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Chapter 7
 

Chapter 7

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    Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 7 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) What is more important for good health: aerobic fitness or muscular strength?2) Should you do aerobic exercise or strength training first?3) Do big muscles turn into fat when the person stops training?4) What strength-training exercises are best to get an abdominal "6-pack?”5) Define: strength training, activities of daily living, sarcopenia, metabolism.6) Does your body expend more calories to maintain muscle or fat?7) Daily energy requirements decrease an average of how many calories between age 26 & age 60?8) A benefit of strength training is a decrease in what around muscle fibers?9) What is the difference between muscular strength & muscular endurance?10) What is one repetition maximum?11) What are the 2 types of muscle fibers & what is the difference between them?12) What are the 2 ways that strength gains are achieved?13) What does the principle of specificity of training state?14) What does the overload principle state?15) What principle states that for improvements to occur in a specific activity, the exercises performed during a strength-training program should resemble as closely as possible the movement patterns encountered in that particular activity?16) How does periodization approach training?17) What is an emotional, behavioral, & physical condition marked by increased fatigue, decreased performance, persistent muscle soreness, mood disturbances, & feelings of staleness or burnout as a result of excessive physical training?18) What are the 2 types of training methods used to improve strength? Explain each.19) What is the most common mode for strength training?20) What were the most popular weight-training devices available during the first half of the 20th century?21) To stimulate strength development, the general recommendation has been to use a resistance of approximately what % of the 1RM?22) Between how many repetitions maximum should individuals perform for adequate strength gains?23) For general fitness, what is the recommendation for the amount of sets per exercise?24) To achieve significant strength gains, a minimum of how many weeks of consecutive training is necessary?25) What are referred to as the core of the body?26) What are the core muscles?27) What is a training program that uses exercises designed to help strengthen the bodys core by developing pelvic stability & abdominal control?
    • WHICH IS MORE IMPORTANT FOR GOOD HEALTH: AEROBIC FITNESS OR MUSCULAR STRENGTH?-BOTH ARE IMPORTANT-FITNESS BOOM OF 1970’S & 80’S: EMPHASIS ON AEROBIC FITNESS-TODAY: BOTH CONTRIBUTE TO: -HEALTH -FITNESS -WORK CAPACITY -OVERALL QUALITY OF LIFE
    • WHAT SHOULD COME FIRST: AEROBIC EXERCISE OR STRENGTH TRAINING?-GENERAL RULE OF THUMB: AEROBICS PROVIDES A GOOD LEAD INTO STRENGTH TRAINING-UNLESS EXTREMELY EXHAUSTING: CAN LEAD TO BAD FORM WHEN LIFTING-BASED ON FITNESS GOALS & PREFERENCES -PRIMARY GOAL IS STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT: LIFT FIRST -PRIMARY GOAL IS DEVELOP CARDIORESPIRATORY SYSTEM: HEAVY LOWER BODY LIFTING WILL MAKE IT DIFFICULT TO SUSTAIN A GOOD CARDIO WORKOUT
    • DO BIG MUSCLES TURN INTO FAT WHEN THE PERSON STOPS TRAINING?-MUSCLE TISSUE CAN’T TURN INTO FAT TISSUE (OR VICE VERSA)-MUSCLE & FAT TISSUE ARE COMPLETELY DIFFERENT TYPES OF TISSUE-MUSCLE TISSUE INCREASES/DECREASES IN SIZE FROM TRAINING/NOT TRAINING-FAT TISSUE INCREASES/DECREASES IN SIZE FROM GOOD/POOR DIET & WITH/WITHOUTPHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    • WHAT STRENGTH-TRAINING EXERCISES ARE BEST TO GET A “6-PACK?”?-NO MIRACLE EXERCISES TO REDUCE BODY FAT AROUND WAIST-ABDOMINAL EXERCISES WILL STRENGTHEN ABDOMINAL MUSCULATURE BUT WILL NOT BESUFFICIENT TO ALLOW MUSCLES TO APPEAR THROUGH FAT LAYER BETWEEN SKIN &MUSCLES-WASHBOARD ABS RECIPE: -MODERATE TO VIGOROUS AEROBIC TRAINING + STRENGTH TRAINING + MODERARE REDUCTION IN DAILY CALORIC INTAKE
    • STRENGTH TRAINING?-A PROGRAM DESIGNED TO IMPROVE MUSCULAR STRENGTH &/ORENDURANCE THROUGH A SERIES OF PROGRESSIVE TRAINING EXERCISESTHAT OVERLOAD THE MUSCLE SYSTEM & CAUSE PHYSIOLOGICALDEVELOPMENT WHAT ARE SOME OF THE BENEFITS?1) OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE IN DAILY ACTIVITIES* *EVERYDAY BEHAVIORS THAT PEOPLE NORMALLY DO TO FUNCTIONIN LIFE (CARRYING A CHILD, CARRYING GROCERIES, SHOVELING SNOW)2) DECREASES RISK OF DIABETES BY HELPING CONTROL BLOOD SUGAR3) IMPROVES POSTURE, PERSONAL APPEARANCE, SELF-IMAGE
    • WHAT IS SARCOPENIA?-AGE-RELATED LOSS OF LEAN BODY MASS, STRENGTH, & FUNCTION-IN THE OLDER POPULATION STRENGTH MAY BE THE MOST IMPORTANT HEALTH-RELATED COMPONENT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS-GOOD STRENGTH CONTRIBUTES MORE TO INDEPENDENT LIVING THAN ANY OTHER FITNESS COMPONENT-GOOD STRENGTH ENHANCES OLDER POPULATION QUALITY OF LIFE IN THAT IT:1) IMPROVES BALANCE & RESTORES MOBILITY2) MAKES LIFTING & REACHING EASIER3) DECREASES THE RISK FOR INJURIES & FALLS4) DECREASES THE RISK FOR OSTEOPOROSIS**DISEASE OF THE BONES WHERE BONE MINERAL DENSITYIS REDUCED LEADING TO AN INCREASED RSIK IN FRACTURE
    • METABOLISM“ALL ENERGY & MATERIAL TRANSFORMATIONS THAT OCCUR WITHIN LIVING CELLS”-NECESSARY TO SUSTAIN LIFE-MUSCLE TISSUE USES MORE ENERGY THAN FATTY TISSUE-BODY EXPENDS MORE CALORIES TO MAINTAIN MUSCLE THAN MAINTAIN FAT-ALL OTHER FACTORS EQUAL, 2 PEOPLE THAT WEIGH THE SAME BUT HAVEDIFFERENT MUSCLE MASS THE ONE WITH MORE MUSCLE MASS WILL HAVE A HIGHERRESTING METABOLISM
    • DOES METABOLISM SLOW DOWN WITH AGE?-METABOLISM DOESN’T SLOW DOWN, WE SLOW DOWN-LEAN BODY MASS DECREASES WITH SEDENTARY LIVING WHICH IN TURN SLOWSDOWN THE RESTING METABOLISM RATE-IF PEOPLE CONTINUE EATING AT THE SAME RATE AS THEY AGE BODY FAT WILLINCREASE-PARTICIPATING IN A STRENGTH-TRAINING PROGRAM CAN REDUCE EXCESS BODYFAT-SMALL INCREASES IN MUSCLE MASS HAVE A LONG-TERM POSITIVE EFFECT ONMETABOLISM
    • WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MUSCULAR STRENGTH & MUSCULAR ENDURANCE?
    • MUSCULAR STRENGTH-THE ABILITY OF A MUSCLE TO EXERT MAXIMUM FORCE AGAINSTRESISTANCE-WHAT IS ONE REPITION MAXIMUM (1RM)?-THE MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF RESISTANCE AN INDIVIDUAL IS ABLE TOLIFT IN A SINGLE EFFORT
    • MUSCULAR ENDURANCE-THE ABILITY OF A MUSCLE TO EXERT SUBMAXIMAL FORCE REPEATEDLY OVER TIME-TYPICALLY DETERMINED BY THE NUMBER OF REPETITIONS AN INDIVIDUAL CANPERFORM AGAINST A SUBMAXIMAL RESISTANCE OR BY THE LENGTH OF TIME AGIVEN ACTION IS SUSTAINED-STRENGTH & ENDURANCE GO HAND-IN-HAND-WEAK MUSCLES CANNOT REPEAT AN ACTION SEVERAL TIMES OR SUSTAIN IT
    • WHY DO WOMEN NOT ACHIEVE THE SAME AMOUNT OF MUSCLE SIZE AS MEN?-THE QUALITY OF MUSCLE IN MEN & WOMEN IS THE SAME, BUT ENDOCRINOLOGICALDIFFERENCES DO NOT ALLOW WOMEN TO ACHIEVE THE SAME AMOUNT OF MUSCLEHYPERTROPHY (SIZE) AS MEN-MEN ALSO HAVE MORE MUSCLE FIBERS, & BECAUSE OF THE SEX-SPECIFIC MALEHORMONES, EACH INDIVIDUAL FIBER HAS MORE POTENTIAL FOR HYPERTROPHY-ON AVERAGE, AFTER 6 MONTHS OF TRAINING, WOMEN CAN ACHIEVE UP TO A 50%INCREASE IN STRENGTH BUT ONLY A 10% INCREASE IN MUSCLE SIZE
    • “OUCH! WEIGHT ROOM BLUNDERS THAT CAN REALLY HURT” BY: MICHELLE HAMILTON WOMEN’S HEALTH
    • 1) A new study found that weight-training injuries among women have jumped by what %?-63%2) Working cold, stiff muscles can lead to what?-SPRAINS & TEARS3) How does warming up prep your muscles & joints for action?-INCREASES CIRCULATION & IMPROVES RANGE OF MOTION4) What type of warm-up can decrease your risk for injury?-DYNAMIC WARM-UP (STRETCHING WITH MOVEMENT)-OPINIONS ABOUT STATIC STRETCHING DIFFER5) When working out, what is the single most important factor in injury prevention?-PROPER FORM6) Why are women more at risk for form-related injuries than men?-NATURALLY WIDER HIPS
    • 7) What does S.E.A.K. stand for?-Stand straight, Eyes on the horizon, Abs tight, Knees over your second toe8) Women who lift weights tend to have less-stable what than women who dont lift at all?-SHOULDER JOINTS (DOING TOO MANY EXERCISES IN WHICH YOUR ELBOWS ARE PULLED BEHIND YOUR BODY CANOVERSTRETCH THE CONNECTIVE TISSUE IN FRONT OF THE JOINTS)9) You shouldnt allow your elbows to extend more than how many inches behind your body?-2 INCHES10) What do many women have that can make them more prone to injury?-STRENGTH IMBALANCES11) What prevents injuries such as torn ligaments and tendinitis, because your muscles and connective tissues have time toadapt?-GRADUAL CONDITIONING12) What is the three-step progression when starting a workout routine?1)LEARN TO DO A MOVE USING ONLY YOUR BODY WEIGHT2)STICK TO ONE SET WITH LIGHT WEIGHTS FOR 2 WEEKS OR UNTIL YOU FEEL COMFORTABLE3)WHEN YOU CAN COMPLETE NEARLY ALL YOUR REPS WITH PROPER FORM, ADD ANOTHER SET OR MORE WEIGHT(APPROX. 10% EACH TIME)
    • MYTHS OF WOMEN’S STRENGTH TRAINING1) ) WEIGHT LIFTING MAKES WOMEN BULKY -BECAUSE TESTOSTERONE IS RESPONSIBLE FOR A MUSCLE’S BULK, IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR WOMEN TO GAIN HUGE AMOUNTS OF MUSCLE MASS2) IF YOU STOP WORKING OUT YOUR MUSCLES WILL TURN TO FAT -MUSCLE & FAT ARE 2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF TISSUE & ONE CANNOT BE TURNED INTO THE OTHER -WHEN YOU STOP LIFTING WEIGHTS THE MUSCLE-FAT RATIO CHANGES3) WOMEN SHOULD CONCENTRATE MORE ON CARDIO -WOMEN NEED TO LIFT WEIGHTS IN ORDER TO PREVENT LOSS OF MUSCLE TISSUE4) WOMEN SHOULD ONLY LIFT LIGHT WEIGHTS -MUSCLE RESPONDS TO RESISTANCE & IF THE RESISTANCE IS TOO LIGHT THERE WILL BE NO REASON FOR THE BODY TO CHANGE -WOMEN LOSE 10% OF THEIR STRENGTH PER DECADE OF LIFE & WEIGHTTRAINING CAN SLOW THIS
    • FACTORS THAT AFFECT STRENGTH1) NEURAL STIMULATION2) TYPE OF MUSCLE FIBER3) OVERLOAD4) SPECIFICITY OF TRAINING5) TRAINING VOLUME6) PERIODIZATION
    • 1) NEURAL STIMULATIONMOTOR NEURONS-NERVES CONNECTING THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM TO THE MUSCLEMOTOR UNIT-THE COMBINATION OF A MOTOR NEURON & THE MUSCLE FIBERS THE NEURON STIMULATES TO ACTION-AS THE # OF FIBERS STIMULATED & FREQUENCY OF STIMULATION INCREASES, SO DOES THE STRENGTH OF THE MUSCLE CONTRACTION
    • ELECTRICAL STIMULATION THERAPY
    • 2) TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER WHAT ARE THE 2 TYPES OF MUSCLE FIBER?1)SLOW-TWITCH (RED) FIBERS1)FAST-TWITCH (WHITE) FIBERS
    • 1) SLOW-TWITCH FIBERS-MUSCLE FIBERS WITH GREATER AEROBIC POTENTIAL & SLOW SPEED OF CONTRACTION-TAKE LONGER TO GET GOING, BUT CAN GO FOR A LONGER PERIOD OF TIME WITHOUT GETTING TIRED (MARATHONER)2) FAST-TWITCH FIBERS-MUSCLE FIBERS WITH GREATER ANAEROBIC POTENTIAL & FAST SPEED OF CONTRACTION-FIRE EXTREMELY QUICKLY, BUT GET TIRED EASILY (SPRINTER)-DURING MUSCULAR CONTRACTION SLOW-TWITCH FIBERS ARE RECRUITED FIRST-FAST-TWITCH FIBERS ARE ACTIVATED WHEN THE ACTIVITY IS INTENSE & POWERFUL-TRAINING INCREASES THE FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY OF BOTH, BUT…-THE PROPORTION OF EACH ARE DETERMINED GENETICALLY
    • 3) OVERLOAD WHAT ARE THE 2 WAYS THAT STRENGTH GAINS ARE ACHIEVED?1) THROUGH INCREASED ABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL MUSCLE FIBERS TO GENERATE A STRONGER CONTRACTION1) BY RECRUITING A GREATER PROPORTION OF THE TOTAL AVAILABLE FIBERS FOR EACH CONTRACTION
    • OVERLOAD PRINCIPLE TRAINING CONCEPT THAT THE DEMANDS PLACED ON A SYSTEM (CARDIORESPIRATORY OR MUSCULAR) MUST BE INCREASED PROGRESSIVELY OVER TIME TO CAUSE PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATION (DEVELOPMENT OR IMPROVEMENT)-TO INCREASE IN PHYSICAL CAPACITY, MUSCLES HAVE TO BE TAXED REPEATEDLY BEYOND THEIR ACCUSTOMED LOADS
    • WAYS TO OVERLOAD (INCREASE DEMAND ON MUSCLES) IN STRENGTH TRAINING1)INCREASE INTENSITY (MORE RESISTANCE)2)INCREASE NUMBER REPITITIONS (SAME RESISTANCE)3)INCREASE/DECREASE SPEED OF REPITITIONS4)DECREASE REST INTERVAL (ENDURANCE IMPROVEMENTS)5)INCREASE REST INTERVAL (STRENGTH/POWER DEVELOPMENT)6)INCREASE VOLUME
    • 4) SPECIFICITY OF TRAININGTRAINING MUST BE DONE WITH THE SPECIFIC MUSCLE THE PERSON IS ATTEMPTING TO IMPROVESPECIFIC ADAPTATION TO IMPOSED DEMAND (SAID) TRAINING-STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES SHOULD RESEMBLE AS CLOSELY ASPOSSIBLE THE MOVEMENT PATTERNS ENCOUNTERED IN THATPARTICULAR ACTIVITY OR SPORT
    • 5) TRAINING VOLUME THE SUM OF ALL REPETITIONS PERFORMED MULTIPLIED BY THE RESISTANCE USED DURING A TRAINING SESSIONBENCH PRESS3 SETS10 REPS225 POUNDSVOLUME: 3 X 10 X 225 = 6,750
    • 6) PERIODIZATION A TRAINING APPROACH THAT DIVIDES THE SEASON INTO CYCLES USING ASYSTEMATIC VARIATION IN INTENSITY & VOLUME OF TRAINING TO ENHANCE FITNESS & PERFORMANCE-USED TO PREVENT OVERTRAINING-OVERTRAINING: AN EMOTIONAL, BEHAVIORAL, & PHYSICAL CONDITION MARKED BYINCREASED FATIGUE, DECREASED PERFORMANCE, PERSISTENT MUSCLE SORENESS,MOOD DISTURBANCES, & FEELINGS OF STALENESS OR BURNOUT AS A RESULT OFEXCESSIVE PHYSICAL TRAINING
    • WHAT ARE THE 2 TYPES OF TRAINING METHODS USED TO IMPROVE STRENGTH? 1)ISOMETRIC TRAINING 1)DYNAMIC TRAINING
    • 1) ISOMETRIC TRAININGSTRENGTH TRAINING WHERE THE MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS PRODUCE LITTLE OR NO MOVEMENT (PUSHING/PULLING AGAINST AN IMMOVABLE OBJECT)PRIMARY ADVANTAGE:-STRENGTH GAINS ARE SPECIFIC TO THE ANGLE OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION
    • 2) DYNAMIC TRAINING STRENGTH TRAINING WHERE THE MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS PRODUCE MOVEMENT (PUSHING/PULLING AGAINST MOVABLE RESISTANCE)-MOST COMMON MODE FOR STRENGTH TRAININGPRIMARY ADVANTAGE:-STRENGTH GAINS ARE THROUGH THE FULL RANGE OF MOTION
    • RESISTANCE AMOUNT OF WEIGHT LIFTED-TO STIMULATE STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT, THE GENERALRECOMMENDATION HAS BEEN TO USE RESISTANCE OFAPPROXIMATELY WHAT % OF THE 1RM?-80% (POUNDS OF 1 RM X .80)
    • REPITITION A STRENGTH TRAINING ROTATION-BETWEEN HOW MANY REPETITIONS MAXIMUM PER SET SHOULDINDIVIDUALS PERFORM FOR ADEQUATE STRENGTH GAINS?-EIGHT TO TWELVE
    • SET A FIXED NUMBER OF REPETITIONS-FOR GENERAL FITNESS, WHAT IS THE RECOMMENDATION FOR THE AMOUNTOF SETS PER EXERCISE?-TWO TO FOUR (ADVANCED: UP TO SIX)
    • TO ACHIEVE SIGNIFICANT STRENGTH GAINS, AMINIMUM OF HOW MANY WEEKS OF CONSECUTIVE TRAINING IS NECESSARY?-EIGHT WEEKS-AFTER AN INDIVIDUAL HAS ACHIEVED ARECOMMENDED STRENGTH LEVEL, FROM AHEALTH FITNESS STANDPOINT, ONE TO TWOTRAINING SESSIONS PER WEEK WILL BESUFFICIENT TO MAINTAIN IT