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  • 1. CHAPTER 13 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1) Define addiction. 2) What are compulsive exercisers? 3) What are the negative effects of caffeine addiction? 4) What is the difference between "drug misuse” & “drug abuse?” 5) What are the consequences of drinking alcohol? 6) On average how many drinks to A students drink each week? 7) On average how many drinks to D/F students drink each week? 8) State/Explain the 6 factors for why people smoke.
  • 2. “ HALF OF AMERICANS USE SUPPLEMENTS” POSTED ON BLOG: APRIL 13
  • 3. 1) HOW MUCH REVENUE DOES THE SUPPLEMENT INDUSTRY GENERATE? -$27 BILLION. 2) THE MAKERS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS DO NOT HAVE TO PROVE WHAT TO THE FDA? -SAFETY OR EFFECTIVENESS. 3) WHAT ARE THE MOST POPULAR SUPPLEMENTS? -MULTIVITAMINS. 4) SOME CONSUMERS VIEW SUPPLEMENTS AS A WAY TO MAKE UP FOR WHAT? -A POOR DIET. 5) SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE SHOWS THAT WHAT HELPS TO TREAT BONE LOSS? -VITAMIN D & CALCIUM.
  • 4. “ KIDS LACK EXERCISE, HEALTHY FOODS” POSTED: APRIL 13
  • 5. 1)WHAT % OF PARENTS BELIEVE THEY ARE PROVIDING A HEALTHY HOME ENVIRONMENT FOR THEIR CHILDREN? -89 %. 2) WHAT % OF PARENTS WITH CHILDREN AGES 5-10 SAY THAT THEIR KIDS EAT JUNK FOOD 1-4 DAYS/WEEK? -62%. 3) WHAT % OF PARENTS SAY THEIR KIDS EAT AT LEAST 5 FRUITS & VEGETABLES/DAY? -14%. 4) WHAT FRACTION OF AMERICAN CHILDREN ARE OVERWEIGHT? -1/3. 5) WHAT COMPETING ACTIVITIES DO MOST PARENTS BELIEVE ARE ROADBLOCKS TO PROVIDING HEALTHY LIFESTYLES FOR THEIR KIDS? -SOCIAL NETWORKS, COMPUTER GAMES, TV, & CELL PHONES. 6) WHAT % OF PARENTS SAY THEIR KIDS PLAY OUTSIDE DAILY? -16%. 7) WHAT ARE THE MOST FREQUENT LEISURE ACTIVITIES FOR PARENTS & CHILDREN TO ENGAGE IN TOGETHER? -SEDENTARY.
  • 6. ADDICITION -”COMPULSIVE & UNCONTROLLABLE BEHAVIOR(S) OR USE OF SUBSTANCE(S). -2 TYPES: 1) PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE -A STATE RESULTING FROM CHRONIC USE OF A DRUG THAT HAS PRODUCED TOLERANCE & WHERE NEGATIVE PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS OF WITHDRAWAL RESULT FROM ABRUPT DISCONTINUATION OR DOSAGE REDUCTION. -EXAMPLES: CIGARETTES (NICOTINE), COFFEE (CAFFEINE) 2) PSYCHOLOGICAL DEPENDENCE -BEHAVIORS THAT HAVE COME TO BE SO MUCH A PART OF A PERSON’S LIFE THAT THEY ARE INTERFERING WITH NORMAL LIVING. -EXAMPLES: COMPULSIVE EATING, GAMBLING
  • 7. MODELS TO EXPLAIN ADDICITION CAUSES
  • 8. DISEASE MODEL -HOLDS THAT ADDICTION IS A DISEASE, COMING ABOUT AS A RESULT OF EITHER THE IMPAIRMENT OF NEUROCHEMICAL OR BEHAVIORAL PROCESSES, OR SOME COMBINATION OF THE 2. -WITHIN THIS MODEL, ADDICTIVE DISEASE IS TREATED BY SPECIALISTS.
  • 9. FREE-WILL MODEL -VIEWS ADDICTION NOT AS A DISEASE BUT RATHER AN HABITUAL RESPONSE & A SOURCE OF GRATIFICATION & SECURITY THAT CAN BE UNDERSTOOD ONLY IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS & EXPERIENCES. -ARGUES THAT ADDICTION CANNOT BE A DISEASE, BECAUSE DRUG-TAKING IS A BEHAVIOR & ALL BEHAVIORS ARE CHOICES. -EMPHASIZES THAT DISEASE IS CURED BY MEDICINE BUT ADDICTION IS OVERCOME BY REPAIRING RELATIONSHIPS & PERSONAL STRENGTH OF WILL.
  • 10. PLEASURE MODEL -VIEWS ADDICTION AS AN EMOTIONAL FIXATION ACQUIRED THROUGH LEARNING. -THE PLEASURE MECHANISM MAY BE STIMULATED IN A NUMBER OF WAYS & GIVE RISE TO A STRONG FIXATION ON REPETITIVE BEHAVIOR.
  • 11. GENETIC MODEL -BELIEVES THAT PEOPLE HAVE A GENETIC PREDISPOSITION TO CERTAIN BEHAVIORS. -CERTAIN ADDICTIONS “RUN IN THE FAMILY.”
  • 12. CULTURAL MODEL -RECOGNIZES THAT THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE IS A STRONG DETERMINANT OF WHETHER OR NOT INDIVIDUALS FALL PREY TO CERTAIN ADDICTIONS. -FOR EXAMPLE: GAMBLING ADDICITION OVER THE LAST 2 DECADES IN THE US HAS SOARED, MIRRORING THE GROWTH OF THE GAMING INDUSTRY. -INTERNET PORNOGRAPHY ACCESSIBLITY & INCREASED SEX ADDICITION RATES?
  • 13. EXPERIENTIAL MODEL -ARGUES THAT ADDICTIONS OCCUR WITH REGARD TO EXPERIENCES GENERATED BY VARIOUS INVOLVEMENTS. -PROPOSES THAT ADDICTION IS TEMPORARY OR SITUATIONAL, & IS OFTEN OUTGROWN THROUGH NATURAL PROCESSES.
  • 14. MORAL MODEL -STATES THAT ADDICTIONS RESULT FROM HUMAN WEAKNESS, & ARE DEFECTS OF CHARACTER. -DOES NOT ACCEPT THAT THERE IS ANY BIOLOGICAL BASIS FOR ADDICTION. -BELIEVES THAT A PERSON WITH GREAT MORAL STRENGTH HAS THE FORCE OF WILL TO BREAK AN ADDICITION.
  • 15.  
  • 16. DRUG MISUSE VS DRUG ABUSE DRUG MISUSE -”THE INTENTIONAL & INAPPROPRIATE USE OF OVER-THE-COUNTER OR PRESCRIPTION MEDICATIONS.” DRUG ABUSE -”THE INTENTIONAL & INAPPROPRIATE USE OF A DRUG RESULTING IN CONSEQUENCES OF THE ABUSE.” -CONSEQUENCES: -PHYSICAL, EMOTIONAL, FINANCIAL, INTELLECTUAL, -SOCIAL, SPIRITUAL, OR OCCUPATIONAL.
  • 17.
    • COMPULSIVE EXERCISERS
    • -”PEOPLE WHO EXCEED THE RECOMMENDED GUIDELINES TO DEVELOP & MAINTAIN FITNESS.”
    • -OBSESSED WITH EXERCISE.
    • -FEEL GUILTY & UNCOMFORTABLE WHEN THEY MISS A DAY’S WORKOUT.
    • -EXERCISE WHEN THEY HAVE INJURIES & SICKNESSES THAT REQUIRE REST.
    • WHY IS COMPULISIVE EXERCISING DANGEROUS?
    • OVERUSE
    • ADDICTION
  • 18. NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE ADDICITION 1) ABNORMALLY RAPID HEART RATE 2) ABNORMAL HEART RHYTHMS 3) HIGHER BLOOD PRESSURE 4) INDUCES SYMPTOMS OF ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, NERVOUSNESS, & DIZZINESS 5) INCREASED SECRETION OF GASTRIC ACIDS -STOMACH PROBLEMS -BIRTH DEFECTS IN OFFSPRING
  • 19. 2010 STUDY BY BRITAIN’S CENTER FOR CRIME & JUSTICE STUDIES MOST DANGEROUS DRUG: ALCOHOL CRITERIA: -HOW ADDICTIVE A DRUG IS. -HOW IT HARMS THE BODY. -ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE CAUSED. -ROLE IN BREAKING UP FAMILIES. -ECONOMIC COSTS (HEALTH CARE, SOCIAL SERVICES, & PRISON).
  • 20.
    • ALCOHOL CONSEQUENCES
    • TWO OF THE MOST SERIOUS CONSEQUENCES:
    • INCREASED RISK FOR ACCIDENTS
    • INCREASED RISK FOR VIOLENT BEHAVIOR
    • ADDITIONAL CONSEQUENCES:
    • -IMPAIRED PERIPHERAL VISION
    • -DECREASED VISUAL & HEARING ACUITY
    • -SLOWER REACTION TIME
    • -REDUCED CONCENTRATION & MOTOR PERFORMANCE
    • -IMPAIRED JUDGMENT OF DISTANCE & SPEED OF MOVING OBJECTS
    • -ALLEVIATES FEAR
    • -INCREASES RISK TAKING
    • -STIMULATES URINATION
    • -INDUCES SLEEP
    • -DECREASES SEXUAL FUNCTION
  • 21.
    • HIGH RISK COLLEGE DRINKING CONSEQUENCES
    • 1) 1700 HOW MANY COLLEGE STUDENTS DIE EACH YEAR FROM ALOCOHOL-RELATED UNINTENTIONAL INJURIES?
    • 1700
    • 2) HOW MUCH MONEY DOES THE AVERAGE COLLEGE STUDENT SPEND ON ALCOHOL EACH YEAR?
    • $900
    • 3) WHAT % OF CAMPUS RAPES OCCUR WHEN ALCOHOL HAS BEEN USED?
    • 90%
    • 4) WHAT % OF COLLEGE MALES ADMIT TO HAVING COMMITTED ACTS THAT MEET THE LEGAL DEFINITION OF RAPE OR DATE RAPE?
    • 8% (1 IN 12)
    • 5) WHAT % OF COLLEGE STUDENTS SAY THEY HAVE HAD UNPROTECTED SEX AS A RESULT IT BEING DRUNK?
    • 20%
    • 6) ON AN EMPTY STOMACH, HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE FOR ALCOHOL TO BE ABSORBED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM?
    • 5 MINUTES.
    • 7) ONCE IN THE BLOODSTREAM, HO WLONG DOES IT TAKE FOR ALCOHOL TO BE CARRIED TO ALL OF THE BODY’S ORGANS INCLUDING THE BRAIN?
    • 90 SECONDS.
    • 8) HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE THE BODY TO GET RID OF THE ALCOHOL FROM AN AVERAGE DRINK?
    • 2 HOURS.
    • 9) HOW MANY 1ST-YEAR COLLEGE STUDENTS DROP OUT EVERY YEAR FOR ALCOHOL/DRUP RELATED REASONS?
    • 159,000.
  • 22. HIGH RISK COLLEGE DRINKING CONSEQUENCES -1700 COLLEGE STUDENTS DIE EACH YEAR FROM ALOCOHOL-RELATED UNINTENTIONAL INJURIES -696,000 STUDENTS EACH YEAR ARE ASSAULTED BY ANOTHER STUDENTS WHO HAS BEEN DRINKING -96,000 STUDENTS EACH YEAR ARE VICTIMS OF ALCOHOL-RELATED SEXUAL ASSAULT OR DATE RAPE -400,000 STUDENTS EACH YEAR ADMIT TO HAVING UNPROTECTED SEX & 100,000 ADMIT TO HAVING BEEN TOO INTOXICATED TO KNOW IF THEY CONSENTED TO SEX -25% OF COLLEGE STUDENTS REPORT ACADEMIC CONSEQUENCES AS A RESULT OF THEIR DRINKING
  • 23.
    • HOW MUCH DOES MEDIA & PEER PRESSURE AFFECT COLLEGE DRINKING?
    • AMERICANS SPEND MORE THAN $120 BILLION ON ALCOHOL EACH YEAR
    • $50-70 BILLION OF WHICH IS ON BEER
    • MALES 21-35 ARE MAIN TARGET OF BEER ADS
    • BEER COMMERCIALS TEND TO PROMOTE ALCOHOL & SEX GO PERFECTLY TOGETHER
    • A 2004 USA TODAY ARTICLE STATED THAT A STUDY FOUND THAT NCAA TOURNAMENT GAMES LED ALL OTHER SPORTS EVENTS IN ALCOHOL-RELATED ADVERTISING
    • STUDIES SHOW THAT COLLEGE ATHLETES DRINK MORE HEAVILY THAN NON-ATHLETES
  • 24.
    • DEFINE BINGE DRINKING
    • THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ALCOHOLISM & ALCOHOL ABUSE (NIAAA) ADOPTED THE 5/4 DEFINITION:
    • -MALES: 5 OR MORE DRINKS IN A 2 HOUR PERIOD
    • -FEMALES: 4 OR MORE DRINKS IN A 2 HOUR PERIOD
  • 25.
    • HOW TO CUT DOWN ON DRINKING
    • 1) SET REASONABLE LIMITS
    • 2) LEARN TO SAY NO
    • 3) DRINK SLOWLY
    • 4) DILUTE YOUR DRINKS
    • 5) DON’T DRINK ALONE
    • DETJEN’S TIPS
    • BASE
    • PACE
    • HYDRATE
  • 26.
    • WHY PEOPLE SMOKE
    • STIMULATION
    • HANDLING
    • PLEASURE
    • CRUTCH
    • CRAVING
    • HABIT