Beer

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Beer

  1. 1. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1) What are the 4 main ingredients in beer? 2) What are the 2 main categories of beer? 3) What does "ABV" stand for? 4) What does "IBU stand for? 5) What is America's oldest brewery? 6) What is America's largest microbrewery? 7) What Constitutional Amendment outlawed beer in America? 8) How many calories are in a 12-ounce Bud Light? 9) How many calories are in a 12-ounce Guinness? 10) What country hosts an annual Oktoberfest?
  2. 2. <ul><li>BEER 101 </li></ul><ul><li>HISTORY </li></ul><ul><li>BREWING </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES </li></ul><ul><li>MICROBREWERIES </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. HISTORY
  4. 4. BEER IS THE 3RD MOST POPULAR DRINK IN THE WORLD.
  5. 5. TODAY THE BEER BREWING INDUSTRY IS A GLOBAL BUSINESS. -MORE THAN 35 BILLION GALLONS ARE SOLD GLOBALLY PER YEAR. -THE SALE OF BEER PRODUCES TOTAL GLOBAL REVENUUES OF $300 BILLION EACH YEAR. -THE ANHEUSER-BUSCH InBEV COMPANY IS THE LARGEST BREWER IN THE WORLD.
  6. 6. ANHEUSER-BUSCH InBEV -HOLDS 25% OF THE GLOBAL BEER MARKET SHARE. -GENERATED $37 BILLION REVENUE IN 2009. -45% OF SALES COME FROM NORTH AMERICA. -EMPLOYS 116,000 PEOPLE IN OVER 30 COUNTRIES.
  7. 7. ANHEUSER-BUSCH InBEV’S TOP 3 BRANDS BELGIUM GERMANY AMERICA
  8. 8. BEER IS ONE OF THE WORLD’S OLDEST PREPARED BEVERAGES. -DATES BACK TO 9500 BC. -RECORDED IN THE WRITTEN HISTORY OF ANCIENT EGYPT. -ARCHAEOLOGISTS SPECULATE THAT BEER WAS INSTRUMENTAL IN THE FORMATION OF CIVILIZATIONS.
  9. 9. -THE OLDEST KNOW ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF BREWING DATES BACK TO 7000 BC. -THE OLDEST KNOWN CHEMICAL EVIDENCE OF BEER DATES BACK TO 3500 BC. -THE WRITTEN WORD WAS INVENTED BY THE SUMERIANS IN 3000 BC. A BEER RECIPE WAS FOUND AMONG THE EARLIEST SUMERIAN TABLETS IN A POEM “THE HYMN TO NINKASI” (THE GODDESS OF BREWING).
  10. 10. -BEER WAS SPREAD THROUGH EUROPE BY GERMANIC & CELTIC TRIBES AS FAR BACK AS 3000 BC. -EARLY EUROPEAN BEERS CONTAINED: -FRUITS -HONEY -SPICES -TYPES OF PLANTS -THEY DID NOT CONTAIN A CURRENT COMMON INGREDIENT: -HOPS
  11. 11. -DURING THE FIRST HALF OF THE MIDDLE AGES (500-1000 AD) BREWING BEGINS TO BE PRACTICED IN EUROPE. -IT WAS USED FOR TRADING, PAYMENT, & TAXING. -HOPS BEGINS TO BE USED IN THE BREWING PROCESS IN 1000 AD. -BEER MAKING BECOMES A COMMERCIAL ENTERPRISE IN GERMANY, AUSTRIA, & ENGLAND IN 1200 AD.
  12. 12. REINHEITSGEBOT “ GERMAN BEER PURITY LAW” -ENACTED ON APRIL 23, 1516 BY KING WILHELM IV OF PRUSSIA. -STATES THAT THE ONLY INGREDIENTS ALLOWED TO BE USED FOR BREWING BEER ARE BARLEY, HOPS, & WATER. -ENACTED FOR 2 REASONS: 1) HEALTH -BEER = HYDRATION. 2) ECONOMICS -BARLEY = BIG BUSINESS.
  13. 13. OKTOBERFEST -ESTABLISHED IN MUNICH ON OCTOBER 12, 1810 AS AN OFFICIAL BEER FESTIVAL. -2 WEEK FESTIVAL FROM LATE SEPTEMBER TO FIRST WEEKEND IN OCTOBER. -5+ MILLION PEOPLE ATTEND EVERY YEAR. -SINCE 1950 THE FESTIVAL HAS OPENED WITH A 12 GUN SALUTE & THE TAPPING OF THE FIRST KEG OF OKTOBERFEST BEER BY THE INCUMBENT MAYOR OF MUNICH.
  14. 15. AMERICAN HISTORY
  15. 16. -1490’s COLUMBUS FOUND INDIANS MAKING BEER FROM CORN & BLACK BIRCH SAP.
  16. 17. -1587: THE FIRST BEER WAS BREWED IN THE NEW WORLD IN VIRGINIA, BUT THE COLONISTS SENT REQUESTS TO ENGLAND FOR BETTER BEER. -1612: THE FIRST COMMERCIAL BREWERY OPENED IN NEW AMSTERDAM (NEW YORK). -1620: PILGRIMS LAND AT PLYMOUTH ROCK BECAUSE THEIR BEER SUPPLIES WERE RUNNING LOW. -SOLDIERS IN THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR RECEIVED RATIONS OF A QUART OF BEER/DAY.
  17. 18. THE MODERN ERA OF US BREWING BEGAN IN THE 1800’S -1829: THE OLDEST OPERATING BREWING COMPANY IN THE US IS ESTABLISHED. -D.G. YUENGLING & SON. -1870: ADOLPHUS BUSCH PIONEERS THE USE OF DOUBLE-WALLED RAILCARS, A NETWORK OF ICEHOUSES TO MAKE BUDWEISER THE FIRST NATIONAL BRAND. -1876: PASTEURIZATION DEVELOPED TO STABILIZE BEERS 22 YEARS BEFORE THE PROCESS WAS APPLIED TO MILK. -1860: COMMERCIAL REFRIGERATION IS DEVELOPED. -1880: APPROXIMATELY 2,300 BREWERIES IN US. -1892: THE CROWN CAP IS INVENTED IN BALTIMORE BY WILLIAM PAINTER.
  18. 19. D.G. YUENGLING & SON “ YUENGLING” -HEADQUARTERED IN POTTSVILLE, PA. -FOUNDED BY DAVID YUENGLING AS “EAGLE BREWERY” IN 1829. -CHANGED NAME TO “D.G. YUENGLING & SON” IN 1873 WHEN FREDERICK YUENGLING JOINED HIS FATHER IN RUNNING THE COMPANY. -PRODUCES 3.6 MILLION BARRELS ANNUALLY, WHICH PLACES IT 6TH AMONG AMERICAN COMMERCIAL BREWERIES.
  19. 20. <ul><li>VOLSTEAD ACT </li></ul><ul><li>-A BILL ENACTED BY CONGRESS ON OCTOBER 28, 1919 ESTABLISHING THE LEGAL DEFINITION OF INTOXICATING LIQUOR, AS WELL AS THE PENALTIES FOR PRODUCING IT. </li></ul><ul><li>-PURPOSE: </li></ul><ul><li>TO PROHIBIT INTOXICATING BEVERAGES (.5% ALCOHOL). </li></ul><ul><li>TO REGULATE THE MANUFACTURE, PRODUCTION, USE & SALE OF HIGH-PROOF SPIRITS. </li></ul><ul><li>TO ENSURE AN AMPLE SUPPLY OF ALCOHOL & PROMOTE ITS USE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUEL, DYE, & OTHER LAWFUL INDUSTRIES. </li></ul>
  20. 21. PROHIBITION -18TH AMENDMENT OF CONSTITUTION WAS RATIFIED ON JANUARY 16, 1919 & WENT INTO EFFECT ON JANUARY 17, 1920. -IT REDUCED THE AMOUNT OF LIQUOR CONSUMED, BUT ALSO STIMULATED THE PROLIFERATION OF UNDERGROUND CRIMINAL ACTIVITY. -BOOTLEGGING: THE ILLEGAL BUSINESS OF TRANSPORTING ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES WHERE SUCH TRANSPORTATION IS FORBIDDEN BY LAW. -SPEAKEASY: AN ESTABLISHMENT THAT ILLEGALLY SOLD ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES. -DECEMBER 5, 1933: 21ST AMENDMENT WAS RATIFIED & REPEALED 18TH AMENDMENT.
  21. 22. II. BREWING
  22. 23. <ul><li>MAIN INGREDIENTS </li></ul><ul><li>WATER </li></ul><ul><li>BARLEY </li></ul><ul><li>HOPS </li></ul><ul><li>YEAST </li></ul>
  23. 24. 1) WATER -BEER IS COMPOSED MOSTLY OF WATER (90%). -BECAUSE DIFFERENT REGIONS HAVE WATER WITH DIFFERENT MINERAL COMPONENTS, DIFFERENT REGIONS ARE BETTER SUITED FOR MAKING CERTAIN TYPES OF BEER. -DUBLIN, IRELAND HAS HARD WATER WHICH IS WELL SUITED FOR A STOUT. -BURTON, ENGLAND HAS GYPSUM IN ITS WATER WHICH BENEFITS MAKING PALE ALE.
  24. 25. 2) BARLEY -BEER NEEDS A STARCH SOURCE TO PROVIDE THE FERMENTABLE MATERIAL. -THE STARCH SOURCE IS ALSO A KEY DETERMINANT OF THE STRENGTH & FLAVOR OF THE BEER. -THE MOST COMMON STARCH SOURCE USED IS BARLEY. -BARLEY IS A CEREAL GRAIN.
  25. 26. <ul><li>3) HOPS </li></ul><ul><li>-HOPS ARE THE FLOWER PORTION OF THE HOP VINE. </li></ul><ul><li>-THE MAJOR COMMERCIAL USE OF HOPS IS AS A BEER INGREDIENT. </li></ul><ul><li>-HOPS PROVIDE 2 MAIN PURPOSES TO BEER: </li></ul><ul><li>FLAVORING AGENT </li></ul><ul><li>PRESERVATIVE AGENT </li></ul><ul><li>-HOPS CONTAIN SEVERAL CHARACTERISTICS THAT BREWERS DESIRE: </li></ul><ul><li>-CONTRIBUTE TO A BITTERNESS THAT BALANCES THE SWEETNESS OF THE MALT (IBV). </li></ul><ul><li>-CONTRIBUTE FLORAL, CITRUS, & </li></ul><ul><li>HERBAL AROMAS AND FLAVORS TO BEER. </li></ul>
  26. 27. 4) YEAST -A MICRO-ORGANISM CLASSIFIED IN THE FUNGI KINGDOM. -RESPONSIBLE FOR FERMENTATION IN BEER. -METABOLISES THE SUGARS EXTRACTED FROM THE BARLEY.
  27. 28. THE BREWING PROCESS
  28. 29. 1) MALTING -THE PROCESS WHERE THE BARLEY IS MADE READY FOR BREWING. -3 STEPS: A) STEEPING: THE BARLEY IS PUT INTO A VAT WITH WATER & SOAKED FOR 40 HOURS. B) GERMINATION: THE BARLEY IS SPREAD OUT ON THE FLOOR OF THE GERMINATION ROOM FOR 5 DAYS TO ALLOW THE STARCHES TO BREAKDOWN. THE RESULTING PRODUCT IS CALLED “GREEN MALT.” C) KILNING: GREEN MALT IS DRIED OUT USING A HIGH TEMPERATURE KILN. WHEN KILNING IS COMPLETE THE FINISHED PRODUCT IS CALLED MALT.
  29. 30. 2) MASHING -CONVERTS THE STARCHES RELEASED DURING MALTING INTO SUGARS THAT CAN BE FERMENTED. -THE MILLED GRAIN IS DROPPED INTO A LARGE VESSEL CALLED A “MASH TURN.” -THE GRAIN & WATER ARE MIXED TOGETHER IN THE MASH TURN TO CREATE A CEREAL MASH. 3) LAUTERING -LEFTOVER SUGAR RICH WATER FROM MASHING IS STRAINED TO CREATE “WORT.” 4) BOILING -WORT IS MOVED INTO A LARGE TANK KNOWN AS A “KETTLE” WHERE IT IS BOILED WITH HOPS. -IMPORTANT DECISIONS ABOUT FLAVOR, COLOR, & AROMA ARE MADE DURING THIS STAGE.
  30. 31. 5) FERMENTING -THE HOPPED WORT IS COOLED IN A “HEAT EXCHANGER.” -AFTER COOLED, IT GOES INTO A “FERMENTATION TANK” WHERE YEAST IS ADDED. -DURING FERMENTATION THE SUGARS TURN INTO ALCOHOL. 6) CONDITIONING -THE FERMENTED LIQUID IS PUT INTO A “CONDITIONING TANK” & ALLOWED TO AGE FOR SEVERAL WEEKS TO SEVERAL MONTHD. 7) FILTERING -THE BEER IS FILTERED TO HELP STABALIZE ITS FLAVOR. 8) PACKAGING -THE FILTERED BEER IS MOVED INTO A HOLDING TANK WHERE IT IS THEN BOTTLED, CANNED, OR KEGGED.
  31. 32. III. TYPES OF BEER
  32. 33. <ul><li>2 MAIN CATEGORIES </li></ul><ul><li>ALE </li></ul><ul><li>LAGER </li></ul>
  33. 34. ALE -ORIGINATED IN BRITAIN. -FERMENTED AT ROOM TEMPERATURE. -TENDS TO CONTAIN MORE HOPS & MALT THAT LAGER. -AS A RESULT, ALE HAS A MORE BITTER & NUTTIER TASTE.
  34. 35. LAGER -ORIGINATED IN GERMANY. -FERMENTED BETWEEN 45 & 57 DEGREES. -COLDER BREWING GIVES LAGER A CRISP FLAVOR. -YEAST USED TO FERMENT LAGER CAN BE REUSED FROM ONE BATCH TO ANOTHER TO IT IS MORE ECONOMICAL THAN ALE.
  35. 36. STYLES A) STOUT -DARK BEER MADE USING ROASTED BARLEY. -HIGHER ALCOHOL CONTENT, USUALLY 7-8%. B) PILSNER -TYPE OF PALE LAGER. -DEVELOPED IN 19TH CENTURY IN CZECH REPUBLIC CITY OF PILSEN. C) INDIA PALE ALE (IPA) -TYPE OF PALE ALE. -ORIGINATED IN 18TH CENTURY ENGLAND. -MORE BITTER THAN TRADITIONAL ALES, AROUND 50 IBU.
  36. 37. ABV & IBU ALCOHOL BY VOLUME (ABV): -WORLDWIDE STANDARD FOR HOW MUCH ALCOHOL IS CONTAINED IN AN ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE. -BEER IS TYPICALLY AROUND 5%. INTERNATIONAL BITTERNESS UNITS SCALE (IBU): -PROVIDES A MEASURE OF THE BITTERNESS OF BEER. -DETERMINED BY THE HOPS USED DURING BREWING. -SCALE IS BETWEEN 1-100.
  37. 38. IV. MICROBREWERIES
  38. 39. MICROBREWERY -ACCORDING TO THE U.S. BREWERS ASSOCIATION, A BREWERY THAT PRODUCES A MAXIMUM OF 15,000 BEER BARRELS A YEAR. CRAFT BREWERY -ACCORDING TO THE U.S. BREWERS ASSOCIATION, A BREWERY THAT PRODUCES A MAXIMUM OF 6 MILLION BARRELS A YEAR. REGIONAL CRAFT BREWERY -ACCORDING TO THE U.S. BREWERS ASSOCIATION, A CRAFT BREWERY THAT MUST HAVE AT LEAST 50% OF ITS VOLUME IN EITHER ALL MALT BEERS, OR IN BEERS WHICH USE ADJUNCTS TO ENHANCE RATHER THAN LIGHTEN FLAVOR. BREWPUB -A PUB OR RESTAURANT THAT BREWS & SELLS BEER ON THE PREMISES.
  39. 40. ACCORDING TO THE ASSOCIATION OF BREWERS (JULY 2009) -1482 US CRAFT BREWERIES -962 BREWPUBS -456 MICROBREWERIES -64 REGIONAL CRAFT BREWERIES
  40. 41. LARGEST AMERICAN CRAFT BREWERY BOSTON BEER COMPANY
  41. 42. <ul><li>3-TIER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM </li></ul><ul><li>-ESTABLISHED AFTER THE REPEAL OF PROHIBITION. </li></ul><ul><li>-SYSTEM OF ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION IN US. </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCER </li></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTOR </li></ul><ul><li>RETAILER </li></ul><ul><li>-PRODUCER SELLS TO DISTRIBUTOR. </li></ul><ul><li>-DISTRIBUTOR SELLS TO RETAILER. </li></ul><ul><li>-ONLY RETAILERS MAY SELL TO CONSUMERS. </li></ul>

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