CHAPTER 3 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) Define "nutrition."2) Define "nutrients."3) On a given day, nearly 1/2 of the people in t...
HOW DO YOU DEFINE NUTRITION?SCIENCE THAT STUDIES THE RELATIONSHIP OF FOODS TO         OPTIMAL HEALTH & PERFORMANCE.
WHY IS GOOD NUTRITION IMPORTANT TO OVERALL           HEALTH & WELL-BEING?
PROPER NUTRITION MEANS:1) THAT A PERSON’S DIET   SUPPLIES ALL THE   ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS   NEEDED TO CARRY OUT   NORMAL TIS...
ON ANY GIVEN DAY, NEARLY 1/2 OF AMERICANS DO NOT                   EAT WHAT?                     FRUIT
ON ANY GIVEN DAY, NEARLY 1/4 OF AMERICANS DO NOT                   EAT WHAT?                  VEGETABLES
IF FOOD AVAILABILITY IS NOT THE PROBLEM, THEN WHAT                         IS?     OVERCONSUMPTION OF THE WRONG FOODS
WHAT ARE AMONG THE LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH IN MANY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, INCLUDING THE US?   DISEASES OF DIETARY EXCESS & I...
UP TO WHAT % OF ALL CANCERS MAY BE DIET RELATED?                      50%
TRIMMING SUPER-SIZE WITH HALF-ORDERS, PLATE COLORS
1) What are one of the culprits behind the epidemic of bulging waistlines?-GIANT PORTION SIZES.2) What is "right-sizing?”-...
7) What % more pasta alfredo do people serve onto a white plate than a red one?-18%.8) What do people tend to overeat more...
NUTRIENTS-SUBSTANCES FOUND IN FOOD THAT PROVIDE ENERGY,   REGULATE METABOLISM, AND HELP WITH GROWTH &   REPAIR OF BODY TIS...
FUEL NUTRIENTS-THE ONLY SUBSTANCES THE BODY USES TO SUPPLY THE   ENERGY NEEDED FOR WORK & NORMAL BODY   FUNCTIONS.1) CARBO...
REGULATORY NUTRIENTS-HAVE NO CALORIC VALUE, BUT ARE STILL NECESSARY   FOR A PERSON TO FUNCTION NORMALLY & MAINTAIN   GOOD ...
MACRONUTRIENTS-WE NEED THEM IN PROPORTIONATELY LARGE AMOUNTS  DAILY.1) CARBOHYDRATES         3) PROTEINS2) FATS           ...
THE 7TH NUTRIENTFIBER:-VITAL FOR GOOD HEALTH.-PROVIDES PROTECTION AGAINST SEVERAL DISEASES,INCLUDING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEAS...
NUTRIENT DENSITY-A MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF NUTRIENTS & CALORIES INVARIOUS FOODS.HIGH NUTRIENT DENSITY:-FOODS THAT CONTAIN...
CALORIE-THE AMOUNT OF HEAT NECESSARY TO RAISE THETEMPERATURE OF 1 GRAM OF WATER 1 DEGREECENTIGRADE.-USED TO MEASURE THE EN...
THE CALORIE QUIZHOW MANY CALORIES ARE IN THE FOLLOWING ITEMS?
140
0
145
110
125
BLACK      5CREAM & SUGAR     168
260
550
670
200
560
415
THE 5 FOOD GROUPS IDENTIFIED BY THE MYPLATE ICON
DAIRY-FAT-FREE OR LOW-FAT (1%) MILK IS BEST-WOMEN 19-30: 3 CUPS/DAY-MEN 19-30: 3 CUPS/DAY                                F...
WHAT CONSTITUTETHE MAJOR SOURCE OF CALORIESTHAT THE BODY USES TO PROVIDE ENERGY FOR WORK,       MAINTAIN CELLS, & GENERATE...
CARBOHYDRATES-A CLASSIFICATION OFDIETARY NUTRITIONCONTAINING CARBON,HYDROGEN, & OXYGEN.-THE MAJOR SOURCE OFENERGY FOR THE ...
SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES                           “SUGARS”-OFFER LITTLE NUTRITIVE VALUE.-DIVIDED INTO MONOSACCHARIDES & DISAC...
COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES                  “POLYSACCHARIDES”1) STARCH: CONVERTED TO   GLUCOSE FOR BODY’S OWN   ENERGY USE.2) D...
FIBER-A FORM OF COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATE.-HIGH-FIBER DIET GIVES A PERSON A FEELING OF FULLNESS WITHOUT ADDING TOOMANY CALORIES...
SOLUBLE VS INSOLUBLE FIBERSOLUBLE FIBER:-DISSOLVES IN WATER & FORMS A GEL-LIKE SUBSTANCE THAT ENCLOSES FOOD PARTICLES.-THI...
FATS                     “LIPIDS”-MOST CONCENTRATED SOURCE OF ENERGY.-EACH GRAM OF FAT SUPPLIES 9 CALORIES TO THE BODY.-3 ...
SIMPLE FATS-2 TYPES:1) SATURATED: ANIMAL ORIGIN2) UNSATURATED: FOUND IN PLANT PRODUCTS
COMPOUND FATS-COMBINATION OF SIMPLE FATS & OTHER CHEMICALS.-LIPOPROTEINS:  -MOST IMPORTANT COMPOUND FAT  -COMBINATION OF L...
DERIVED FATS-COMBINE SIMPLE & COMPOUND FATS-EXAMPLE: STEROLS    -CHOLESTEROL IS BEST-KNOWN EXAMPLE
PROTEINS-THE MAIN SUBSTANCES THE BODY USES TO BUILD & REPAIRTISSUES SUCH AS MUSCLES, BLOOD, SKIN, HAIR, NAILS, & BONES.-HE...
VITAMINS-NECESSARY FOR NORMAL BODILY METABOLISM,   GROWTH, & DEVELOPMENT.-2 MAIN TYPES:1) FAT SOLUBLE (A, D, E, K)2) WATER...
MINERALS-INORGANIC NUTRIENTS ESSENTIAL FOR NORMAL BODYFUNCTIONS.-CRUCIAL TO MAINTAINING WATER BALANCE & THE ACID-BASEBALAN...
WATER-THE MOST IMPORTANT NUTRIENT.-INVOLVED IN ALMOST EVERY VITAL BODY PROCESS:     -DIGESTING & ABSORBING FOOD, PRODUCING...
Chapter 3
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Chapter 3

  1. 1. CHAPTER 3 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) Define "nutrition."2) Define "nutrients."3) On a given day, nearly 1/2 of the people in the US do not eat what?4) On a given day, almost 1/4 of the people in the US do not eat what?5) Food availability is not a problem, but what is?6) What are among the leading causes of death in many developed countries throughout the world, including the US?7) Up to what % of all cancers may be diet related?8) What are the essential nutrients?9) What are the fuel nutrients?10) What are the regulatory nutrients?11) What are the macronutrients?12) What are the micronutrients?13) What is often called the "7th nutrient" by many nutritionists?14) Define "nutrient density."15) Define "calorie."16) What constitute the major source of calories that the body uses to provide energy for work, to maintain cells, & generate heat?17) Each gram of carbohydrate provides the human body with how many calories?18) What are the 2 major types of carbohydrates?19) Why is fiber important in the diet?20) What is the recommended fiber intake for adult women 50 years & younger?21) What is the recommended fiber intake for adult men 50 years & younger?22) What is the most concentrated energy source for the human body?23) Each gram of fat provides the human body with how many calories?24) What are the 3 main groups of fat?25) What are the main substances the body uses to build & repair tissues?26) Each gram of proteins provides the human body with how many calories?27) What are necessary for normal bodily metabolism, growth, & development?28) What are the 2 types of vitamins?29) What inorganic nutrients are crucial to maintaining water balance & the acid-base balance?30) What is the most important nutrient?31) What % of a mans total body weight is water?32) What % of a womans total body weight is water?
  2. 2. HOW DO YOU DEFINE NUTRITION?SCIENCE THAT STUDIES THE RELATIONSHIP OF FOODS TO OPTIMAL HEALTH & PERFORMANCE.
  3. 3. WHY IS GOOD NUTRITION IMPORTANT TO OVERALL HEALTH & WELL-BEING?
  4. 4. PROPER NUTRITION MEANS:1) THAT A PERSON’S DIET SUPPLIES ALL THE ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS NEEDED TO CARRY OUT NORMAL TISSUE GROWTH, REPAIR, & MAINTENANCE.2) THAT A PERSON’S DIET PROVIDES ENOUGH SUBSTRATES TO PRODUCE THE ENERGY NECESSARY FOR WORK, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, & RELAXATION.
  5. 5. ON ANY GIVEN DAY, NEARLY 1/2 OF AMERICANS DO NOT EAT WHAT? FRUIT
  6. 6. ON ANY GIVEN DAY, NEARLY 1/4 OF AMERICANS DO NOT EAT WHAT? VEGETABLES
  7. 7. IF FOOD AVAILABILITY IS NOT THE PROBLEM, THEN WHAT IS? OVERCONSUMPTION OF THE WRONG FOODS
  8. 8. WHAT ARE AMONG THE LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH IN MANY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES, INCLUDING THE US? DISEASES OF DIETARY EXCESS & IMBALANCE
  9. 9. UP TO WHAT % OF ALL CANCERS MAY BE DIET RELATED? 50%
  10. 10. TRIMMING SUPER-SIZE WITH HALF-ORDERS, PLATE COLORS
  11. 11. 1) What are one of the culprits behind the epidemic of bulging waistlines?-GIANT PORTION SIZES.2) What is "right-sizing?”-CHOOSING AN APPROPRIATE SIZE PORTION OF FOOD.3) Americans tend to rely on what to tell us about how much food is left?-VISUAL CUES.4) Why do restaurants pile on calorie-dense starches like rice or pasta?-THEY’RE INEXPENSIVE TO FILL THE PLATE SO IT LOOKS LIKE A GOODDEAL.5) About how many calories does 10 ounces of rice or noodles yield?-400.6) What % more pasta do people serve with marinara sauce onto a redplate than a white one?-18%.
  12. 12. 7) What % more pasta alfredo do people serve onto a white plate than a red one?-18%.8) What do people tend to overeat more of than vegetables?-WHITE STARCHES.9) What does switching from an 11-inch plate to a 10-inch plate make people do?-TAKE LESS & WASTE LESS FOOD.10) What type of glass do people think theyre drinking more from?-TALL SKINNY GLASS.11) 6-year-olds serve themselves what % more food in an 18-ounce bowl than a12-ounce bowl?-44%.12) Applebees has introduced a line of meals under how many calories?-550.13) What term is used to describe smaller-portion entrees?-MINI-MEALS.
  13. 13. NUTRIENTS-SUBSTANCES FOUND IN FOOD THAT PROVIDE ENERGY, REGULATE METABOLISM, AND HELP WITH GROWTH & REPAIR OF BODY TISSUES ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS-REQUIRED BY THE HUMAN BODY1) CARBOHYDRATES2) FAT3) PROTEIN4) VITAMINS5) MINERALS6) WATER
  14. 14. FUEL NUTRIENTS-THE ONLY SUBSTANCES THE BODY USES TO SUPPLY THE ENERGY NEEDED FOR WORK & NORMAL BODY FUNCTIONS.1) CARBOHYDRATES2) FAT3) PROTEIN
  15. 15. REGULATORY NUTRIENTS-HAVE NO CALORIC VALUE, BUT ARE STILL NECESSARY FOR A PERSON TO FUNCTION NORMALLY & MAINTAIN GOOD HEALTH.1) VITAMINS2) MINERALS3) WATER
  16. 16. MACRONUTRIENTS-WE NEED THEM IN PROPORTIONATELY LARGE AMOUNTS DAILY.1) CARBOHYDRATES 3) PROTEINS2) FATS 4) WATER MICRONUTRIENTS-REQUIRED IN ONLY SMALL AMOUNTS.1) VITAMINS2) MINERALS
  17. 17. THE 7TH NUTRIENTFIBER:-VITAL FOR GOOD HEALTH.-PROVIDES PROTECTION AGAINST SEVERAL DISEASES,INCLUDING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE & SOME CANCERS.
  18. 18. NUTRIENT DENSITY-A MEASURE OF THE AMOUNT OF NUTRIENTS & CALORIES INVARIOUS FOODS.HIGH NUTRIENT DENSITY:-FOODS THAT CONTAIN FEW OR A MODERATE NUMBER OFCALORIES BUT ARE PACKED WITH NUTRIENTS. -APPLESLOW NUTRIENT DENSITY (JUNK FOODS):-FOODS THAT HAVE A LOT OF CALORIES BUT FEW NUTRIENTS. -DONUTS
  19. 19. CALORIE-THE AMOUNT OF HEAT NECESSARY TO RAISE THETEMPERATURE OF 1 GRAM OF WATER 1 DEGREECENTIGRADE.-USED TO MEASURE THE ENERGY VALUE OF FOOD & COSTOF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY.
  20. 20. THE CALORIE QUIZHOW MANY CALORIES ARE IN THE FOLLOWING ITEMS?
  21. 21. 140
  22. 22. 0
  23. 23. 145
  24. 24. 110
  25. 25. 125
  26. 26. BLACK 5CREAM & SUGAR 168
  27. 27. 260
  28. 28. 550
  29. 29. 670
  30. 30. 200
  31. 31. 560
  32. 32. 415
  33. 33. THE 5 FOOD GROUPS IDENTIFIED BY THE MYPLATE ICON
  34. 34. DAIRY-FAT-FREE OR LOW-FAT (1%) MILK IS BEST-WOMEN 19-30: 3 CUPS/DAY-MEN 19-30: 3 CUPS/DAY FRUITS & VEGETABLES-HALF OF YOUR PLATE SHOULD CONTAIN FRUITS/VEGETABLES-WOMEN 19-30: 2.5 CUPS VEGETABLES/DAY & 2 CUPS FRUIT/DAY-MEN 19-30: 3 CUPS VEGETABLES/DAY & 2 CUPS FRUIT/DAY PROTEIN-CHOOSE FISH & LEAN OR LOW-FAT MEAT & POULTRY-WOMEN 19-30: 5.5 OUNCES/DAY-MEN 19-30: 6.5 OUNCES/DAY GRAINS-MAKE AT LEAST 1/2 YOUR GRAINS WHOLE GRAINS-WOMEN 19-30: 6 OUNCES/DAY-MEN 19-30: 8 OUNCES/DAY
  35. 35. WHAT CONSTITUTETHE MAJOR SOURCE OF CALORIESTHAT THE BODY USES TO PROVIDE ENERGY FOR WORK, MAINTAIN CELLS, & GENERATE HEAT? CARBOHYDRATES
  36. 36. CARBOHYDRATES-A CLASSIFICATION OFDIETARY NUTRITIONCONTAINING CARBON,HYDROGEN, & OXYGEN.-THE MAJOR SOURCE OFENERGY FOR THE HUMANBODY.-THEY HELP REGULATE FAT& METABOLIZE PROTEIN.-EACH GRAM OFCARBOHYDRATESPROVIDES THE HUMANBODY WITH 4 CALORIES.-2 CATEGORIES: SIMPLE &COMPLEX
  37. 37. SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES “SUGARS”-OFFER LITTLE NUTRITIVE VALUE.-DIVIDED INTO MONOSACCHARIDES & DISACCHARIDESA) MONOSACCHARIDES1) GLUCOSE: NATURAL SUGAR2) FRUCTOSE: FRUIT SUGAR3) GALACTOSE: MILK SUGARB) DISACCHARIDES1) SUCROSE: GLUCOSE + FRUCTOSE2) LACTOSE: GLUCOSE + GALACTOSE3) MALTOSE: GLUCOSE + GLUCOSE
  38. 38. COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES “POLYSACCHARIDES”1) STARCH: CONVERTED TO GLUCOSE FOR BODY’S OWN ENERGY USE.2) DEXTRINS: PROVIDE MANY VALUABLE NUTRIENTS & CAN BE AN EXCELLENT SOURCE OF FIBER.3) GLYCOGEN: FOUND IN SMALL QUANTITY IN MEATS, BUT FOR THE MOST PART WE MANUFACTURE IT; WE DON’T CONSUME IT.
  39. 39. FIBER-A FORM OF COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATE.-HIGH-FIBER DIET GIVES A PERSON A FEELING OF FULLNESS WITHOUT ADDING TOOMANY CALORIES.-DECREASES THE RISK FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE & CANCER.-MOST AMERICANS EAT ONLY 15 GRAMS OF FIBER/DAY, PUTTING THEM ATINCREASED RISK FOR DISEASE-RECOMMENDED INTAKE FORMALES 50 YEARS & YOUNGER:-38 GRAMS/DAY-RECOMMENDED INTAKE FORFEMALES 50 YEARS & YOUNGER:-25 GRAMS/DAY
  40. 40. SOLUBLE VS INSOLUBLE FIBERSOLUBLE FIBER:-DISSOLVES IN WATER & FORMS A GEL-LIKE SUBSTANCE THAT ENCLOSES FOOD PARTICLES.-THIS PROPERTY ALLOWS SOLUBLE FIBER TO BIND & EXCRETE FATS FROM THE BODY.-LOWERS BLOOD CHOLESTEROL.INSOLUBLE FIBER:-NOT EASILY DISSOLVED IN WATER & THE BODY CAN’T DIGEST IT.-BINDS WATER & INCREASES PERISTALSIS, THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE CONTRATIONS OFINTESTINAL WALLS THAT ENABLES QUICKER EXCRETION OF FOOD RESIDUES.-SPEEDING THE PASSAGE OF FOOD RESIDUES THROUGH THE INTESTINES LOWERS THE RISKOF COLOR CANCER.
  41. 41. FATS “LIPIDS”-MOST CONCENTRATED SOURCE OF ENERGY.-EACH GRAM OF FAT SUPPLIES 9 CALORIES TO THE BODY.-3 CATEGORIES:1) SIMPLE FATS2) COMPOUND FATS3) DERIVED FATS
  42. 42. SIMPLE FATS-2 TYPES:1) SATURATED: ANIMAL ORIGIN2) UNSATURATED: FOUND IN PLANT PRODUCTS
  43. 43. COMPOUND FATS-COMBINATION OF SIMPLE FATS & OTHER CHEMICALS.-LIPOPROTEINS: -MOST IMPORTANT COMPOUND FAT -COMBINATION OF LIPIDS & PROTEINS-2 MAJOR FORMS1) HIGH DENSITY (HDL): HIGH LEVELS LOWER RISK FOR CORONARY HEART DISEASE2) LOW DENSITY (LDL): HIGH LEVELS INCREASE RISK FOR CORONARY HEART DISEASE
  44. 44. DERIVED FATS-COMBINE SIMPLE & COMPOUND FATS-EXAMPLE: STEROLS -CHOLESTEROL IS BEST-KNOWN EXAMPLE
  45. 45. PROTEINS-THE MAIN SUBSTANCES THE BODY USES TO BUILD & REPAIRTISSUES SUCH AS MUSCLES, BLOOD, SKIN, HAIR, NAILS, & BONES.-HELP MAINTAIN THE NORMAL BALANCE OF BODY FLUIDS.-ENZYMES:“CATALYSTS THAT FACILITATE CHEMICAL REACTIONS IN THE BODY.”-ALL ENZYMES ARE FORMED BY PROTEINS.-EACH GRAM OF PROTEIN YIELDS 4 CALORIES OF ENERGY.
  46. 46. VITAMINS-NECESSARY FOR NORMAL BODILY METABOLISM, GROWTH, & DEVELOPMENT.-2 MAIN TYPES:1) FAT SOLUBLE (A, D, E, K)2) WATER SOLUBLE (B COMPLEX & C)
  47. 47. MINERALS-INORGANIC NUTRIENTS ESSENTIAL FOR NORMAL BODYFUNCTIONS.-CRUCIAL TO MAINTAINING WATER BALANCE & THE ACID-BASEBALANCE.-REGULATE MUSCULAR & NERVOUS TISSUE IMPULSES, BLOODCLOTTING, & NORMAL HEART RHYTHM.
  48. 48. WATER-THE MOST IMPORTANT NUTRIENT.-INVOLVED IN ALMOST EVERY VITAL BODY PROCESS: -DIGESTING & ABSORBING FOOD, PRODUCINGENERGY, REGULATING BODY HEAT, REMOVING WASTEPRODUCTS, BUILDING & REBUILDING CELLS.-WHAT % OF A MALE’S BODY WEIGHT IS WATER? -61%-WHAT % OF A FEMALE’S BODY WEIGHT IS WATER? -56%-THE DIFFERENCE IS DUE PRIMARILY TO THEHIGHER AMOUNT OF MUSCLE MASS IN MEN.

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