CHAPTER 3 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1) What are the main purposes & benefits of studying leisure history? 2) Choose 3 factors that influenced the development of the recreation movement in the 20th century, and be ready to discuss them in class. 3) Define "urbanization." 4) What are "immoral" forms of commercial recreation? 5) What are some factors that will influence the development of the recreation movement in the 21st century? How will these factors influence the recreation movement?
What are the benefits of studying leisure history? 1) A knowledge/understanding of leisure history can promote a better understanding of leisure-related problems in society today. - “Those who do not understand the past are condemned to relive it.” 2) Understanding leisure history can can help provide explanations for leisure behavior in society. -The better that leisure behavior can be understood, the easier it is to determine how to improve society’s leisure services and well-being.
3) A knowledge of leisure history provides a basis for comparison and evaluation of leisure services in today’s society.
-Are leisure opportunities better or worse today than in the past?
-What areas have shown progression?
-What areas have shown a decline?
4) Society can learn to more effectively deal with leisure related social and technological changes in the future. -Society should not repeat its mistakes but should strive to repeat its successes. 5) Examining leisure history facilitates a clearer understanding of the multitude of factors that affect leisure in society. -Factors include: Religion Influential People Technology Wars Economy 6) If there is a greater consciousness of history, perhaps individuals will view present leisure behavior patterns with a more broader, more philosophical historical perspective. -We view many forms of recreational activity of past societies as immoral….won’t societies of the future think the same as us?
FACTORS THAT HAVE INFLUENCED THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RECREATION MOVEMENT IN 20th CENTURY
1) Technological Advances
Shorter work week = Increase free time
More free time increases possibility for leisure related problems
How have technology increased free time in your life?
Migration of people to cities
Recreation viewed as a means to combat crowded condition
How has recreation provided a means for maintaining a decent quality of life in cities?
3) Increased Specialization of Work
Specialized work can be monotonous
Recreation is viewed as a means of satisfying the need for an outlet/release from work.
Leisure activities provide a means for socialization, especially to various societies
4) Philosophical Concepts
Play/Recreation is an important part of education
Catharsis Theory: Play/Recreations is a positive outlet for negative emotions.
5) Improved Transportation
Gives people more opportunities to recreate outdoors
Tourism became major economic impact factor as a result
6) Growth in Physical Education
More people acquire sports skills through P.E.
Demand for recreational opportunities increased
7) “Immoral” Forms of Commercial Recreation
Regulates “immoral” leisure activities by taking them out of private enterprises hands and into commercial recreation enterprises
Drinking as a positive leisure activity
Increased pollution from increasing industrialization creates a need for organized conservation movement
National/State/Municipal Parks flourish as a result
Increase the need for Therapeutic Recreation
10) Legislation Ensuring The Rights of People With Disabilities
Increase the need for Therapeutic Recreation
11) Women’s Liberation Movement
Greater recreation opportunities for women
12) Fitness Enthusiasm
Private enterprise aspect of recreation profession received boost
More opportunities to recreate = healthier people = creates more jobs
13) Tax Reform Legislation
Creates a greater consciousness of the need for accountability in publicly provided leisure services.
Proposition 13 in California.
14) Post-World War II Baby Boom
More children = more of a need for the recreation movement to address their recreational needs.
15) Aging of American Society
Greater demand for recreational opportunities for older population.
As older population increases, the demand increases.
FACTORS THAT WILL AFFECT THE RECREATION MOVEMENT IN THE 21ST CENTURY
1) Increasing Globalization: -“Americanization” affecting leisure/recreation in some countries -Other countries influencing US leisure activities 2) Terrorism: -Improvements in security for recreation programs -Tourism/Travel related recreation activities affected -“Carpe Diem” Quality of life has become important again -Recreation activities for the purpose of community togetherness 3) Technology: -Passive vs Active forms of leisure activities