Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

  1. 1. CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1) Define the following terms: body composition, percent body fat, lean body mass, recommended body weight, overweight, & obesity. 2) Explain what essential fat & storage fat are. 3) Define “recommended body weight.” 4) What is the difference between overweight & obesity? 5) What is the most accurate technique presently available in fitness laboratories to assess body composition? 6) Explain hydrostatic weighing & air displacement. 7) What is the most common technique for determining thinness & excessive fatness?
  2. 2. “ NEW U.S. DIET GUIDELINES URGE LESS SALT, MORE DAIRY” POSTED ON BLOG: FRIDAY FEBRUARY 11
  3. 3. 1) WHAT FRACTION OF AMERICAN ADULTS ARE OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE? -TWO-THIRDS. 2) WHAT FRACTION OF AMERICAN CHILDREN ARE OVERWEIGHT OR OBESE? -ONE-THIRD. 3) ON AVERAGE, HOW MANY MILLIGRAMS OF SODIUM DO AMERICANS CONSUME A DAY? -3,400 (LESS THAN 2,300 IS RECOMMENDED). 4) WHAT IS THE DAILY CALORIE RANGE FOR WOMEN? -1,600-2,400. 5) WHAT IS THE DAILY CALORIE RANGE FOR MEN? -2,000-3,000.
  4. 4. “ 10 STATES WITH THE DEADLIEST EATING HABITS” POSTED ON BLOG: FEBRUARY 14
  5. 5. 1) WHAT NATION HAS THE HIGHEST BODY MASS INDEX? -AMERICA. 2) IN 2008, WHAT PERCENT OF THE WORLD’S MALE & FEMALE POPULATION WERE OBESE? MALE: 9.8% FEMALE: 13.8% 3) IN 1980, WHAT PERCENT OF THE WORLD’S MALE & FEMALE POPULATION WERE OBESE? MALE: 4.8% FEMALE: 7.9% 4) HOW MUCH MONEY DID AMERICA SPEND LAST YEAR ON OBESITY-RELATED HEALTH? -$147 BILLION. 5) WHAT STATE SPENDS THE MOST PER CAPITA ON FAST FOOD? -NEVADA. 6) WHAT STATE HAS THE GREATEST PERCENTAGE OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH NO CAR & WHICH ARE MORE THAN 10 MILES FROM A SUPERMARKET OR GROCERY STORE? -SOUTH DAKOTA. 7) WHAT STATE HAS THE WORST EATING HABITS IN THE COUNTRY? -MISSISSIPPI.
  6. 6. WHAT IS BODY COMPOSITION?
  7. 7. BODY COMPOSITION -THE FAT & NON-FAT COMPONENTS OF THE HUMAN BODY -IMPORTANT IN ASSESSING RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT HUMAN BODY CONSISTS OF FAT & NONFAT COMPONENTS PERCENT BODY FAT (FAT COMPONENT): -PROPORTIONAL AMOUNT OF FAT IN THE BODY BASED ON THE PERSON’S TOTAL WEIGHT. ALSO CALLED FAT MASS. LEAN BODY MASS (NON-FAT COMPONENT): -BODY WEIGHT WITHOUT FAT MASS
  8. 8. TOTAL FAT IN THE HUMAN BODY IS CLASSIFIED INTO WHAT 2 TYPES?
  9. 9. <ul><li>1) ESSENTIAL FAT: </li></ul><ul><li>-NEEDED FOR NORMAL PHYSIOLGICAL FUNCTION </li></ul><ul><li>-FOUND WITHIN TISSUES SUCH AS MUSCLES, NERVE CELLS, BONE MARROW, INTESTINES, HEART, LIVER, LUNGS </li></ul><ul><li>-3% OF TOTAL WEIGHT IN MEN & 12% FOR WOMEN </li></ul><ul><li>-WHY IS IT HIGHER IN WOMEN? </li></ul><ul><li>2) STORAGE FAT: </li></ul><ul><li>-FAT STORED IN ADIPOSE TISSUE, MOSTLY JUST BENEATH THE SKIN & AROUND MAJOR ORGANS </li></ul><ul><li>-SAME % IN MEN & WOMEN BUT MEN TEND TO STORE FAT AROUND WAIST & WOMEN AROUND HIPS & THIGHS </li></ul><ul><li>-SERVES 3 BASIC FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>AS AN INSULATOR TO RETAIN BODY HEAT </li></ul><ul><li>AS ENERGY SUBSTRATE FOR METABOLISM </li></ul><ul><li>AS PADDING AGAINST PHYSICAL TRAUMA TO THE BODY </li></ul>
  10. 10. WHAT IS RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT?
  11. 11. <ul><li>RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT (HEALTHY WEIGHT): </li></ul><ul><li>-BODY WEIGHT AT WHICH THERE SEEMS TO BE NO HARM TO HUMAN HEALTH </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT IS NEEDED TO DETERMINE RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT? </li></ul><ul><li>-WHAT % OF TOTAL BODY WEIGHT IS FAT & WHAT AMOUNT IS LEAN TISSUE </li></ul>
  12. 12. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OVERWEIGHT & OBESITY?
  13. 13. OVERWEIGHT: -AN EXCESS AMOUNT OF WEIGHT AGAINST A GIVEN STANDARDS, SUCH AS HEIGHT OR RECOMMENDED % BODY FAT OBESITY: AN EXCESSIVE ACCUMULATION OF BODY FAT, USUALLY AT LEAST 30% ABOVE RECOMMENDED BODY WEIGHT
  14. 14. WHAT IS MOST ACCURATE TECHNIQUE FOR ASSESSING BODY COMPOSITION? HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING
  15. 15. WHAT IS HYDROSTATIC WEIGHING & WHAT ARE ITS DRAWBACKS?
  16. 16. WHAT IS AIR DISPLACEMENT AND WHAT IS AN ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGE?
  17. 17. WHAT IS THE MOST COMMON TECHNIQUE TO DETERMINE THINNESS & EXCESSIVE FATNESS? BODY MASS INDEX
  18. 18. BODY MASS INDEX: -INCORPORATES HEIGHT & WEIGHT (NOT GENDER SPECIFIC) TO ESTIMATE CRITICAL FAT VALUES AT WHICH THE RISK FOR DISEASE INCREASES -IN RECENT YEARS HAS BECOME THE MEDICAL STANDARD USED TO MEASUE OVERWEIGHT & OBESITY -BMI 18.5-25 IS CONSIDERED NORMAL -LOWEST RISK FOR CHRONIC DISEASE IS BMI 22-25 -OVERWEIGHT: BMI 25-30 -OBESE: ABOVE 30 -UNDERWEIGHT: BMI BELOW 18.5
  19. 19. BMI CALCULATION: -MULTIPLYING BODY WEIGHT BY 705 & DIVIDING THIS FIGURE BY THE SQUARE OF THE HEIGHT IN INCHES 160LBS X 705 = 112,800 112,800 / (69)2 = 112,800/4,761 = 23.69 BMI

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