 150CALORIES/HOUR DOING YOGA, COMPARED TO 300+CALORIES/HOUR WALKING AT 3 MPH
  6. 6. 1D) HOW MUCH SHOULD STRETCHING “HURT” TO GAINFLEXIBILITY?-PROPER STRETCHING SHOULD NEVER HURT-PAIN IS AN INDICATION THAT YOU ARE STRETCHING TOOAGGRESSIVELY-STRETCH TO THE POINT OF MILD TENSION-FOR BEST RESULTS: DECREASE THE DEGREE OFSTRETCH & HOLD STRETCH LONGER
  7. 7. “WANT A BETTER WORKOUT? DON’T STRETCH BEFORE”
  8. 8. 1) Most fitness experts now agree that what kind of stretching before exercise is not just counter-productive, but potentiallyharmful?-STATIC STRETCHING2) Traditional stretches, like when people bend over to touch their toes or stretch their legs on a fence, often cause the musclesto do what?-TIGHTEN RATHER THAN RELAX3) When people stretch to the maximum, they are more likely to do what?-PULL A MUSCLE4) When you stretch before exercising, your body may think its at risk of what?-BEING OVERSTRETCHED5) How does your body compensate?-BY CONTRACTING & BECOMING MORE TENSE6) Stretching helps with flexibility, but people should only do it when?-THEY AREN’T ABOUT TO EXERCISE (AFTER A WORKOUT OR AT THE END OF THE DAY)7) In the last few years, what have several studies have found about static stretching before playing a sport?-IT MAKES YOU SLOWER & WEAKER
  9. 9. 8) What has the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found about people who stretched before exercise?-THEY ARE NO LESS LIKELY TO SUFFER INJURIES SUCH AS A PULLED MUSCLE9) Instead of stretching, many experts recommend warming up with what?-A LIGHT JOG OR SPORT-SPECIFIC EXERCISE10) What does that type of light movement do for the body?-INCREASES THE HEART RATE & BLOOD FLOW TO THE MUSCLES11) Fill in the blanks: "This allows you to approach your full ________, but in a very ________ way."-RANGE OF MOTION, CONTROLLED12) Research shows static stretching doesnt work as well as more active kinds of stretching that incorporate what?-MOVEMENT13) A study published earlier this year in the Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine found that people who stretched usingconventional techniques, like bending over to touch their toes, were less flexible than those who did a more active type ofstretching that used more what?-MUSCLE GROUPS14) Many yoga poses involve the whole body and focus not only on stretching a particular muscle, but what else around it?-LIGAMENTS, TENDONS, & JOINTS
  10. 10. 2) FLEXIBILITY-THE ACHIEVABLE RANGE OF MOTION AT A JOINT OR GROUPOF JOINTS WITHOUT CAUSING INJURY
  11. 11. HEALTH ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH A DECLINE IN FLEXIBILITY-A DECLINE IN FLEXIBILITY CAN CAUSE:-INJURY-ACHES & PAINS-POOR POSTURE-APPROXIMATELY 80% OF ALL LOW-BACK PROBLEMS IN THE US STEM FROMIMPROPER ALIGNMENT OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN & PELVIC GIRDLE, A DIRECTRESULT OF INFLEXIBLE & WEAK MUSCLES-BACKACHE SYNDROME COSTS U.S. INDUSTRY BILLIONS OF DOLLARS/YEAR IN:-LOST PRODUCTIVITY-HEALTH SERVICES-WORKER COMPENSATION
  12. 12. BENEFITS OF GOOD FLEXIBILITY1) PROMOTES HEALTHY MUSCLES & JOINTS-IMPROVES ELASTICITY OF MUSCLES & CONNECTIVE TISSUE AROUNDJOINTS WHICH ENABLES GREATER FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT2) ENHANCES THE QUALTY OF LIFE-MAKES ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING MUCH EASIER TO PERFORM
  13. 13. 3) STRETCHING-MOVING THE JOINTS BEYOND THE ACCUSTOMED RANGEOF MOTION.
  14. 14. TAKING PART IN A REGULAR STRETCHING PROGRAM:-INCREASES CIRCULATION TO THE MUSCLE(S) BEING STRETCHED-PREVENTS LOW-BACK & OTHER SPINAL COLUMN PROBLEMS-IMPROVES & MAINTAINS GOOD POSTURAL ALIGNMENT-PROMOTES PROPER & GRACEFUL BODY MOVEMENT-IMPROVES PERSONAL APPEARANCE & SELF-IMAGE-HELPS TO DEVELOP & MAINTAIN MOTOR SKILLS THROUGHOUT LIFE
  15. 15. PLASTIC ELONGATION VS ELASTIC ELONGATION
  16. 16. PLASTIC ELONGATION-”THE PERMANENT LENGTHENING OF SOFT TISSUE”-BEST ATTAINED THROUGH SLOW-SUSTAINED STRETCHING EXERCISES
  17. 17. ELASTIC ELONGATION-”THE TEMPORARY LENGTHENING OF SOFT TISSUE”-INCREASES EXTENSIBILITY-THE ABILITY TO STRETCH MUSCLES
  18. 18. FACTORS THAT AFFECT FLEXIBILITY
  19. 19. MUSCLE TEMPERATURE-CAN INCREASE/DECREASE FLEXIBILITY BY 20%-STRETCHING BEFORE EXERCISING WARMS MUSCLES & INCREASESFLEXIBILITY-COOL TEMPERATURES HAVE OPPOSITIE EFFECT, SO STRETCHINGAFTER FIRST PERFORMING AN AEROBIC EXERCISE (JOGGING) IS BEST
  20. 20. AMOUNT OF ADIPOSE TISSUE-EXCESS ADIPOSE TISSUE (FAT) IN & AROUND JOINTS INCREASESRESISTANCE TO MOVEMENT & DECREASES FLEXIBILITY
  21. 21. GENDER-WOMEN ARE MORE FLEXIBLE THAN MEN, & SEEM TO RETAIN THISADVANTAGE THROUGHOUT LIFE
  22. 22. AGE-AGING DECREASES THE EXTENSIBILITY OF SOFT TISSUE, RESULTINGIN LESS FLEXIBILITY OF BOTH SEXES
  23. 23. LIFESTYLE-SEDENTARY LIVING: MOST SIGNIFICANT CONTRIBUTOR TO LOWERFLEXIBILITY-INACTIVITY CAUSES MUSCLES TO LOSE THEIR ELASTICITY ANDTENDONS & LIGAMENTS TO TIGHTEN & SHORTEN
  24. 24. INJURY-INJURY TO MUSCLE TISSUE & TIGHT SKIN FROM EXCESSIVE SCARTISSUE LEAD TO A DECREASE IN FLEXIBILITY
  25. 25. BEFORE ENGAGING IN AN ACTIVITY:-WHAT IS THE RECOMMENDED WARM-UP TIME BEFORE DOING STEADYACTIVITIES (WALKING, JOGGING, CYCLING)?-3 TO 5 MINUTES-WHAT IS THE RECOMMENDED WARM-UP TIME BEFORE DOING STOP-&-GOACTIVITIES (BASKETBALL, SOCCER, HOCKEY)?-10 MINUTES
  26. 26. MODES OF STRETCHING EXERCISES
  27. 27. STATIC STRETCHING“EXERCISES IN WHICH THE MUSCLES ARE LENGTHENED GRADUALLYTHROUGH A JOINT’S COMPLETE RANGE OF MOTION”-MOST FREQUENTLY USED & RECOMMENDED IN FLEXIBILITY-DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS
  28. 28. PASSIVE STRETCHING“EXERCISES PERFORMED WITH THE AID OF AN EXTERNAL FORCEAPPLIED BY EITHER ANOTHER INDIVIDUAL OR AN EXTERNALAPPARATUS”
  29. 29. BALLISTIC STRETCHING“STRETCHING EXERCISES PERFORMED WITH JERKY, RAPID, & BOUNCYMOVEMENTS”-THE LEAST RECOMMENDED FORM OF STRETCHING
  30. 30. DYNAMIC STRETCHING“EXERCISES THAT REQUIRE SPEED OF MOVEMENT, MOMENTUM, &ACTIVE MUSCULAR EFFORT TO HELP INCREASE THE RANGE OFMOTION ABOUT A JOINT OR GROUP OF JOINTS”-PREFERABLE TO STATIC STRETCHING BEFORE COMPETITIONBECAUSE STRENGTH & POWER ARE NOT NEGATIVELY AFFECTED
  31. 31. CONTROLLED BALLISTIC STRETCHINGEXERCISES DONE WITH SLOW, GENTLE, & SUSTAINED MOVEMENTS”-QUITE EFFECTIVE IN DEVELOPING FLEXIBILITY
  32. 32. PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR STRETCHING“MODE OF STRETCHING THAT USES REFLEXES & NEUROMUSCULARPRINCIPLES TO RELAX THE MUSCLES BEING STRETCHED”-BASED ON A “CONTRACT-&-RELAX” METHOD-MUSCLE BEING STRETCHED ALSO INCREASES IN STRENGTH &ENDURANCE

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