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Chapter 5
 

Chapter 5

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    Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 5 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) What is the 2nd leading cause of preventable death in the US each year? 2) What % of the US adult population (20 years & older) have a BMI greater than 25? 3) What % of the US adult population (20 years & older) have a BMI greater than 30? 4) About how much money do people spend yearly attempting to lose weight? 5) The total cost attributable to treating obesity-related diseases is estimated at how much per year? 6) Excessive body weight & obesity are risk factors for many physical ailments including what? 7) Research indicates that individuals who are 30 or more pounds overweight lose about how many years of life? 8) Severe obesity (BMI > 45) at a young age, may cut up to how many years off ones life? 9) About what % of people in the US are underweight? 10) Define the following eating disorders: A) Anorexia nervosa B) Bulimia nervosa C) Binge-eating disorder D) Emotional eating 11) When diet is combined with exercise, close to 100% of the weight loss is in the form of what? 12) What is ghrelin & leptin? 13) What is the average BMI of individuals who get less than 6 hours of sleep per night? 14) What is the average BMI of individuals who average 8 hours of sleep per night? 15) On average, how many pounds does the typical adult American gain per year? 16) What is the most important reason why physical activity & exercise are so vital for weight loss maintenance?
    • “OBESITY IN AMERICA: WHAT’S DRIVING THE EPIDEMIC?”
    • 1) How many American adults out of 3 are now overweight or obese?•22) What are the most obvious consequences of obesity?•DIABETES, HYPERTENSION, & HEART DISEASE.3) Out of every 10 American deaths, how many are the result of obesity & overweight?•14) What does obesity & overweight issues cost our society every year?•$223 BILLION.5) What % of job in 2010 required at least moderate physical activity?•LESS THAN 20%.6) The average American man is burning how many fewer calories each day than he did in the 1960s?•1427) What % of adults get enough exercise?•5%8) What % of his waking hours does the average American spend sitting down?•55%9) What is "sedentary work?”•DOING WORK WHILE BEING SEDENTARY.
    • 10) An ACS study found that what can be hazardous to your health?•SITTING.11) TV watching has been linked to an increased risk of what disease?•CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE.12) What 2 things account for the rise in caloric intake of Americans?•PORTION SIZE & EATING FREQUENCY.13) What make the single largest contribution to the caloric glut?•SWEETENED SODAS.14) Sleeping less than how many hours a day can lead to weight gain?•6 HOURS.15) Sleeping more than how many hours a day can lead to weight gain?•8 HOURS.16) How many drinks for a man is considered moderate drinking?•217) What can moderate drinking reduce the risk of?•HEART ATTACK & STROKE.18) One drink a day can lead to how many pounds gained over a year?•10
    • DIETARY HABITS FAQ
    • WHAT IS MORE IMPORTANT FOR WEIGHT LOSS: A NEGATIVECALORIC BALANCE (DIET) OR INCREASING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY?•RESEARCH SHOWS THAT WEIGHT LOSS IS MORE EFFECTIVEWHEN YOU CUT BACK ON CALORIES AS OPPOSED TO ONLYINCREASING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OR EXERCISE.•HOWEVER, WEIGHT LOSS IS ACCELERTED WHEN 150 OR MOREMINUTES OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PER WEEK ARE ADDED TODIETING.•WEIGHT LOSS MAINTENANCE IS POSSIBLE WITH 60-90 MINUTESOF SUSTAINED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OR EXERCISE AT LEAST 5TIMES PER WEEK.
    • DOES THE TIME OF DAY WHEN CALORIES ARE CONSUMED MATTER WHILE ON A WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAM?•WHEN ATTEMPTING TO LOSE WEIGHT, DAILY CALORIEINTAKE SHOULD CONSIST OF: -MINIMUM 25% FOR BREAKFAST. -50% FOR LUNCH. -25% OR LESS FOR DINNER.•DO NOT EAT WITHIN 3 HOURS OF GOING TO BED(METABOLISM IS THE SLOWEST).
    • ARE SOME DIET PLANS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN OTHERS?•DIET: A NEGATIVE CALORIC BALANCE. -CONSUMING FEWER CALORIES THAN THOSE REQUIRED TO MAINTAIN YOUR CURRENT WEIGHT.•WHEN ENERGY OUTPUT SURPASSES ENERGY INTAKE,WEIGHT LOSS WILL OCCUR.•NO MATTER WHAT THE DIET, FOR HEALTH REASONS YOUSHOULD NOT CONSUME LESS THAN 1,500 CALORIES/DAY.
    • WHY IS IT SO DIFFICULT TO CHANGE DIETARY HABITS?• TWO MAIN REASONS:1) OVERABUNDANCE OF FOOD2) UNLIMITED NUMBER OF FOOD CHOICES.• MOST AMERICANS DO NOT HAVE THE WILLPOWER TO OVERCOME THESE.
    • 1) WHAT IS THE 2ND LEADING CAUSE OF PREVENTABLE DEATH IN THE UNITED STATES EACH YEAR? EXCESSIVE BODY WEIGHT COMBINED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY = OBESITY OBESITY IS:•A BODY MASS INDEX (BMI) OF 30 OR HIGHER.•THE POINT AT WHICH EXCESS BODY FAT CAN LEAD TO SERIOUS HEALTH PROBLEMS.
    • THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE WHO ARE OBESE & OVERWEIGHT IN THE U.S. HAS INCREASED DRAMATICALLY IN THE PAST FEW YEARS BECAUSE:1) PHYSICAL INACTIVITY2) POOR DIETARY HABITS-BEFORE 1990, NOT A SINGLESTATE REPORTED AN OBESITYRATE ABOVE 15% OF THESTATE’S TOTAL POPULATION.BY 2007, ONLY COLORADOHAD AN OBESITY RATEBELOW 20%.
    • OVERWEIGHT & OBESITY STATISTICS•ACCORDING TO WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION: AN ESTIMATED 35% OF THE ADULTPOPULATION IN INDUSTRIALIZED NATIONS IS OBESE•FROM 1960-2002 ADULT OBESITY INCREASED FROM 13% TO 30%•THE AVERAGE WEIGHT OF AMERICAN ADULTS (20-74) HAS INCREASED BY 25+POUNDS SINCE 1965•IN THE LAST DECADE ALONE THE AVERAGE WEIGHT OF U.S. ADULTS HASINCREASED BY 15 POUNDS•MORE THAN 1/2 OF ALL ADULTS IN THE U.S. DO NOT ACHIEVE THE MINIMUMRECOMMENDED AMOUNT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY•WHAT % OF US POPULATION 20 YEARS+ HAVE A BMI GREATER THAN 25? •68%•WHAT % OF US POPULATION 20 YEARS+ HAVE A BMI GREATER THAN 30? •34%
    • HEALTH CONSEQUENCES-OBESITY & UNHEALTHY LIFESTYLE HABITS ARE THE MOST CRITICAL PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEMS WE FACE IN THE 21ST CENTURY-EXCESSIVE BODY WEIGHT & OBESITY ARE RISK FACTORS FOR MANY PHYSICAL AILMENTS INCLUDING WHAT? -CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE, TYPE 2 DIABETES, SOME TYPES OF CANCER-EXCESSIVE BODY WEIGHT COMBINED WITH PHYSICAL INACTIVITY CAUSES MORE THAN 112,000 DEATHS/YEAR-OBESITY IS MORE PREVALENT THAN SMOKING (19%), POVERTY (14%), & PROBLEM DRINKING (6%)-WHAT IS THE ESTIMATED TOTAL COST ATTRIBUTABLE TO TREATING OBESITY-REALTED DISEASES EACH YEAR? -$117 BILLION/YEAR-RESEARCH INDICATES THAT INDIVIDUALS WHO ARE 30+ POUNDS OVERWEIGHT DURING MIDDLE AGE (30- 49) LOSE ABOUT HOW MANY YEARS OF LIFE? -7 YEARS-SEVERE OBESITY (BMI 45+) AT A YOUNG AGE MAY CUT UP TO HOW MANY YEARS OFF ONE’S LIFE? -20 YEARS
    • OBESITY AS ARESULT OF A LACK OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
    • FITNESS ILLUSION ”MONEY BEING SPENT ON FITNESS GOES UP BUT THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE EXERCISING GOES DOWN.”--PEOPLE PURCHASE FITNESS RELATED MERCHANDISE & SERVICES BELIEVING THAT MERELY OWNING THESEGOODS & SERVICES WILL MAKE THEIR BODIES FIT-ON AVERAGE, HOW MANY POUNDS DOES THE TYPICAL ADULT AMERICAN GAIN PER YEAR? -1-2 POUNDS-2000: -MORE THAN 50% OF AMERICANS DID NOT EXERCISE -FITNESS CLUB INDUSTRY: $10.6 BILLION -50% OF NEW FITNESS CLUB MEMBERSHIPS QUIT WITHIN 6 MONTHS-TODAY: -PEOPLE SPEND ABOUT HOW MUCH MONEY YEARLY ATTEMPTING TO LOSE WEIGHT? -$40 BILLION/YEAR -$10 BILLION TO MEMBERSHIPS IN WEIGHT REDUCTION CENTERS & $30 BILLION TO DIET FOOD SALES. -ABOUT 44% OF ALL WOMEN & 29% OF ALL MEN ARE ON A DIET AT ANY GIVEN MOMENT-WHAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT REASON WHY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY & EXERCISE ARE SO VITAL FOR WEIGHT LOSSMAINTENANCE? -SEDENTARY LIVING EXPENDS NO ADDITIONAL ENERGY (CALORIES) OVER THE RESTINGMETABOLIC RATE
    • WEIGHT LOSS DILEMMA-ABOUT 10% OF ALL PEOPLE WHO BEGIN A TRADITIONAL WEIGHT LOSS PROGRAM WITHOUT EXERCISE ARE ABLE TO LOSE THE DESIRED WEIGHT-OF THOSE 10% ONLY 5% ARE ABLE TO KEEP THE WEIGHT OFF-WHY?-THE BODY IS HIGHLY RESISTANT TO PERMANENT WEIGHT CHANGES THROUGH CALORIC RESTRICTIONS ALONE-THE $40 BILLION DIET INDUSTRY TRIES TO CAPITALIZE ON THE FALSE IDEA THAT A PERSON CAN LOSE WEIGHT QUICKLY WITHOUT CONSIDERING:1) THE CONSEQUENCES OF FAST WEIGHT LOSS2) THE IMPORTANCE OF LIFETIME BEHAVIORAL CHANGES TO ENSURE PROPER WEIGHT LOSS & MAINTENANCE-WHEN DIET IS COMBINED WITH EXERCISE CLOSE TO 100% OF THE WEIGHT LOSS IS IN THE FORM OF WHAT? -FAT (LEAN TISSUE MAY ACTUALLY INCREASE)
    • SLEEP DEPRIVATION & WEIGHT MANAGEMENT-WHAT IS THE AVERAGE BMI OF INDIVIDUALS WHO GET LESS THAN 6 HOURS OF SLEEP/NIGHT? -28.3-WHAT IS THE AVERAGE BMI OF INDIVIDUALS WHO AVERAGE 8 HOURS OF SLEEP/NIGHT? -24.5-SLEEP DEPRIVATION INTERFERES WITH THE BODY’S CAPABILITY TO LOSE WEIGHT-LACK OF SLEEP DISRUPTS NORMAL BODY HORMONAL BALANCES GHRELIN: -HORMONE PRODUCED PRIMARILY IN THE STOMACH THAT STIMULATES APPETITE. LEPTIN: -HORMONE PRIDUCED BY FAT CELLS THAT LETS BRAIN KNOW WHEN YOU ARE FULL.-SLEEP DEPRIVATION ELEVATES GHRELIN LEVELS & DECREASES LEPTIN LEVELS.
    • EATING DISORDERS
    • EATING DISORDERS “MEDICAL ILLNESSES THAT INVOLVE CRUCIAL DISTURBANCES IN EATING BEHAVIORS THOUGHT TO STEM FROM SOME COMBINATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PRESSURES.”-CHARACTERIZED BY AN INTENSE FEAR OF BECOMING FAT, WHICH DOES NOTDISAPPEAR EVEN WHEN THE PERSON IS LOSING WEIGHT IN EXTREMEAMOUNTS-MOST PREVALENT AMONG 25-50 YEAR OLDS-WOMEN ARE MORE SUSCEPTIBLE TO EATING DISORDERS-APPROXIMATELY 40% OF COLLEGE-AGE WOMEN STRUGGLE WITH AN EATINGDISORDER
    • 4) WHAT IS ANOREXIA NERVOSA? “AN EATING DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY SELF-IMPOSED STARVATION TO LOSE & MAINTAIN VERY LOW BODY WEIGHT.”-APPROXIMATELY 1% OF THE U.S. POPULATION HAS ANOREXIANERVOSA-ANOREXIC INDIVIDUALS: -SEEM TO FEAR WEIGHT GAIN MORE THAN DEATH FROMSTARVATION -HAVE A DISTORTED IMAGE OF THEIR BODIES & THINK OFTHEMSELVES AS BEING FAT EVEN WHEN THEY ARE EMACIATED -DEVELOP OBSESSIVE & COMPULSIVE BEHAVIORS & AREPREOCCUPIED WITH FOOD, MEAL PLANNING, & GROCERY SHOPPING
    • 4) WHAT IS BULIMIA NERVOSA?“AN EATING DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY A PATTERN OF BINGE EATING &PURGING IN AN ATTEMPT TO LOSE WEIGHT & MAINTAIN LOW BODY WEIGHT.”-MORE PREVALENT THAN ANOREXIA NERVOSA-AS MANY AS 20% OF COLLEGE WOMEN MAY BE BULIMIC-PEOPLE WITH BULIMIA USUALLY: -ARE HEALTHY LOOKING, WELL EDUCATED, & NEAR RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT -WILL HAVE A LARGE & UNCONTROLLABLE FOOD CONSUMPTION, DURING WHICH TIME THEY MAY EAT SEVERAL THOUSAND CALORIES -FEEL OF GUILTY, SHAMEFUL, & FEAR GAINING WEIGHT AFTERBINGING -LOOK AT PURGING AS THE ANSWER FOR THE BINGING
    • 4) WHAT IS BINGE-EATING DISORDER? “AN EATING DISORDER CHARACTERIZED BY UNCONTROLLABLE EPISODES OF EATING EXCESSIVE AMOUNTS OF FOOD WITHIN A RELATIVELY SHORT TIME.”-MOST COMMON EATING DISORDER-ABOUT 2% OF AMERICAN ADULTS ARE AFFLICTED-UNLIKE BULIMICS, BINGE-EATERS DO NOT PURGE, THUS MOST PEOPLE WITHTHIS DISORDER ARE EITHER OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE.
    • 4) WHAT IS EMOTIONAL EATING? “THE CONSUMPTION OF LARGE QUANTITIES OF FOOD TO SUPPRESS NEGATIVE EMOTIONS.”-PEOPLE WHO EMOTIONALLY EAT USUALLY EAT “COMFORT” & JUNK FOODS-SOME FOODS (CHOCOLATE) CAUSE THE BODY TO RELEASE MOOD-ELEVATING OPIATES