E3 Det Functions And Structures Scheme

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E3 Det Functions And Structures Scheme

  1. 1. FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURES ABILITY NOW I can speak English. I can’t speak Turkish. I can hear you. I can’t hear you. PAST 1. ONCE (PARTICULAR) a) any activity or skill I was able to speak to him yesterday. I couldn’t speak to him the day before yesterday. b) senses I could hear you. I couldn’t hear you. 2. HABIT (GENERAL) I could speak French when I was young. I couldn’t speak English then. NOW + PAST I have (just) been able to speak to him. I haven’t been able to speak to her yet. FUTURE I will be able to speak to him. I won’t be able to speak to her POSSIBILITY I may be able to do it. I might be able to do it. 1
  2. 2. FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURES FUTURE MEANING STRUCTURE 1. ARRANGEMENTS (personal : diary, appointments, social events) We use the present continuous for the ‘personal’ future; for I am leaving tonight. activities or appointments you write down in your diary, activities you do with other people (socialising) ; activities of ‘going’ (collect, eat out, go, have a drink, pick up, play tennis, etc.) and ‘coming’ (stay,  not do anything, etc.); activities you would write down in your diary. P1 What are you doing tonight?  P2 Playing football. P1 And you? P2 I’m staying at home. 2. INTENTIONS (plans, not arranged) We use ‘going to’ for intentions and for personal activities for which we I am going to read a book. don’t make appointments. I’m going to do the ironing. (this is not ‘an arrangement’ : you do not write it down in your diary, you don’t do it with someone else so you can’t use the ‘present continuous) I'm going to travel by train. (you have the intention to travel but you haven’t I am going to leave tonight. made any arrangements yet) 3. TIMETABLES, PROGRAMMES (official) We use the simple present for the ‘official’ future; events which everybody The train leaves at 8. knows about. These events are not personal unlike ‘arrangements’. What time does the film begin? The bus leaves at 7. (but : I’m leaving at 7 : this is the personal future)  4. PREDICTIONS BASED ON WHAT YOU SEE NOW You use ‘going to’ for making a prediction linked with reality now. She is going to have a baby. He's going to fall into the pond. 5. PREDICTIONS OR FACTS NOT BASED ON WHAT YOU SEE NOW We use ‘ll’ (or ‘will’) for pure predictions. She’ll (will) do it. You'll pass. I’ll be 46 next month. 2
  3. 3. FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURES 6. PREDICT THAT SOMETHING WILL ALREADY HAVE HAPPENED BEFORE A CERTAIN TIME IN THE FUTURE He will have finished then. We use the ‘will have done’ to talk about activities that will be finished in the future. When I come home my friend will have finished the ironing. Next year they will have lived in Leuven for ten years. 7. PREDICT OR SAY THAT SOMETHING WILL BE IN PROGRESS AT A PARTICULAR MOMENT IN THE FUTURE We use the ‘will be doing’ to talk about an activity in which we will be I will be working then. involved in the future. P1 Can I come in the afternoon? P2 No, I'll still be cleaning then. Could you come in the evening?  8. MAKING A DECISION We us ‘will do’ (or ‘ll do) when we are confronted with a problem I’ll (will) do it. for the first time and we have to decide to do something about this. We can agree or refuse to do something (be willing or unwilling); we can offer help; we can promise to do something. You open the kitchen cupboard and realise you haven’t got any sugar anymore. You say : I’ll have to buy some sugar. P1 That bike has a flat tyre. P2 I'll repair it tomorrow. 9. TALKING ABOUT A DECISION We use ‘going to’ to talk about the decision we have made beforehand. I am going to do it. A neighbour meets you down the street and asks you where you’re going. You say : I’m going to buy some sugar. P1 That bike has a flat tyre. P2 I know. I'm going to repair it tomorrow.  3
  4. 4. FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURES 10. REQUESTS We use ‘will you ?’ when we want someone to help us do something. Will you do it, please? Will you shut the door, please? Compare : We use the ‘will you be doing ?’ if we do not want to ask for help in a straightforward manner like : ‘Can I use your bike?’. The question with ‘will you be + verb +ing’ is extremely polite. Will you be using your bike tomorrow?  11. OFFERS, SUGGESTIONS, ADVICE We use ‘shall I/we ?’ Shall I/we help you? + when we want to offer help. (When we want to ask for help we use ‘will you’.) Shall I open the window? + when we want to make a suggestion Shall we go to the theatre? + when we want to ask for advice Shall I take another aspirin?  12. MENTAL ACTIVITY We use ‘will do’ (or ‘ll do) with expressions that refer to the future : I think he’ll (will) do it. I hope, I expect, I think, I don’t think, probably, I’m sure I don’t think he’ll do it.  13. WITH FUTURE TIME INDICATIONS We use the ‘do’ (simple present) with time words that refer to the future. I’ll (will) phone him We sometimes use the present perfect to express that something is finished. when he arrives. In the rest of the sentence we use ‘will do’ (or ‘’ll do). Future time indications : after, as soon as, before, if, until, till, when, while. I'll send you a postcard when I'm on holiday. When I've read this book, you can have it. I'll come as soon as I finish (have finished). TIP 1 Use 2 verbs most of the time. TIP 2 Use 1 verb only for timetables and programmes (official future).  4
  5. 5. FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURES LOGICAL CONCLUSION PAST NOW/FUTURE 1. YOU BELIEVE SOMETHING HAPPENED OR WAS THE CASE 1. YOU BELIEVE STH HAPPENS OR IS THE CASE. You must have been tired. You must be tired. It must have been poisonous. It must be poisonous. 2. YOU BELIEVE STH DIDN’T HAPPEN OR WAS NOT THE CASE. 2. YOU BELIEVE STH DOESN’T HAPPEN OR IS NOT THE CASE. You can’t have been ill yesterday, it must have been the day You can’t be ill. before yesterday. POSSIBILITY PAST NOW/FUTURE 1. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT STH HAPPENED OR WAS THE CASE 1. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT STH HAPPENS OR IS THE CASE He could have done it. He could do it. may have may might have might It could have been poisonous. It could be poisonous. may have may might have might 2. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT STH DID NOT HAPPEN OR WAS NOT 2. IT IS POSSIBLE THAT STH DOES NOT HAPPEN OR IS NOT THE THE CASE CASE He may not have killed her He may not do it. might not have might not It may not have been poisonous It may not be poisonous might not have might not 5
  6. 6. FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURES IMPOSSIBILITY PAST NOW/FUTURE 1. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE THAT STH HAPPENED OR WAS THE CASE 1. IT IS IMPOSSIBLE THAT STH HAPPENS OR IS THE CASE You can’t have been tired. You can’t be tired. couldn’t have couldn’t It can’t have been poisonous It can’t be poisonous couldn’t have couldn’t OBLIGATION PAST NOW/FUTURE 1. PERSONAL FEELINGS 1. PERSONAL FEELINGS You had to do sth because I (the speaker) said this was necessary. You have to do sth because I (the speaker) say this is necessary. Did you have to leave then? Do you have to leave now? I had to leave then. I must leave now. My train leaves in an hour. 2. FACTS (IMPERSONAL) 2. FACTS (IMPERSONAL) Did you have to wear a uniform then? Did you have to wear a uniform then? I had to wear one. I had to wear one. ADVICE PAST NOW/FUTURE IT WAS A GOOD THING TO DO IT IS A GOOD THING TO DO Should I have invited Anne to the party? Should I invite Anne to the party? I think you should have invited her . I think you should invite her . 6
  7. 7. FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURES ACTIVE AND PASSIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE NOW I am cleaning the room now. The room is being cleaned now. PERMANENT I clean the room every day. The room is cleaned every day. PAST (ONE EVENT) I cleaned the room yesterday. The room was cleaned yesterday. NOW + PAST I have just cleaned the room. The room has just been cleaned. PAST (TWO EVENTS) - SIMULTANEOUS I was cleaning the room. The room was being cleaned. - CONSECUTIVE I had cleaned the room. The room had been cleaned. OTHER TIME REFERENCES - DECISION NOW I will clean the room. The room will be cleaned. - DECISION I am going to clean the room. The room is going to be cleaned. BEFOREHAND - POSSIBILITY I may clean the room. The room may be cleaned. etc. IF PAST NOW AND FUTURE REGRET AND RELIEF REAL SITUATIONS If I had been at home, the accident would not have happened. If the weather is fine, I will go out tonight IMAGINARY SITUATIONS If I were rich, I would not be here. 7
  8. 8. FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURES REQUEST ASKING PEOPLE TO DO THINGS Can you do me a favour? Could you do me a favour? Will you do me a favour? Would you do me a favour? Do you think you could lend me some money? (not ‘can’) ASKING FOR THINGS Can I have the salt, please? (= Can you give me the salt?) Could I have the salt, please? May (= formal) I have the salt, please? PERMISSION ASKING TO DO THINGS Can I use your phone? Could I use your phone? May (= formal) I use your phone? Do you think I could use your phone? (not ‘can’) Do you mind if I use your phone? (not ‘can’) Is it all right if I use your phone? (not ‘can’) Is it OK if I use your phone? (not ‘can’) 8
  9. 9. FUNCTIONS AND STRUCTURES OFFERING AND INVITING Can I get you a cup of coffee? That would be nice. Shall I help you? No, it’s all right. I can manage. Would you like a cup of coffee? Yes, please./No, thank you. Would you like to come to dinner? I’d love to. SAYING WHAT YOU WANT IN A POLITE WAY I’d like some information about hotels, please. I’d like to try on these jeans, please. 9

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