CHAPTER 11 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1) Why has the widths of bleacher seats changed from 18 inches wide to 20 inches? 2) What safety suggestions do planners need to consider when developing seating for spectators for outdoor events? 3) During the 1960's to the late 1980's why were many natural turf fields converted to synthetic turf? 4) During the late 1980's and 1990's why were many synthetic turf field converted back to natural turf? 5) What are benefits of synthetic turf to players? 6) What are negatives of synthetic turf to players? 7) What is the key to a great field? 8) What are the 3 basic types of irrigation systems? 9) What should be located higher than the highest part of the bleachers? 10) For every male restroom, how many female restrooms should be provided? 11) What are the 4 common design errors & what are the possible solutions? 12) What is the purpose of a double first base? 13) Explain the 4 styles of home plate. 14) What is the skinned part of an infield? 15) What is the key element of a field for safeguarding the players & spectators? 16) What are the basic purposes of the above answer? 17) What are the 2 types of players' bench areas for baseball & softball?
“ INDIANS BOLSTER BALLPARK’S CRAFT BEER, INCLUDING A $30 BOTTLE” SBJ: APRIL 11-17 PAGE: 13
What % of America's beer sales by volume do craft beers represent?
2) Why did Delaware North Sportservice call the craft beer stand at Progressive Field "Spirits of Ohio?“
-All beers sold are from Ohio.
3) What did they call the beer stand that sells brands like PBR, Anheuser-Busch, & MillerCoors?
-Your Dad’s Beer.
4) What beer are they selling for $30 for a 22-ounce bottle?
-Hoppin’ Frog Bodacious Black & Tan.
5) Across sports in general, what is the markup for domestic beer brands?
-4 to 5 times what the concessionaire pays wholesale.
6) How many different types of beer are available at Progressive Field?
7) What section of the country, home to many microbreweries, is credited with staring the craft beer trend at arenas & stadiums?
“ HEINZ FIELD TO HOST MUSIC FESTIVAL, 3 NATIONAL CONCERT TOURS” SBJ: APRIL 18-24 PAGE: 13
What is the name of the Steelers’ management division?
-PSSI Stadium Corp.
2) Heinz Field will host what group’s final US stop on their world tour?
3) What do NFL teams not have to share with other clubs?
4) What does buying concerts directly from agencies give the Steelers a much better chance securing?
5) What is considered the “cornerstone” of this year’s Heinz Field concert lineup?
6) What record does U2 now hold?
-Top-grossing concert tour.
7) How much money is the U2 tour expected to generate in ticket sales?
1) WHY HAS THE WIDTHS OF BLEACHER SEATS CHANGED FROM 18 INCHES WIDE TO 20 INCHES? AMERICANS ARE BIGGER.
2) WHAT SAFETY SUGGESTIONS DO PLANNERS NEED TO CONSIDER WHEN DEVELOPING SEATING FOR SPECTATORS FOR OUTDOOR EVENTS?
CONFORMING TO ADA GUIDELINES.
CONFORMING TO CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GUIDELINES.
CLOSING AREAS UNDER EACH ROW OF SEATS.
ENCLOSING THE STRUCTURE.
PROVIDING AISLES WITH RAILINGS.
3) DURING THE 1960’S TO THE LATE 1980’S. WHY WERE MANY NATURAL TURF FIELDS CONVERTED TO SYNTHETIC TURF?
TO REDUCE COST OF MAINTENANCE.
TO PROVIDE FLEXIBILITY TO SPORTS SCHEDULES WITHOUT THE CONCERN ABOUT WEAR & TEAR.
4) DURING THE LATE 1980’S & 1990’S, WHY WERE MANY SYNTHETIC TURF FIELDS CONVERTED BACK TO NATURAL TURF?
NEW SYNTHETIC TURFS THAT REPLICATE NATURAL GRASS.
5) WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF SYNTHETIC TURF TO PLAYERS?
SURFACE STAYS IN PLACE.
IT IS RESILIENT.
BALLS BOUNCE WELL.
SURFACE DRIES RAPIDLY.
HAS A COOLING EFFECT.
6) WHAT ARE THE NEGATIVES OF SYNTHETIC TURF TO PLAYERS?
SURFACE HAS LITTLE RESILIENCY.
BALLS RESPOND INCONSISTENTLY.
SURFACE MAKES BALLS ROLL FASTER.
SURFACE IS VERY HOT ON HOT DAYS.
7) WHAT IS THE KEY TO A GREAT FIELD? DRAINAGE.
8) WHAT ARE THE 3 BASIC TYPES OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS?
UNDERGROUND WITH SPRINKLER HEADS THROUGHOUT THE FIELD SPACE.
UNDERGROUND WITH SPRINKLER HEADS ON THE PERIMETER OF THE FIELD.
ABOVE GROUND WITH PORTABLE PIPING & SPRINKLER HEADS OR HOSES.
9) WHAT SHOULD BE LOCATED HIGHER THAN THE HIGHEST PART OF THE BLEACHERS? PRESS BOX
10) FOR EVERY MALE RESTROOM, HOW MANY FEMALE RESTROOMS SHOULD BE PROVIDED? 2 FEMALE RESTROOMS FOR EVERY 1 MALE RESTROOM.
4 COMMON DESIGN PROBLEMS 1) INCORRECT FIELD CONTOURS -PREFERRED SLOPE FOR GRASS SPORT FIELDS: 1.25%-1.75%. OPTIMAL SLOPE FOR SKINNED AREAS: .5%-1.75%. 2) FAILURE TO ISOLATE FIELDS AS DRAINAGE UNITS -NO FIELD SHOULD BE EXPECTED TO DRAIN AWAY MORE WATER THAT WHICH FALLS ON IT. -PREFERRED DESIGN ISOLATES EACH FIELD AS AN INDIVIDUAL DRAINAGE UNIT BY USING SWALES &/OR CATCH BASINS AROUND THE FIELD, OR BY MAKING THE FIELD HIGHER THAN ITS SURROUNDINGS. 3) INSUFFICIENT CLEARANCE AROUND THE FIELD -DESIGNERS SHOULD CONSIDER SPACE REQUIREMENTS IN THE PLANNING STAGES (ILLINOIS VS NORTHWESTERN @ WRIGLEY FIELD). 4) FAILURE TO PROVIDE SUFFICIENT ACCESS -A WELL-DESIGNED SPORTS FIELD INCLUDES ACCESS ROADWAYS FOR PLAYERS, SPECTATORS, MAINTENANCE EQUIPMENT, & HEAVIER RENOVATION EQUIPMENT.
DOUBLE FIRST BASE -DESIGN TO REDUCE OR ELIMINATE THE CONTACT BETWEEN THE FIRST BASEMAN & BASE RUNNER. -IT IS A UNIT EQUAL IN SIZE TO 2 BASES SIDE BY SIDE. -ONE HALF WITE & MOUNTED IN THE NORMAL 1ST BASE POSITON, & THE OTHER HALF COLORED & MOUNTED IN FOUL TERRITORY.
4 STYLES OF HOME PLATE 1) BURIED -A RUBBER/SYNTHETIC PLATE 2 OR MORE INCHES THICK THAT IS BURIED SO THAT THE UPPERMOST WHITE SURFACE IS FLUSH WITH THE PLAYING SURFACE. 2) STAKED -A RUBBER/SYNTHETIC PLATE 3/4 TO 1 INCH THICK THAT HAS AN INSTALLED WHITE SURFACE FLUSH TO THE PLAYING SURFACE. 3) ANCHORED -A RUBBER/SYNTHETIC PLATE THAT HAS A STEM BUIT INTO THE BOTTOM THAT FITS INTO A PERMANENT GROUND ANCHOR. UPPERMOST WHITE SURFACE MUST BE INSTALLED FLUSH TO THE PLAYING SURFACE. 4) THROW DOWN -A RUBBER/SYNTHETIC THIN MAT WITH A WAFFLE DESIGN ON THE BOTTOM THAT IS LAID DOWN ON THE PLAYING SURFACE & NOT MECHANICALLY HELD IN PLACE.
SKINNED INFIELD -CUTOUTS AROUND THE BASES, HOME PLATE, PITCHERS MOUND, BASELINES, OR THE ENTIRE INFIELD AREA. -CLAY IS MOST OFTEN USED FOR SKINNED AREAS.
KEY ELEMENT OF A FIELD FOR SAFEGUARDING THE PLAYERS & SPECTATORS -BACKSTOP.
KEEPING THE BALL WITHIN THE PLAYING AREA.
PROTECTING THE SPECTATOR.
SAFEGUARDING OTHERS INVOLVED IN THE GAME.
PROTECTING NEARBY ACTIVITIES FROM CONFLICT WITH POPUPS.
2 TYPES OF PLAYERS’ BENCH AREAS 1) DUGOUTS 2) FIELD-LEVEL SHELTERS *DUGOUT IS SAFER OPTION.