Process via which consumers select and organize
stimuli, so as to provide themselves with a meaningful
and coherent view of the world
More than sensing something
Assigning meaning and incorporating it into their world
Part of the “Information Processing” process
The immediate and direct response of the sensory
organs to stimuli.
A perfectly unchanging environment provides
little to no sensation at all!
Absolute threshold is the lowest intensity at which a
stimulus can be detected 50% of the time. The
absolute threshold can be influenced by several
different factors, such as the subject's motivations and
expectations, cognitive processes, and whether the
subject is adapted to the stimulus.
The ability of a sensory
system to detect changes
or differences between two
between two stimuli is the
j.n.d. (just noticeable
updates must be subtle
enough over time to keep
Perception of very weak or rapid stimuli received
below the level of conscious awareness.
Is Subliminal Persuasion Effective?
Extensive research has shown no evidence that
subliminal advertising can cause behavior changes
Some evidence that subliminal stimuli may
influence affective reactions
We receive external
our five senses
Exposure involves the extent to which we encounter a
We are exposed to numerous commercial messages
while driving on freeway.
Attention is actually a matter of degree
Our attention may be quite high when we read
directions for getting an income tax refund, but
low when commercials come on during a
If an advertisement for a product in which we are
interested comes on.
Interpretation involves making sense out of
when we see a red can, we may recognize it is
a “Coke” and blue can for “Pepsi”.
Ability to note a change in a stimulus, depends on its
$500 increase in the price of a car
$500 increase in the price of a personal computer
P (notice a stimulus change) = Change in stimulus
/Initial level of stimulus
Individual tend to express their need closure by
organizing their perception so that form a complete
circle or Arc?
show piece or Two faces?
One of obvious issue is relevance, consumer when they
have choice , are also more likely to attend to stimuli
relevant to them.
Consumer often do not give much attention to stimuli, if it
seen over and over again.
The cumulative impact will be greater here.
Are likely to get more attention .
Difference between the stimulus and its
Greater size center placement.
Make perceptual selection work in your favour.
Increase accidental exposure
Draw attention to your ad using contrast and
Find creative ways to reduce blocking
Ensure that consumers organize and interpret
Develop suitable consumer imagery
Find ways to reduce perceived risk
Product will not perform as expected.
Risk to self and others ...... Like use of cell phone.
The product will not be worth its cost.
Poor product choice may result in social
Time spent in product search may be wasted if the
product does not perform as expected.
Stay Brand Loyal
Select by Brand Image
Rely on Store Image
Buy the Most Expensive Model
Ads for children; ban on TV ads containing cartoons
character promoting products during children shows
in which they themselves appear (misperceived by kids
to be part of the show)
Thirty minute infomercials misperceived as
Red colour is perceived as sign of danger and sorrow in
While in our culture Red colour is perceived as sign of
Love, Glamour & Attraction