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Chapter 11
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  • 1. CHAPTER 11 DISCUSSION QUESTIONS1) How does Ohio State University handle crowd celebrations after victories?2) What policy did the SEC implement in 2004 regarding crowd control for football and mens &womens basketball games?3) Define "crowd management."4) What is festival seating & what problems can it create?5) Define "foreseeability."6) Summarize the case Bearman v. University of Notre Dame.7) What is "peer-group security?"8) In 1967, what company became the pioneer in peer-group security?9) One of the first documented sport event disasters took place in 1902 during a soccer matchbetween what 2 countries?10) What is the most popular sport in the world?11) What is violent crowd behavior known as?12) As a result of the Hillsborough disaster, Great Britain passed what stringent piece of legislationpertaining to crowd management?13) What is ViSAT?14) In determining if a search is reasonable & therefore legal, the courts look at what 3 factors?15) What is the only NFL city where pat-downs have been successfully challenged in court?16) What are 2 of the most recognized crowd management companies?17) What is RFID & how does the technology assist crowd managers?
  • 2. WHAT IS CROWD MANAGEMENT?-AN ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGY DESIGNED TO ASSISTFACILITY/EVENT MANAGERS IN PROVIDING A SAFE &ENJOYABLE ENVIRONMENT FOR GUESTS BYIMPLEMENTING THE FACILITY OR EVENT’S POLICIES &PROCEDURES.
  • 3. HOW DOES OHIO STATE HANDLE CROWD CELEBRATIONSAFTER VICTORIES?“IT’S A FUTILE ATTEMPT TO KEEP A CROWD OF 20,000STUDENTS OFF THE FIELD. IF AN ON FIELD CELEBRATIONHAPPENS, WE LET THEM GO OUT & CELEBRATE.”OSU CHIEF OF POLICE
  • 4. WHAT POLICY DID THE SEC IMPLEMENT IN 2004 REGARDINGCROWD CONTROL FOR FOOTBALL & BASKETBALL GAMES?-IF FANS SWARM ONTO THE COURT AFTER A GAME THE HOMESCHOOL IS FINED:1ST OFFENSE: $5,0002ND OFFENSE: $25,0003RD OFFENSE: $50,000
  • 5. WHAT ARE SOME CROWD-RELATED INCIDENTS THAT APRUDENT FACILITY MANAGER NEEDS TO BE ABLE TOFORESEE & ANTICIPATE?1) MANAGING THE MOVEMENT & ACTIVITIES OF GUESTS.2) ASSISTING IN EMERGENCIES.3) ASSISTING GUESTS WITH SPECIFIC CONCERNSRELATED TO THEIR ENJOYMENT/INVOLVEMENT WITHTHE EVENT.
  • 6. FESTIVAL SEATING‘SEATING’ UP NEXT TO THE BARRICADE IN FRONT OF THESTAGE.
  • 7. FORESEEABILITY“REASONABLE ANTICIPATION THAT HARM OR INJURY IS A LIKELYRESULT FROM CERTAIN ACTS OR OMISSIONS”
  • 8. INVITEE-MOST FANS ARE CLASSIFIED AS INVITEES-USUALLY PROVIDE THE PROPERTY OWNER WITH SOME MONETARY BENEFIT-PURCHASING A TICKET-BUYING FOOD & BEVERAGES-OWED THE GREATEST DEGREE OF CARE FROM ANY KNOWN DEFECTS ORPROBLEMS
  • 9. BEARMAN V. NOTRE DAME
  • 10. -OCCURRED OCTOBER 1979 IN UNIVERSITY OF NOTRE DAME PARKINGLOT-INTOXICATED SPECTATOR FELL ON MRS. BEARMAN BREAKING HERLEG-BEARMAN SUED NOTRE DAME CLAIMING UNIVERSITY HAD A DUTY TOPROTECT HER FROM NEGLIGENT ACTS OF A 3RDPARTY-COURT FOUND NOTRE DAME HAD A DUTY TO PROTECT ITS INVITEESFROM NEGLIGENT 3RD-PARTY ACTS-BECAUSE ALCOHOL WAS SERVED IT WAS FORESEEABLE THAT SOMEINDIVIDUALS COULD POSE A GENERAL DANGER TO OTHERS
  • 11. WHAT IS “PEER-GROUP” SECURITY PERSONNEL?-SECURITY PERSONNEL WHO ARE RECRUITED/HIREDFROM THE SAME DEMOGRAPHICS AS THE EVENT FANS-PRO: CAN BETTER RELATE TO THE CROWD &UNDERSTAND THEIR ACTIONS-CON: FACILITY WOULD HAVE TO HIRE DIFFERENTSECURITY FOR DIFFERENT EVENTS
  • 12. ADVANTAGES/DISADVANTAGES TO OUTSOURCING EVENTSECURITY?ADVANTAGES:1) PROFESSIONAL EXPERTISE2) LIABILITY TRANSFERDISADVANTAGES:1) COST2) CONTROL
  • 13. HOW HAS CROWD MANAGEMENT CHANGED POST 9/11?1) INCREASED COSTS-MORE SECURITY MEASURES (PERSONNEL &TECHNOLOGY)-INSURANCE.2) PAT-DOWN SEARCHES3) CREDENTIALING4) NATIONAL SPECIAL SECURITY EVENTS-2002 SUPER BOWL & WINTER OLYMPICS-SECRET SERVICE TAKES LEAD
  • 14. IN DETERMINING IF A PAT-DOWN SEARCH IS LEGAL, WHAT3 CRITERIA DO THE COURTS LOOK AT?1) IF THE CONDUCT WAS CONSIDERED TO BE STATEACTION2) IF THE CONDUCT COULD BE CONSIDERED A SEARCH3) IF THE SEARCH WAS REASONABLE
  • 15. WHAT IS THE ONLY NFL CITY WHERE PAT-DOWN SEARCHES HAVEBEEN SUCCESSFULLY CHALLENGED IN COURT?TAMPA
  • 16. VULNERABILITY SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOLAN ONLINE PROGRAM DESIGNED TO BE INTEGRATEDWITH A FACILITY’S SOP’S-ALLOWS SECURITY MANAGERS THE OPPORTUNITY TOASSESS THE VULNERABILITIES OF THEIR PUBLICASSEMBLY FACILITIES.