<ul><li>CHAPTER 7 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>WHY SHOULD EVERYONE, NOT JUST ATHLETES OR PEOPLE WITH JOBS THAT R...
“ WHY YOU’RE NOT SEEING FITNESS RESULTS THIS YEAR” POSTED ON BLOG: MONDAY MARCH 21
1)WHAT MONTH IS THE BUSIEST FOR MOST GYMS? -JANUARY. 2) ACCORDING TO THE PRESIDENT & CEO OF X3 SPORTS GYMS IN ATLANTA, HOW...
WHY SHOULD EVERYONE, NOT JUST ATHLETES OR PEOPLE WITH JOBS THAT REQUIRE HEAVY MUSCULAR WORK, STRENGTH TRAIN?
STRENGTH TRAINING -A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO IMPROVE MUSCULAR STRENGTH &/OR ENDURANCE THROUGH A SERIES OF PROGRESSIVE TRAINING...
MOST IMPORTANT HEALTH-RELATED COMPONENT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS IN THE  OLDER POPULATION -STRENGTH MAY BE THE MOST IMPORTANT H...
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MUSCULAR STRENGTH & MUSCULAR ENDURANCE?
MUSCULAR STRENGTH -THE ABILITY OF A MUSCLE TO EXERT MAXIMUM FORCE AGAINST RESISTANCE -USUALLY DETERMINED BY “ONE REPITION ...
MUSCULAR ENDURANCE -THE ABILITY OF A MUSCLE TO EXERT SUBMAXIMAL FORCE REPEATEDLY OVER TIME -DEPENDED UPON MUSCULAR STRENGT...
WHY DO FEW WOMEN (NON-ATHLETES) STRENGTH TRAIN?
MYTHS OF WOMEN’S STRENGTH TRAINING 1) WEIGHT LIFTING MAKES WOMEN BULKY -BECAUSE TESTOSTERONE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR A MUSCLE’S...
PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN STRENGTH TRAINING 1) MODE 2) RESISTANCE 3) SETS 4) FREQUENCY  5) VOLUME
<ul><li>1) MODE </li></ul><ul><li>-2 TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS ARE USED TO IMPROVE STRENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>ISOMETRIC </...
2) RESISTANCE -AMOUNT OF WEIGHT LIFTED -TO STIMULATE STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT THE GENERAL RULE OF THUMB IS TO USE A RESISTANCE...
3) SETS -A FIXED NUMBER OF REPITITIONS -10 SECONDS OF MAXIMAL EXERCISE NEARLY DEPLETES THE ENERGY FROM THE MUSCLE -ENERGY ...
4) FREQUENCY -DEPENDED ON THE AMOUNT OF RESISTANCE, NUMBER OF SETS PERFORMED, & PERSON’S ABILITY TO RECOVER  -TOTAL BODY W...
5) VOLUME -THE SUM OF ALL THE REPITIONS PERFROMED MULTIPLIED BY THE RESISTANCES USED DURING A STRENGTH-TRAINING SESSION FO...
FACTORS THAT AFFECT STRENGTH 1) NEURAL STIMULATION 2) TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER 3) OVERLOAD 4) SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING
1) NEURAL STIMULATION MOTOR NEURONS -NERVES CONNECTING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM TO THE MUSCLE MOTOR UNIT -THE COMBINATIO...
2) TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER 1) SLOW-TWITCH FIBERS MUSCLE FIBERS WITH GREATER AEROBIC POTENTIAL & SLOW SPEED OF CONTRACTION 2)...
 
<ul><li>3) OVERLOAD </li></ul><ul><li>STRENGTH GAINS ARE ACHIEVED IN 2 WAYS: </li></ul><ul><li>THROUGH INCREASED ABILITY O...
HOW CAN YOU OVERLOAD IN SRENGTH-TRAINING? -INCREASE RESISTANCE -INCREASE REPITITIONS -INCREASE/DECREASE SPEED OF REPITITIO...
4) SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING -TRAINING MUST BE DONE WITH THE SPECIFIC MUSCLE THE PERSON IS ATTEMPTING TO IMPROVE Specific Ad...
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Chapter 7

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  1. 1. <ul><li>CHAPTER 7 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>WHY SHOULD EVERYONE, NOT JUST ATHLETES OR PEOPLE WITH JOBS THAT REQUIRE HEAVY MUSCULAR WORK, STRENGTH TRAIN? </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINE “STRENGTH TRAINING.” </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT ARE SOME OF THE BENEFITS OF STRENGTH TRAINING? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT MAY BE THE MOST IMPORTANT HEALTH-RELATED COMPONENT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS IN THE OLDER POPULTION? </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINE “SARCOPENIA.” </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MUSCULAR STRENGTH & MUSCULAR ENDURANCE? </li></ul><ul><li>DEFINE “ONE REPITION MAXIMUM.” </li></ul><ul><li>STATE & DISCUSS THE PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN STRENGTH TRAINING. </li></ul><ul><li>STATE & DISCUSS THE FACTORS THAT AFFECT STRENGTH. </li></ul>
  2. 2. “ WHY YOU’RE NOT SEEING FITNESS RESULTS THIS YEAR” POSTED ON BLOG: MONDAY MARCH 21
  3. 3. 1)WHAT MONTH IS THE BUSIEST FOR MOST GYMS? -JANUARY. 2) ACCORDING TO THE PRESIDENT & CEO OF X3 SPORTS GYMS IN ATLANTA, HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO CREATE A HABIT? -28 DAYS. 3) WHAT IS THE BIGGEST COMPLAINT OF PEOPLE STARTING NEW EXERCISE ROUTINES? -THEY DON’T SEE ANY RESULTS. 4) WHEN STARTING OUT AN EXERCISE PROGRAM, WHAT SHOULD YOU WORK ON FIRST? -FOOD. 5) WHY DON’T FAD DIETS WORK IN THE LONG RUN? -THEY’RE UNSUSTAINABLE. 6) DURING A FITNESS ROUTINE, WHAT IS A BAD SIGN & USUALLY POINTS TO LACK OF MOTIVATION? -WATCHING THE CLOCK. 7) DURING WORKOUTS, WOMEN TEND TO FOCUS ON ??? & NEGLECT ??? -CARDIO, STRENGTH TRAINING. 8) WHAT IS THE RECOMMENDED NUMBER OF MUSCLE-STRENGTHENING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DAYS FOR ADULTS? -MINIMUM OF 2. 9) STRENGTH TRAINING HELPS DO WHAT 3 THINGS? -DECREASE BODY FAT, INCREASE LEAN MUSCLE MASS, BURN CALORIES MORE EFFICIENTLY.
  4. 4. WHY SHOULD EVERYONE, NOT JUST ATHLETES OR PEOPLE WITH JOBS THAT REQUIRE HEAVY MUSCULAR WORK, STRENGTH TRAIN?
  5. 5. STRENGTH TRAINING -A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO IMPROVE MUSCULAR STRENGTH &/OR ENDURANCE THROUGH A SERIES OF PROGRESSIVE TRAINING EXERCISES THAT OVERLOAD THE MUSCLE SYSTEM & CAUSE PHYSIOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT. BENEFITS 1) OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE IN DAILY ACTIVITIES (HOUSEWORK, WALKING, RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES) -HEART RATE & BLOOD PRESSURE RESPONSE TO LIFTING HEAVY OBJECTS DECREASES WHICH REDUCES THE DEMAND ON THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM WHEN PERFORMING ACTIVITIES (CARRYING A CHILD, CARRYING GROCERIES, SHOVELING SNOW) 2) DECREASES RISK OF DIABETES BY HELPING CONTROL BLOOD SUGAR 3) IMPROVES POSTURE, PERSONAL APPEARANCE, SELF-IMAGE
  6. 6. MOST IMPORTANT HEALTH-RELATED COMPONENT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS IN THE OLDER POPULATION -STRENGTH MAY BE THE MOST IMPORTANT HEALTH-RELATED COMPONENT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS - SARCOPENIA: -AGE-RELATED LOSS OF LEAN BODY MASS, STRENGTH, & FUNCTION ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING -EVERYDAY BEHAVIORS THAT PEOPLE NORMALLY DO TO FUNCTION IN LIFE (CARRY GROCERIES, DO LAUNDRY, RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES)
  7. 7. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MUSCULAR STRENGTH & MUSCULAR ENDURANCE?
  8. 8. MUSCULAR STRENGTH -THE ABILITY OF A MUSCLE TO EXERT MAXIMUM FORCE AGAINST RESISTANCE -USUALLY DETERMINED BY “ONE REPITION MAXIMUM” (1RM)
  9. 9. MUSCULAR ENDURANCE -THE ABILITY OF A MUSCLE TO EXERT SUBMAXIMAL FORCE REPEATEDLY OVER TIME -DEPENDED UPON MUSCULAR STRENGTH: WEAK MUSCLES CANNOT REPEAT AN ACTION SEVERAL TIMES OR SUSTAIN IT -TYPICALLY DETERMINED BY THE NUMBER OF REPETITIONS AN INDIVIDUAL CAN PERFORM AGAINST A SUBMAXIMAL RESISTANCE OR BY THE LENGTH OF TIME A GIVEN ACTION SUSTAINED
  10. 10. WHY DO FEW WOMEN (NON-ATHLETES) STRENGTH TRAIN?
  11. 11. MYTHS OF WOMEN’S STRENGTH TRAINING 1) WEIGHT LIFTING MAKES WOMEN BULKY -BECAUSE TESTOSTERONE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR A MUSCLE’S BULK, IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR WOMEN TO GAIN HUGE AMOUNTS OF MUSCLE MASS. 2) IF YOU STOP WORKING OUT YOUR MUSCLES WILL TURN TO FAT -MUSCLE & FAT ARE 2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF TISSUE & ONE CANNOT BE TURNED INTO THE OTHER. WHEN YOU STOP LIFTING WEIGHTS THE MUSCLE- FAT RATIO RATIO CHANGES. 3) WOMEN SHOULD CONCENTRATE MORE ON CARDIO -WOMEN NEED TO LIFT WEIGHTS IN ORDER TO PREVENT LOSS OF MUSCLE TISSUE. 4) WOMEN SHOULD ONLY LIFT LIGHT WEIGHTS -MUSCLE RESPONDS TO RESISTANCE & IF THE RESISTANCE IS TOO LIGHT THERE WILL BE NO REASON FOR THE BODY TO CHANGE. WOMEN LOSE 10% OF STRENGTH PER DECADE OF LIFE. WEIGHT TRAINING CAN SLOW THIS.
  12. 12. PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN STRENGTH TRAINING 1) MODE 2) RESISTANCE 3) SETS 4) FREQUENCY 5) VOLUME
  13. 13. <ul><li>1) MODE </li></ul><ul><li>-2 TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS ARE USED TO IMPROVE STRENGTH </li></ul><ul><li>ISOMETRIC </li></ul><ul><li>DYNAMIC </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2) RESISTANCE -AMOUNT OF WEIGHT LIFTED -TO STIMULATE STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT THE GENERAL RULE OF THUMB IS TO USE A RESISTANCE OF ABOUT 80% OF THE MAXIMUM CAPACITY (1 RM)
  15. 15. 3) SETS -A FIXED NUMBER OF REPITITIONS -10 SECONDS OF MAXIMAL EXERCISE NEARLY DEPLETES THE ENERGY FROM THE MUSCLE -ENERGY IS REPLENISHED IN ABOUT 3 MINUTES -CIRCUIT TRAINING & SUPERSETTING
  16. 16. 4) FREQUENCY -DEPENDED ON THE AMOUNT OF RESISTANCE, NUMBER OF SETS PERFORMED, & PERSON’S ABILITY TO RECOVER -TOTAL BODY WORKOUTS VS SPLIT-BODY WORKOUTS -RECOVERY TIME
  17. 17. 5) VOLUME -THE SUM OF ALL THE REPITIONS PERFROMED MULTIPLIED BY THE RESISTANCES USED DURING A STRENGTH-TRAINING SESSION FOR ALL EXERCISES PEFORMED -4 SETS OF 10 REPS WITH 185 POUNDS (BENCH PRESS) -4 SETS OF 10 REPS WITH 95 POUNDS (CURLS) (4 X 10 X 185) + (4 X 10 X 95) = 7,400 + 3,800 = 11,200
  18. 18. FACTORS THAT AFFECT STRENGTH 1) NEURAL STIMULATION 2) TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER 3) OVERLOAD 4) SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING
  19. 19. 1) NEURAL STIMULATION MOTOR NEURONS -NERVES CONNECTING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM TO THE MUSCLE MOTOR UNIT -THE COMBINATION OF A MOTOR NEURON & THE MUSCLE FIBERS THE NEURON STIMULATES TO ACTION -MOTOR NEURON INNERVATES FEW FIBERS IN MUSCLES THAT REQUIRE PRECISE CONTROL (EYE MUSCLES), & MANY FIBERS IN MUSCLES THAT DO NOT PERFORM PRECISE MOVEMENTS (QUADS) -AS THE # OF FIBERS INNERVATED & FREQUENCY OF STIMULATION INCREASES, SO DOES THE STRENGTH OF THE MUSCLE CONTRACTION
  20. 20. 2) TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER 1) SLOW-TWITCH FIBERS MUSCLE FIBERS WITH GREATER AEROBIC POTENTIAL & SLOW SPEED OF CONTRACTION 2) FAST-TWITCH FIBERS MUSCLE FIBERS WITH GREATER ANAEROBIC POTENTIAL & FAST SPEED OF CONTRACTION -DURING MUSCULAR CONTRACTION SLOW-TWITCH FIBERS ARE RECRUITED FIRST -FAST-TWITCH FIBERS ARE ACTIVATED WHEN THE ACTIVITY IS INTENSE & POWERFUL -THE PROPORTION OF EACH ARE DETERMINED GENETICALLY -TRAINING INCREASES THE FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY OF BOTH
  21. 22. <ul><li>3) OVERLOAD </li></ul><ul><li>STRENGTH GAINS ARE ACHIEVED IN 2 WAYS: </li></ul><ul><li>THROUGH INCREASED ABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE FIBERS TO GENERATE A STRONGER CONTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>BY RECRUITING A GREATER PROPORTION OF THE TOTAL AVAILABLE FIBERS FOR EACH CONTRACTION </li></ul><ul><li>OVERLOAD PRINCIPLE: </li></ul><ul><li>TRAINING CONCEPT THAT THE DEMANDS PLACED ON A SYSTEM (CARDIORESPIRATORY OR MUSCULAR) MUST BE INCREASED PROGRESSIVELY OVER TIME TO CAUSE PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION (DEVELOPMENT OR IMPROVEMENT) </li></ul>
  22. 23. HOW CAN YOU OVERLOAD IN SRENGTH-TRAINING? -INCREASE RESISTANCE -INCREASE REPITITIONS -INCREASE/DECREASE SPEED OF REPITITION -INCREASE/DECREASE REST INTERVAL -INCREASE VOLUME (SUM OF REPITITIONS MULTIPLIED BY RESISTANCE)
  23. 24. 4) SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING -TRAINING MUST BE DONE WITH THE SPECIFIC MUSCLE THE PERSON IS ATTEMPTING TO IMPROVE Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demand (SAID) Training: STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES SHOULD RESEMBLE AS CLOSELY AS POSSIBLE THE MOVEMENT PATTERNS ENCOUNTERED IN THAT PARTICULAR ACTIVITY OR SPORT

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