Lesson planning


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Lesson planning

  1. 1. Lesson Planning Lcdo. David Estrella I., MBA Ing. Juan Carlos Delgado V., CELTA
  2. 2. What is a lesson plan? <ul><li>It’s the framework for my lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the map I follow during class. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a pain in the neck. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the product of my thoughts about the class to give and what I hope to achieve. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why planning? <ul><li>Planning helps you to reduce uncertainty or panic and gives you confidence and clarity. </li></ul><ul><li>It reminds you to prepare materials beforehand, and makes it easier for you to organize the time and activities flow in classes. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why planning? <ul><li>For students, evidence of a plan shows them the teacher has devoted time to thinking about the class. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a way to help gain the respect of your students. </li></ul><ul><li>It suggests professionalism and commitment. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Planning ensures that the class you are teaching gets a balanced mixture of different materials, content and interaction types. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning helps you to develop a personal style. </li></ul>Why planning?
  6. 6. Planning the class <ul><li>How long before a specific lesson do you plan it? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you write down lesson notes to guide you? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you rely on a lesson format provided by the Teacher's book? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Planning the class <ul><li>Do you write down your objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you actually look at your notes during the lesson? If so, rarely? occasionally? frequently? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you do with your lesson notes after the lesson? </li></ul>
  8. 8. What to consider? <ul><li>NGAGE </li></ul><ul><li>TUDY </li></ul><ul><li>CTIVATE </li></ul>
  9. 9. What to consider? <ul><li>Engage: get the students interested in the class and hopefully enjoying what they are doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Study: it is a focus of language, such as grammar or vocabulary and pronunciation. It does not have to be NEW language input. </li></ul>
  10. 10. What to consider? <ul><li>Activate: the students do writing and or speaking activities which require them to use not only the language they are studying that day, but also other language that they have learnt . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Aims <ul><li>Think about your aim as your mission. </li></ul><ul><li>Your lesson plan should be aim driven. </li></ul><ul><li>They are “why” we teach. </li></ul><ul><li>Each lesson has a main and subsidiary aim. </li></ul><ul><li>Each stage in the lesson has a specific aim. </li></ul>
  12. 13. We’re doing unit 3A. It’s about Present Simple
  13. 14. We’re going to practice Present Simple
  14. 15. We’re going to use Present Simple in positive sentences and wh- questions to talk about daily routines
  15. 16. We’re doing unit 3A. It’s about Present Simple We’re going to practice Present Simple We’re going to use Present Simple in positive sentences and wh- questions to talk about daily routines
  16. 17. What are the aims of 3A? <ul><li>Main aim: Grammar input; present simple positive sentences and wh- Qs to talk about daily routines. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidiary aim: Reading skills; reading for specific information or vocabulary; daily routines. </li></ul>
  17. 18. How do we define the aims? <ul><li>Main aim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The point where you will spend the most time during the lesson. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subsidiary aim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The next important point in your lesson. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both aims depend on what is necessary for the student to learn. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. What is the main aim for this lesson? And the subsidiary aim?
  19. 20. When do we write the aims? <ul><li>Immediately when we start writing the lesson plan. </li></ul><ul><li>After you’ve pondered on what part of the lesson you’ll dedicate more time to. </li></ul><ul><li>Only when you know you’ll be observed. </li></ul><ul><li>All of the above. </li></ul><ul><li>None of the above. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Are my aims correct? <ul><li>Your aims should answer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why are we going to do the lesson? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the learning purpose of this lesson? </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. What are the stages in a lesson? <ul><li>Warmer </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualization </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-teach vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Reading / listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For gist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For specific info </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Language/Lexis input </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled practice </li></ul><ul><li>Freer practice </li></ul>What are the stages in a lesson?
  23. 24. <ul><li>A warmer is a short activity that demands an active involvement from the students. We use warmers at the beginning of lessons for a variety of reasons. Firstly and perhaps most importantly to get the students going at the beginning of the day or the beginning of the lesson, to warm them up just like an athlete would warm up before their big race. Also it gives the students a chance to switch on to using English, to get their brains ready to use a different language. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesson Plan,Gareth Rees </li></ul></ul>Warmer
  24. 25. Warmer <ul><li>A warmer is a game you play at the beginning of your lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>It sets the mood for the rest of the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps students to relax and feel comfortable. </li></ul><ul><li>It lets students have fun. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>It makes students realize “everyone is in the same boat” . </li></ul><ul><li>Students can learn a little about you and their classmates . </li></ul><ul><li>They can get a feel for how the rest of the class will be like. </li></ul><ul><li>Students gain confidence. </li></ul>Warmer
  26. 27. <ul><li>Who am I? </li></ul><ul><li>Every S gets a paper with a character on the stuck on the back. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss need to ask yes/no questions only. </li></ul><ul><li>When a S guesses his/her character he/she can sit down. </li></ul>Warmer
  27. 28. Contextualization <ul><li>Introduces the topic for the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>It motivates students to be engaged in the topic of the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>You can personalize your class. </li></ul><ul><li>It gives students key elements for the class. </li></ul>
  28. 29. How would you contextualize this lesson?
  29. 30. Pre-teach vocabulary <ul><li>Before the listening or reading text. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t teach all vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach only the vocabulary required for the listening/reading activities. </li></ul>
  30. 31. <ul><li>Illustration </li></ul><ul><li>Mime </li></ul><ul><li>Synonyms/Antonyms </li></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Translation </li></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul>Pre-teach vocabulary
  31. 32. <ul><li>Illustration Very useful for more concrete words (dog, rain, tall) and for visual learners. Not all items can be drawn. </li></ul><ul><li>Mime This lends itself particularly well to action verbs and it can be fun and memorable. </li></ul>Pre-teach vocabulary
  32. 33. <ul><li>Synonyms/Antonyms Using the words a student already knows can be effective for getting meaning across. </li></ul><ul><li>Definition Make sure it is clear. Ask questions to check Ss understood. </li></ul>Pre-teach vocabulary
  33. 34. <ul><li>Translation It is fast and efficient. Not every word has a direct translation. </li></ul><ul><li>Context Think of a clear context when the word is used. </li></ul>Pre-teach vocabulary
  34. 35. Language input <ul><li>Use the reading/listening text as the model for the language. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a guided discovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Show meaning, form and if necessary pronunciation </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>Design tasks so Ss notice target language. </li></ul><ul><li>Have Ss try to figure out how language works by looking at its use in context. (text model). </li></ul><ul><li>Elicit from Ss meaning, form and pronunciation. </li></ul>Language input
  36. 37. Write a guided discovery for this lesson
  37. 38. Controlled practice <ul><li>After language was introduced. </li></ul><ul><li>They focus only on the target language. </li></ul><ul><li>It gives the Ss their first chance to use the acquired language. </li></ul>
  38. 39. <ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>To allow the students to internalize the new language so that they understand it. </li></ul><ul><li>They know how and when to use it and they’ve had a chance to produce it. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to fix the language in the students’ mind. </li></ul>Controlled practice
  39. 40. <ul><li>By it’s nature, controlled practice can be very repetitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss can become bored and lose interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure the activities don’t go on for too long. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a good variety in the practice stage. </li></ul>Controlled practice
  40. 41. <ul><li>Drills </li></ul><ul><li>Gap-fill </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence completion </li></ul><ul><li>Quizzes </li></ul><ul><li>Games </li></ul><ul><li>Tests </li></ul><ul><li>Information search </li></ul><ul><li>Dictation </li></ul>Controlled practice
  41. 42. Freer practice <ul><li>Controlled practice activities develop students’ accuracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Less controlled activities work on fluency. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss need the chance to activate their language. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss need to use a wide range of language as naturally as possible. </li></ul>
  42. 43. <ul><li>The activity needs to be very carefully explained and set up. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss will be working without your direct guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss are the stars here, not you. </li></ul><ul><li>Ss will make lots of mistakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t interfere. </li></ul>Freer practice
  43. 44. <ul><li>Let your Ss make mistakes.That’s the idea. </li></ul><ul><li>Your job at this stage is to monitor. </li></ul><ul><li>Move around. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to your Ss. </li></ul><ul><li>Particular errors can be pointed out during feedback stage. </li></ul>Freer practice
  44. 45. What would be a good freer practice for this lesson?
  45. 46. Procedure <ul><li>What the teacher and the students will be doing during any specific stage of the class. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Procedure <ul><li>Each and every activity – no matter what type!!! – is always divided into three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Set-up . </li></ul><ul><li>Student engagement. </li></ul><ul><li>Reportback / Feedback . </li></ul>
  47. 48. Procedure <ul><li>Include these three pieces of information at all times: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity instruction . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction pattern. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher’s behaviour . </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Activity Instruction <ul><li>It tells you what the activity’s instruction to be followed is - the same one as the book’s rubric . </li></ul><ul><li>The function of this part is to let you know what the students are expected and supposed to be doing. </li></ul>
  49. 50. Interaction Pattern <ul><li>This means the way in which the students will be working during the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>The interaction patterns can be individually , in pairs and in groups of three , four or more . </li></ul>
  50. 51. Interaction Pattern <ul><li>Another interaction pattern is T – WC , which stands for when the teacher talks to the whole class. </li></ul><ul><li>This interaction pattern is mostly used when the teacher gives the instructions to the students. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Teacher’s Behaviour <ul><li>What the teacher has done before, is doing during and will do after the students do, are doing and have done the activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Here is where you use phrases like: T helps when needed, T monitors, T drills proper pronunciation, etc. </li></ul>
  52. 53. Learning Aim <ul><li>Tells you why you do an activity and what the student gets out of it, in an academic language. </li></ul><ul><li>A lesson is divided into different stages and each of these stages more often than not has one specific aim, but they can also have many specific aims. </li></ul>
  53. 54. Learning Aim <ul><li>Contextualization </li></ul><ul><li>To get ss. attention. </li></ul><ul><li>To activate ss. passive knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>To motivate engagement. </li></ul>
  54. 55. Learning Aim <ul><li>CLOSURE </li></ul><ul><li>T charms ss. </li></ul><ul><li>Keeps job. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures good evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes Emma and Paulina happy ☺ </li></ul>
  55. 57. Bibliography <ul><li>Ur, Penny; A course in language teaching: Prcatice and theory. CUP; 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Woodward, Tessa; Planning lessons and courses; CUP; 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Robertson, C.; Acklam, R.; Action plan for teachers; BBC world service, 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Harmer, Jeremy; How to teach English; Longman 2001. </li></ul>
  56. 58. <ul><li>Spratt, M.; Pulverness, A.; Williams, M.; The TKT Course; Cambridge ESOL; 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Heath O’Ryan, Jáem; The CELTA Course handouts; 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk </li></ul>Bibliography