Chapter 5

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Chapter 5

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1) FOR EACH OF THE FOLLOWING PLAY THEORIES (THE SURPLUS ENERGY THEORY, THE RECREATION THEORY, THE RELAXATION THEORY, THE COMPENSATION THEORY, THE GENERALIZATION THEORY): A) DEFINE WHAT THE PLAY THEORY STATES. B) GIVE EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES. C) WHAT ARE DRAWBACKS TO THE THEORY. 2) EXPLAIN MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS & HOW RECREATIOAL ACTIVITIES CAN CONTRIBUTE TO MEETING EACH OF THE NEEDS LEVELS. 3) EXPLAIN NASH’S PYRAMID OF LEISURE & HOW ECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES WOULD BE CATEGORIZED IN THE PYRAMID.
  2. 2. PLAY <ul><li>“A form of enjoyable recreation consisting of spontaneous activities participated in for their own sake.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kindergartners: Playing with a friend or toy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College Males: Sports/Activities involving physical movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>College Females: Social interactions & events. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of play: </li></ul>1) Must be fun. 2) Can be done alone or as social interaction. 3) Can be physical in nature: Sports 4) Can be sedentary in nature: Video Games
  3. 3. <ul><li>PLAY THEORIES </li></ul><ul><li>THE SURPLUS ENERGY THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE RECREATION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE RELAXATION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE COMPENSATION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE GENERALIZATION THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE CATHARSIS THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>THE OPTIMAL AROUSAL THEORY </li></ul><ul><li>PLAY AS AN ESCAPE FROM SOCIAL REALITY THEORY </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1) THE SURPLUS ENERGY THEORY A) DEFINITION -Primary motivation for play is the need to expend surplus energy. B) EXAMPLES -Recess period for school children. -College students “letting loose” on weekends. -Working adults working out after work. C) DRAWBACKS -After long hours of sedentary work, one might feel tired & need a leisure activity to restore energy rather than to use excess energy.
  5. 5. 2) THE RECREATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Primary motivation for play is the need to restore energy. </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><li>-After hours of a boring lecture class (not this one) going back to dorm & studying would be counterproductive. Taking a break from class work by taking a nap might help. </li></ul><ul><li>-Sedentary work (studying/computers) can cause fatigue. A physical recreational activity (going for a run/walk) can produce renewed energy & motivation and re-focus the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Physical activity can cause fatigue & deplete energy rather than restore it. </li></ul>
  6. 6. 3) THE RELAXATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Primary motivation for play is relaxation. </li></ul><ul><li>-Stress related illness/disease is a major problem in society. </li></ul><ul><li>-Recreation can be a deterrent to a buildup of negative stress by relaxing the mind/body. </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-Businesses allowing employees to recreate during lunch breaks may reduce tension built up during the high-stress workday. </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Some recreation activities (Golf) may cause more stress, instead of relieving stress. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 4) THE COMPENSATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Leisure behavior is influenced by the desire to meet needs not met through work or other activities. </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-People working in undemanding/noncompetitive jobs (clerical work) may be likely to seek competitive leisure activities (sports league). </li></ul><ul><li>-People in highly competitive jobs (sales) may seek more relaxing forms of leisure activities (music, tv). </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Some people are competitive/noncompetitive by nature & will choose similar work & play activities. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 5) THE GENERALIZATION THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Play is caused by the transference to leisure of behaviors rewarded at work or another setting. </li></ul><ul><li>-Skills acquired to deal with stressful situations through work can be used in recreational activities. </li></ul><ul><li>-Answer to why people in stressful/demanding jobs choose stressful/demanding activities </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-A lawyer may take the skills he/she uses to win court cases & choose similar recreation activities such as competitive sports. </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Not everyone that has a high stress/demanding job chooses similar leisure activities. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 6) THE CATHARSIS THEORY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Views play as a positive, safe outlet for the release of pent-up emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>-Negative emotions (aggression) need to be given a safe outlet for release otherwise will be built up and let out in a harmful way (road rage). </li></ul><ul><li>-Study: college students that participate in physical activity significantly decreased aggressions, especially for females. </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-Physical Activity: Lifting weights, not to build muscle, but as a way to release built up tension. </li></ul><ul><li>-Sedentary Activity: Getting a massage to release built up tension. </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Play sometimes increases negative emotions instead of releasing them. </li></ul><ul><li>-Spectators at sporting events when team is losing (Yanks/Sox). </li></ul><ul><li>-Athletes when they are losing (attacks on refs). </li></ul>
  10. 10. 7) OPTIMAL AROUSAL <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Explains leisure behavior as a quest to attain an optimal level of arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>-Arousal refers to physiological & psychological stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>-Different optimal arousal levels lead to different pursuits of recreational activities (person to person, time to time). </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-The same activity can cause a high level of of arousal for one person, but a low level in another. </li></ul><ul><li>-Skiing/Snowboarding: Ability & slope type </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-When arousal level is too low or too high, activity is not enjoyable. </li></ul>
  11. 11. 8) PLAY AS AN ESCAPE FROM SOCIAL REALITY <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>-Describes play as a means of escaping from social reality. </li></ul><ul><li>-“Escaping” is emphasized as a marketing tool in many forms of recreation/leisure activities (Movies, Resorts, Vacation Destinations). </li></ul><ul><li>B) EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>-Sports/Recreational Activities provide an effective/positive escape </li></ul><ul><li>-Professional sports after 9/11 </li></ul><ul><li>-MLB night games during WWII </li></ul><ul><li>C) DRAWBACKS </li></ul><ul><li>-Constraints: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Time (Classes, Homework, Job), </li></ul><ul><li>2) $ </li></ul>
  12. 12. MASLOW’s HIERARCHY OF NEEDS <ul><li>5) Self-Actualization: Realizing one’s full potential </li></ul><ul><li>4) Self-Esteem: Recognition & Achievement </li></ul><ul><li>3) Love & Belongingness: Socialization & Intimacy </li></ul><ul><li>2) Safety: Protection from danger </li></ul><ul><li>1) Physiological: Water, Food, Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level needs can only bet once the lower level needs are met </li></ul>
  13. 13. RECREATIONAL ACTIVITIES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO MEETING THE NEEDS OF MASLOW’S HIERARCHY 1) Physiological: -Running (exercise) Dining Out (food, water) 2) Safety: -Organized Sports (anything with rules/regulations, contributing to the need for existing under a set of rules/boundaries) 3) Love & Belongingness: -Volunteer work, club/organization membership (anything that incorporates social interaction) 4) Self-Esteem: -Competitive sports (any activity where you would receive praise/compliments and boost self- esteem) 5) Self-Actualization: -Almost any activity that would improve/develop a variety of skills & abilities
  14. 14. NASH’S PYRAMID OF LEISURE SUBZERO: Acts performed against society 0: Retardation of self-development 1: Entertainment, simple amusement 2: Emotional participation 3: Active participation 4: Creativity
  15. 15. 4) Creativity: -Artwork, creating music, scrap booking 3) Active Participation: -Engaging in participant sports, any form of recreation activity involving physical & mental effort 2) Emotional Participation: -Attending a concert, dance recital, sports event, any non-active participation activities 1) Simple Amusement & Entertainment: -Watching TV, movies, listening to music, participant is entertained but not moved to a significant level of emotional involvement 0) Retardation of Self-Development: -Gambling, binge drinking, drug abuse, any leisure activity done in excess -0) Acts Performed Against Society: -Juvenile delinquency and vandalism

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