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Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
Chapter 6
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  • 1. CHAPTER 6 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) What is the best way to minimize the risk for cardiovascular disease?2) During resting conditions, what % of energy is derived from fat?3) During resting conditions, what % of energy is derived from carbohydrates?4) About how many calories do we burn per minute when we are at rest?5) Many 16-ounce energy drink contain how many calories?6) Explain what "cardiorespiratory endurance" is.7) Define "hypokinetic diseases" and state what the hypokinetic diseases are.8) Explain the difference between aerobic & anaerobic exercise.9) Explain the cardiorespiratory exercise prescription variables.10) Define the following terms: intensity, mode, frequency, duration.
  • 2. 1) WHAT IS THE BEST WAY TO MINIMIZE THE RISK FOR CARDIOVASCULARDISEASE?-MANAGE THE RISK FACTORS.2) DURING RESTING CONDITIONS, WHAT % OF ENERGY IS DERIVED FROMFAT?-70%3) DURING RESTING CONDITIONS, WHAT % OF ENERGY IS DERIVED FROMCARBS?-30%4) ABOUT HOW MANY CALORIES DO WE BURN PER MINUTE WHEN WE AREAT REST?-1.55) MOST 16-OUNCE ENERGY DRINKS CONTAIN HOW MANY CALORIES?-240
  • 3. 6) CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE-”THE ABILITY OF THE LUNGS, HEART, & BLOOD VESSELS TO DELIVERADEQUATE AMOUNTS OF OXYGEN TO THE CELLS TO MEET DEMANDSOF PROLONGED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.”-THE SINGLE MOST IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF HEALTH-RELATEDPHYSICAL FITNESS.
  • 4. 7) HYPOKINETIC DISEASES-”CHRONIC CONDITIONS RELATED TO A LACK OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.” -HYPERTENSION, HEART DISEASE, CHRONIC LOWER BACK PAIN, & OBESITY.-CONTRIBUTING FACTOR: MODERN DAY TECHNOLOGY -MINIMIZES THE AMOUNT OF MOVEMENT & EFFORT REQUIRED OF THE HUMAN BODY.
  • 5. CARDIORESPIRATORY PHYSIOLOGY-CARDIORESPIRATORY (CR) ENDURANCE: A MEASURE OF HOW THE PULMONARY(LUNGS), CARDIOVASCULAR (HEART & BLOOD VESSELS), & MUSCULAR SYSTEMSWORK TOGETHER DURING AEROBIC ACTIVITIES.-AS A PERSON BREATHES, PART OF THE OXYGEN IN THE AIR IS TAKEN UP BY THEALVEOLI IN THE LUNGS. -AIR SACS IN THE LUNGS WHERE OXYGEN IS TAKEN UP & CARBON DIOXIDE IS RELEASED FROM THE BLOOD.-AS BLOOD PASSES THROUGH THE ALVEOLI, OXYGEN IS PICKED UP BY HEMOGLOBIN& TRANSPORTED IN THE BLOOD TO THE HEART. -IRON-CONTAINING COMPOUND, FOUND IN THE RED BLOOD CELLS, THAT TRANSPORTS OXYGEN.-THE HEART THEN PUMPS THE OXYGENATED BLOOD THROUGH THE CIRCULATORYSYSTEM TO ALL ORGANS & TISSUES OF THE BODY.
  • 6. -AT THE CELLULAR LEVEL, OXYGEN IS USED TO CONVERT FOODSUBSTRATES (CARBS & FATS) THROUGH AEROBIC METABOLISM INTOADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP). -A HIGH-ENERGY CHEMICAL COMPOUND THAT THE BODY USES FOR IMMEDIATE ENERGY.-DURING PHYSICAL EXERTION, MORE ATP IS NEEDED TO PERFORM THEACTIVITY.-AS A RESULT, THE LUNGS, HEART, & BLOOD VESSELS HAVE TO DELIVERMORE OXYGEN TO THE MUSCLE CELLS TO SUPPLY THE REQUIRED ENERGY.-DURING PROLONGED EXERCISE, AN INDIVIDUAL WITH A HIGH LEVEL OF CRENDURANCE IS ABLE TO DELIVER THE REQUIRED AMOUNT OF OXYGEN TOTHE TISSUES WITH RELATIVE EASE.-IN CONTRAST, A PERSON WITH A LOW LEVEL OF CR ENDURANCE HAS TOWORK MUCH HARDER, THE HEART HAS TO WORK AT A HIGHER RATE, LESSOXYGEN IS DELIVERED TO THE TISSUES, & THE INDIVIDUAL FATIGUESFASTER.
  • 7. 8) AEROBIC VS ANAEROBIC EXERCISE-AEROBIC: EXERCISE THAT REQUIRES OXYGEN TO PRODUCE THENECESSARY ENERGY (ATP) TO CARRY OUT THE ACTIVITY.-ANAEROBIC: EXERCISE THAT DOES NOT REQUIRE OXYGEN TOPRODUCE THE NECESSARY ENERGY (ATP) TO CARRY OUT THEACTIVITY.
  • 8. AEROBIC EXERCISE-CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE ACTIVITIES OFTENARE CALLED AEROBIC EXERCISES.-ONLY AEROBIC ACTIVITIES WILL INCREASECARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE.-EXAMPLES: WALKING, JOGGING, CYCLING, ETC. QuickTimeª and a QuickTimeª and a QuickTimeª and a decompressor decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
  • 9. BENEFITS OF AEROBIC TRAINING• A HIGHER MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE (V02max) -MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF OXYGEN THE BODY IS ABLE TO UTILIZE PER MINUTE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.• AN INCREASE IN THE OXYGEN-CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE BLOOD• A DECREASE IN RESTING HEART RATE (RHR) -HEART RATE AFTER A PERSON HAS BEEN SITTING QUIETLY FOR 15-20 MIN.• A LOWER HEART RATE AT GIVEN WORKLOADS -LOAD (INTENSITY) PLACED ON THE BODY DURING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.• AN INCREASE IN THE # & SIZE OF THE MITOCHONDRIA -STRUCTURES WITHIN THE CELLS WHERE ENERGY TRANSFORMATIONS TAKE PLACE.• AN INCREASE IN THE # OF FUNCTIONAL CAPILLARIES -SMALLEST BLOOD VESSELS CARRYING OXYGENATED BLOOD TO THE TISSUES IN THE BODY.• A FASTER RECOVERY TIME -AMOUNT OF TIME THE BODY TAKES TO RETURN TO RESTING LEVELS AFTER EXERCISE.• LOWER BLOOD PRESSURE & BLOOD LIPIDS• AN INCREASE IN FAT-BURNING ENZYMES
  • 10. ANAEROBIC EXERCISE-INTENSITY OF THESE ACTIVITIES IS SO HIGH THATOXYGEN CAN’T BE DELIVERED & UTILIZED TO PRODUCEENERGY.-BECAUSE ENERGY PRODUCTION IS LIMITED IN THEABSENCE OF OXYGEN, ANAEROBIC ACTIVITIES CAN BECARRIED OUT FOR ONLY SHORT PERIODS (2-3 MIN).-EXAMPLES: 100, 200, 400 METERS IN TRACK & FIELD,GYMNASTICS ROUTINES, STRENGTH TRAINING, ETC. QuickTimeª and a QuickTimeª and a decompressor decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture.
  • 11. RESPONDERS VS NONRESPONDERSRESPONDERS:-INDIVIDUALS WHO EXHIBIT IMPROVEMENTS IN FITNESS AS A RESULTOF EXERCISE TRAINING.NONRESPONDERS:-INDIVIDUALS WHO EXHIBIT SMALL OR NO IMPROVEMENTS IN FITNESSAS COMPARED TO OTHERS WHO UNDERGO THE SAME TRAININGPROGRAM.PRINCIPLE OF INDIVIDUALITY:-TRAINING CONCEPT HOLDING THAT GENETICS PLAYS A MAJOR ROLEIN INDIVIDUAL RESPONSES TO EXERICE TRAINING & THESEDIFFERENCES MUST BE CONSIDERED WHEN DESIGNING EXERCISEPROGRAMS FOR DIFFERENT PEOPLE.
  • 12. CARDIORESPIRATORY EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION-ONLY ABOUT 19% OF ADULTS IN THE U.S. MEET MINIMUMRECOMMENDATIONS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT & MAINTENANCE OF CRFITNESS.-THE DEVELOP THE CR SYSTEM, THE HEART HAS TO BE OVERLOADEDJUST LIKE ANY OTHER MUSCLE IN THE HUMAN BODY.-IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT MEN OVER 45 & WOMEN OVER 55 WITHONE OR MORE RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE GET AMEDICAL EXAM & A DIAGNOSTIC GRADED EXERCISE STRESS TESTPRIOR TO VIGOROUS EXERCISE. -EXERCISE THAT SUBSTANTIALLY INCREASES HEART RATE & BREATHING AT AN INTENSITY EQUAL TO OR ABOVE 60% OF THE HEART’S RESERVE CAPACITY.
  • 13. 9) THE 4 CARDIORESPIRATORY EXERCISE PRESCRIPTION VARIABLES FITTFREQUENCYINTENSITYTYPETIME
  • 14. 10) INTENSITY-IN CARDIORESPIRATORY EXERCISE, HOW HARD APERSON HAS TO EXERCISE TO IMPROVE OR MAINTAINFITNESS. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 15. 10) MODE-TYPE OF EXERCISE.-TO DEVELOP THE CR SYSTEM THE EXERCISE HAS TO BEAEROBIC IN NATURE. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 16. 10) DURATION-HOW LONG AN EXERCISE SESSION LASTS.-GENERAL RECOMMENDATION IS THAT A PERSONEXERCISE BETWEEN 20-60 PER SESSION. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 17. 10) FREQUENCY-NUMBER OF TIMES PER WEEK A PERSON ENGAGES INEXERCISE.-GENERAL RECOMMENDATION FOR AEROBIC EXERCISE IS3-5 DAYS PER WEEK. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.

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