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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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  • Wondering who can develop OCD? It is not the typical person that we think about.
  • Symptoms for OCD can start as young as toddlers but becomes more noticeable and pronounced within the teenage years causing what some may contribute to adolescent behavior or growing pains when in reality it could be the onset of OCD.
  • OCD crosses all social and racial barriers and effects men, women and children equally. & million people throughout the U.S. will suffer each year from one form or another of OCD.
  • Understanding what obsessions play in OCD can help us to understand why and how the compulsions begin. Each person will worry about different things and the list above is far from everything but is what a majority with OCD do suffer from.
  • Compulsions is the act that each person performs in order to alleviate their anxiety. They feel that if they do not perform these task in order then something terrible will happen to them or their family. Many are ashamed to tell anyone of their problem and often family members do not realize what is going on till their loved one has suffered in silence for years.
  • Individuals that suffer from germ phobias may clean constantly their homes their surroundings their family members to a point of becoming unhealthy. Raw cracked hands toxic chemicals constant use of sanitary wipes all in an effort to combat germs and disease.
  • Many exhibit aggressive and violent tempers not realizing what is at the root of the anger. Short tempered, agitated and moody behavior can all be part of OCD.
  • Religion can also be a part of OCD that feeling that they are never good enough for God that if they don’t pray at certain times and in a certain way that God will become angry at them. Surrounding themselves with religious artifacts to keep the evil away read of religious materials all of these to the point that they begin to interfer with family, friends and occupation.
  • Having disturbing sexual thoughts can be another sign of OCD. Having sexual thoughts to the point that they become obsessive or ritualistic which can lead to frustrations with partners or cause great stress within a realtionship because of fear of rejection or discuss.
  • Others suffer from constantly having to count things before they can perform a task. It can be as simple as washing their hair, it has to be 10 times on one side and 10 times on the other. Having soup cans or bottles in the same order with all the labels facing out and in alphabetical order. Dates, times, objects all have to be in order or it will cause great stress.
  • Many times sufferers of OCd know that something is wrong but they have no way of over coming these fears. To them it is a very real fear that if they do not follow these rituals something bad will happen. They many times feel shame and fear of rejection from family and friends so they suffer in silence for years.
  • These four theories are what many psychologist believe to be the root causes of OCD. Each person that was studied with OCD had at least one of these causes.
  • The frontal lobe and basal ganglia control some of the basic functions and an abnormality within this area has psychologist believing that this is a contributor to OCD symptoms.
  • The cingulum which is located with in the deep part of the brain in the “C” shape area, indicated by the dots with in the picture, is in control of emotions and behavior and it is believed that when there is an abnormality within this area that symptoms of OCD will occur.
  • This was first reported by the NIMH in 1997 when they discovered that autoimmune diseases create symptoms much like OCD. They also discovered that children and teens that suffered from OCD could also have the disorders listed above.
  • Chemical imbalances in the nervous system plays a part in OCD as well, when neurotransmitters fail to produce the serotonin that regulates many areas of the brain it can cause irregular behavior in people. Majority of OCD suffers have this problem and is regulated by SRI drugs which balance out the serotonin and enables the brain to function properly. Chemical imbalances can also cause some of the other symptoms listed above all of which can be treated by drug therapy or psychiatric therapy.
  • It has also been discovered that OCD may have strong connections to heredity, researchers found that when they checked family history that those who had OCD also had higher instances of family members with OCD as well as other disorders. Usually following along close family members parents, grandparents or siblings.
  • Psychotherapeutic drugs, with the use of medication it has been discovered that serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI’s) has been extremely effective in the treatment of OCD. Serotonin levels are increased within the brain this increased serotonin levels help to reduce the obsessive thought patterns and thus reduces the compulsions Nearly 80% of those treated within an 8-10 week period show a greatly improved level of OCD occurrences. 20% drug therapy alone does not help daily use of drug therapy that can last a lifetime.
  • Of the remaining 20% that have very little response to medication therapy, the use of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) needs to be incorporated. How CBT works is it helps a patient with OCD to internalize a strategy to resist the onset of OCD symptoms. It provides a way for a patient to change their thinking and feelings by restructuring their behavioral patterns. A patient is exposed to the source of their anxiety the more they are exposed to this source of anxiety the more their levels of stress will go down until their fear disappears.The second half of this treatment is to reduce the person’s ritualistic behavior; by preventing their compulsive need to perform these tasks they begin to decrease their compulsive behavior.
  • Unfortunately the concerns of the future directions of OCD treatments have numerous barriers that can prevent the availability of effective OCD treatment. The main barrier that has caused the greatest concern is the lack of trained CBT therapists. With few professionally trained CBT therapists available many times pharmacotherapy is the main course of action followed.
  • With few professionally trained CBT therapists available many times pharmacotherapy is the main course of action followed. There is very limited exposure to a qualified psychotherapist resulting in limited success rates for the patients. The average time that a person may suffer from OCD is 17 years from the time that their first symptoms occur to the time that they receive the proper treatment that they are in need of.
  • Not all of this can be blamed on the doctors. The stigma that society has placed on people, the patient is very good at hiding the fact that they are even having a problem. It is usually not until it starts to interfere with their daily activities that family and or friends begin to notice and by then they may have suffered for years. There are many unanswered questions concerning OCD, as we have more and more psychologist beginning to be properly trained within this field one day we will be able to understand and treat OCD properly. (www.ocfoundation.org)
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder can be far more devastating than many are lead to believe. More research needs to be developed into whether it is an inherited disorder, an environmental cause or is it just a misfire within the synapses within the brain. The most important thing that needs to be realized is that OCD is treatable and the sooner that it is diagnosed and treated the sooner those who are affected with this disorder can get the much needed help so that they do not have to continue to suffer needlessly.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: The Who, What and How of OCD
    • 2. WHO CAN DEVELOP OCD?
    • 3. Symptoms developing within their teenage years <ul><li>Symptoms usually developing within their teens </li></ul><ul><li>Can effect family life </li></ul><ul><li>Grades </li></ul><ul><li>Retard Social Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Can start as young as toddlers </li></ul><ul><li>Can affect adults </li></ul>
    • 4. 3% of the American population or an estimated 7 million people, between the ages of 15-30, suffer from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not a discriminating disorder. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>crosses all socio-economic levels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>where they live </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>age </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>affects men, women children equally </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>will affect 1 out of every 50-100 people within their lifetime </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80% will suffer from both obsessions and compulsions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% will have one or the other </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( www.athealth.com ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 5. Understanding OCD is just the beginning <ul><li>OCD is the result of having two disorders in one: </li></ul><ul><li>OBSESSIONS </li></ul><ul><li>An Obsession is having disturbing, recurrent and unwanted thoughts that are uncontrollable and unable to be suppressed which result in high anxiety for an individual. </li></ul><ul><li>a) may become worried about germs or disease </li></ul><ul><li>b) worry about becoming violent or </li></ul><ul><li>aggressive </li></ul><ul><li>c) thoughts concerning religion </li></ul><ul><li>d) distasteful sexual thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>e) overly obsessed with order and symmetry. </li></ul><ul><li>(Brinkerhoff, pg.17) </li></ul>
    • 6. COMPULSIONS <ul><li>In order to ease the anxiety associated with the obsessions ritualistic behaviors will manifest in compulsions. </li></ul><ul><li>A compulsion is the ritualistic behavior that is performed to ease the anxiety and usually mimicking the person’s obsession. </li></ul><ul><li>(Brinkerhoff, pg.17) </li></ul>
    • 7. Worry about germs or disease <ul><li>Some may become worried about germs or disease </li></ul><ul><li>Washing their hands till raw and cracked </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly cleaning </li></ul>
    • 8. Worry about becoming violent or aggressive
    • 9. Thoughts concerning religion <ul><li>Constant prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Reading of religious material </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding of religious symbols </li></ul>
    • 10. Distasteful sexual thoughts
    • 11. Order and symmetry <ul><li>Having to count things or repeat rituals before every task. </li></ul><ul><li>When they are interrupted they feel that they must start over again. </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 6…. </li></ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 6 … </li></ul>
    • 12. They Know!! <ul><li>Many sufferers of OCD know that their obsessions make no sense </li></ul><ul><li>no practical reason for them </li></ul><ul><li>based upon unfounded fears. </li></ul><ul><li>they cannot control these fears </li></ul><ul><li>These fears are completely valid to them </li></ul><ul><li>(American Family Physician, 2009) </li></ul>
    • 13. 4 theories at the root cause of OCD <ul><li>an abnormality within the basil ganglia and the cingulum located within the frontal lobe. </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmune Neurological Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>chemical imbalance within the nervous system </li></ul><ul><li>heredity </li></ul><ul><li>(Brinkerhoff, 2004, pg.26-28) </li></ul><ul><li>( American Family Physician, 2009) </li></ul>
    • 14. Basil Ganglia <ul><li>The basal ganglia are in control of routine behaviors, like grooming or brushing teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>The frontal lobe is in control of organizational behaviors and planning abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>( www.mentalhealthchannel.net/ocd ) </li></ul>
    • 15. Cingulum <ul><li>Cingulum which is located deep within brain near the frontal lobe. </li></ul><ul><li>The cingulum controls communication in the brains behavioral and emotional messages. </li></ul><ul><li>( www.mentalhealthchannel.net/ocd ) </li></ul>
    • 16. Autoimmune Neurological Disorder <ul><li>This theory links children and teenage OCD was reported by the National Institute of Mental Health </li></ul><ul><li>They linked similar childhood autoimmune diseases with the same symptoms as OCD. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic nervous system diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Degenerative nervous system diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Central nervous system diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches </li></ul><ul><li>Dementia </li></ul><ul><li>Language disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Movement disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep disorders </li></ul><ul><li>( www.mentalhealthchannel.net/ocd ) </li></ul>
    • 17. Chemical imbalance within the nervous system. <ul><li>Research also found that too little activity of certain neurotransmitters was correlated to OCD. </li></ul><ul><li>Other behaviors related to chemical imbalance among OCD sufferers. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsive Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>(Fenske, J., & Schwenk, T., 2009) </li></ul>
    • 18. Heredity <ul><li>Heredity plays a large part in OCD </li></ul><ul><li>OCD patients close family members had higher incidents of OCD </li></ul><ul><li>Other bipolar disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Panic attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Severe phobias </li></ul><ul><li>(Brinkerhoff, 2004, pg.26-28) </li></ul><ul><li>(Abramowitz, J., Taylor, S., & McKay, D.(2009) </li></ul>
    • 19. Understand the Treatments <ul><li>80% of those treated within 8-10 week greatly improve </li></ul><ul><li>20% drug therapy alone does not help </li></ul><ul><li>Daily use of drug therapy can last a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>(Stewart .2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotherapeutic medication or serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI’s) has been extremely effective </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin levels are increased reducing the obsessive thought patterns and compulsions </li></ul>
    • 20. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy <ul><li>Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) needs to be incorporated when meds do not work. </li></ul><ul><li>It internalizes a strategy to resist the onset of OCD. </li></ul><ul><li>It restructures behavioral patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>A patient is over exposed to the source of their anxiety to reduce their anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>reduce the person’s ritualistic behavior </li></ul><ul><li>( American Family Physician, 2009) </li></ul>
    • 21. Future Treatment Concerns <ul><li>The future directions of OCD treatments have numerous barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Greatest concern is the lack of trained CBT therapists. </li></ul><ul><li>With few professionally trained CBT therapists pharmacotherapy is the main course of action. </li></ul>
    • 22. 17 years <ul><li>17 years is the average time from their first symptoms to proper treatment that they </li></ul><ul><li>Limited exposure to a qualified psychotherapist resulting in limited success </li></ul><ul><li>Few professionally trained CBT therapists available </li></ul><ul><li>( www.ocfoundation.org ) </li></ul>
    • 23. Role of Psychologist <ul><li>Doctors not to blame </li></ul><ul><li>The stigma that society has placed on OCD </li></ul><ul><li>Discover the cause of it </li></ul><ul><li>Course of treatment </li></ul><ul><li>psychologist beginning to be properly trained </li></ul>
    • 24. Conclusion <ul><li>Obsessive Compulsive Disorder can be devastating </li></ul><ul><li>It is not a preventable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>More research needs to be developed into the causes </li></ul><ul><li>The most important thing that needs to be realized is that OCD is treatable </li></ul>

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