Designing Data Visualisations & Dashboard in Web Applications
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Designing Data Visualisations & Dashboard in Web Applications

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Supporting blog post: http://blog.intercom.io/data-visualisation-in-web-apps/ ...

Supporting blog post: http://blog.intercom.io/data-visualisation-in-web-apps/

This talk was most recently presented at WebVisions Portland #wvpdx

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  • 1. Data visualisations and Dashboard Design
  • 2. Des Traynor@destraynor,COO of @intercom
  • 3. TRO INTRO KNOW YOUR AUDIENCETIME REMAINING KNOW YOUR DOMAIN KNOW YOUR DATA KNOW YOUR VISUALS KNOW YOUR STYLE CLOSING POINTS FIN TOPIC
  • 4. We are drowning in data.
  • 5. Better than Adaptable textIT’S HARD TO MAKE VISUALSUseful Meaningful Readable
  • 6. “ Be clear first and clever second. If you have to throw one of those out, throw out clever. — Jason Fried
  • 7. VISUALS CAN CONFUSE
  • 8. Visualising the Gulf Oil Spill...
  • 9. O k a y , l ets t r y w i t h fo ot b a l l . . .
  • 10. If the Gulf of Mexico - the 7th largest body of waterin the world, containing approximately 660quadrillion gallons of water (thats 660 with 15zeros) - was represented by Cowboys Stadium inDallas - the largest domed stadium in the world -how would the spill stack up? In this example, theamount of oil spilled  - if the  Gulf of Mexico  was thesize of Cowboys Stadium - would be about the size ofa 24 ounce  can of beer. Cowboys stadium has aninternal volume of approximately 104 million cubicfeet, compared to the just over 50 cubic inches ofvolume in a 24-ounce can.Just like the can, the spilled oil represents only .00000002788% of the liquid volume present in theGulf of Mexico, although as the oil is dispersed, theamount of water affected  becomes substantiallygreater.
  • 11. If the Gulf of Mexico - the 7th largest body of waterin the world, containing approximately 660quadrillion gallons of water (thats 660 with 15zeros) - was represented by Cowboys Stadium inDallas - the largest domed stadium in the world -how would the spill stack up? In this example, theamount of oil spilled  - if the  Gulf of Mexico  was thesize of Cowboys Stadium - would be about the size ofa 24 ounce  can of beer. Cowboys stadium has aninternal volume of approximately 104 million cubicfeet, compared to the just over 50 cubic inches ofvolume in a 24-ounce can.Just like the can, the spilled oil represents only .00000002788% of the liquid volume present in theGulf of Mexico, although as the oil is dispersed, theamount of water affected  becomes substantiallygreater.
  • 12. The “anti-infographicmovement”No data was harmed in themaking of these info-graphics
  • 13. INTRO KNOW YOUR AUDIENCETIME REMAINING KNOW YOUR DOMAIN KNOW YOUR DATA KNOW YOUR VISUALS KNOW YOUR STYLE CLOSING POINTS FIN TOPIC
  • 14. WHO ARE WE DESIGNING FOR?
  • 15. WHAT ROLE?The role defines the level of abstraction required.
  • 16. CEO Level DetailStrategic viewFocus on the long termHigh level overviewSimple summary
  • 17. Analyst roleQuery driven analysisPrecision requiredEmphasis on trends, and correlations
  • 18. Operations/LogisticsFocus on current statusIssue & Event drivene.g. Alerts, spikes, trouble
  • 19. WHAT DEPARTMENT?The department defines the domain knowledge
  • 20. SALES DEPARTMENTLeads, conversions, avg. value per sale, etc
  • 21. MARKETING DEPARTMENT Impressions, loyalty, awareness, share
  • 22. NETWORK & ITIssues, tickets, lead time, open cases, uptime
  • 23. CUSTOMER SALES MARKETING SUPPORT * Satisfaction Rating * Trend per quarterMANAGEMENT * Comparison with competitors * My Active leads * Value per leadANALYST * Progress towards target * Active campaigns * Current CPM/CPCOPERATIONS * Landing page Role + Department = Information needed
  • 24. CUSTOMER SALES MARKETING SUPPORT * Satisfaction Rating * Trend per quarterMANAGEMENT * Comparison with competitors * My Active leads * Value per leadANALYST * Progress towards 1st target Takeaway * Active campaigns * Current CPM/CPCOPERATIONS * Landing page Role + Department = Information needed
  • 25. INTRO KNOW YOUR AUDIENCETIME REMAINING KNOW YOUR DOMAIN KNOW YOUR DATA KNOW YOUR VISUALS KNOW YOUR STYLE CLOSING POINTS FIN TOPIC
  • 26. # Unit sales $ Sales today Avg $ per saleUs vs Competitor WHICH OF THESE? Avg. $ per This period vs last customer period Total this % Change Popular month in sales products
  • 27. Top selling itemsTOTAL SALES CHANGE Item name Unit sales % of total Change$12,240.65 5.32% Oak tree (special edition) Pet Kitten 803 607 16% 12% 11.52% 100% Skyscraper (high rise) 511 11% 1.52% Sycamore tree 430 9% 5.23% Top grossing items Dancing disco. 203 4% 1.20% Other items 2495 52% -- 40 % TOTAL REV. 30 20 10 WHICH OF THESE? 500 400 300 200 100 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 500 25 400 20 Unit sales Revenue 300 15 200 10 100 5 Ybarra Bow Broadsword Dagger Eclipse Mace BattleAxe Magic wand Crossbow Poison
  • 28. 6 THINGS TO COMMUNICATE
  • 29. 1. COMMUNICATE A SINGLE FIGUREUsed when context is obvious, precision is required, andpast/future is irrelevant to user.Examples: BALANCEAA clerk with a waiting listChecking bank balance $23.00 BALANCESys admin checking current status $11.32Notes: BALANCESingle numbers can have states $11.32
  • 30. 2. SINGLE FIGURE WITH CONTEXT“How are we doing lately? Any problems onhorizon?”Examples: READERS CHANGE 12,247 0.32%How were this months sales?Is the network performing well?Hows our user figures looking? READERS CHANGE 15,231 9.52%Notes:Spark-lines can save space, and
  • 31. 3. ANALYSIS OF A PERIOD“Show me all the key moments this month”Examples:Looking for patterns in longer data setsLooking ahead based on current dataComparison with previous period
  • 32. GOOD LINE CHART5040302010 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Work best with precise data (e.g. day to day)
  • 33. BA D L I N E C H A R T5040302010 Jan Feb Mar Apri May
  • 34. BA R C H A R T5040302010 Jan Feb Mar Apri May Never imply precision you don’t have.
  • 35. BA R C H A R T5040302010 2nd Takeaway Jan Feb Mar Apri May Never imply precision you don’t have.
  • 36. 4. ANALYSIS OF PERIOD, WITH TARGETDid we hit our sales figures?Are we fulfilling our five nines quota?Examples:Are sales were they should be?Are all our employees performing okay?Is our response time better than industry standard?
  • 37. BAD LINE CHART50000375002500012500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December Actual Target
  • 38. A common error in visualisation is leaving all the processing to the reader. At aglance it looks like we’re doing okay here.In this case, we’re talking about a delta, but we’re not showing the delta...
  • 39. A common error in visualisation is leaving all the processing to the reader. At aglance it looks like we’re doing okay here.In this case, we’re talking about a delta, but we’re not showing the delta... 3rd Takeaway
  • 40. FOCUS ON THE DELTA 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% -40% Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December Same data, big difference
  • 41. BAD LINE CHART50000375002500012500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December This guy is getting a bonus
  • 42. FOCUS ON THE DELTA 20% 10% 0% -10% -20% -30% -40% Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December This guy is getting fired.
  • 43. A full cohort analysis % Active in months after signup Sign Up 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 JAN 100% 24% 23% 21% 20% 18% 18% 17% 17% 17% 17% 18% of January sign ups FEB 100% 26% 24% 22% 20% 18% 17% are still 7% 7% active in July 16% MAR 100% 29% 25% 23% 21% 18% 18% 17% 17% APR 100% 32% 26% 23% 21% 17% 15% 16% MAY 100% 33% 33% 28% 24% 22% 18% JUN 100% 34% 28% 24% 23% 19% JUL 100% 35% 31% 27% 23% AUG 100% 40% 35% 32% SEP 100% 41% 38% OCT 100% 48% NOV 100% DECShowing: % of total % of prev. month Highlight drops over: 5%
  • 44. signup 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 21% 20% 18% 18% 17% 17% 17% 17% 18% of January sign ups 22% 20% 18% 17% are still 7% 7% active in July 16% 23% 21% 18% 18% 17% 17% 23% 21% 17% 15% 16% 28% 24% 22% 18% 24% 23% 19% 27% 23% 32%
  • 45. MAR 100% 29% 25% 23% 21% 18% APR 100% 32% 26% 23% 21% 17% MAY 100% 33% 33% 28% 24% 22% JUN 100% 34% 28% 24% 23% 19% JUL 100% 35% 31% 27% 23% AUG 100% 40% 35% 32% SEP 100% 41% 38% OCT 100% 48% NOV 100% DECShowing: % of total % of prev. month
  • 46. How many stick around for a second month?35% 32.4%30%25%20% 15% 10% 5%Signed January February March April up:
  • 47. Retention using a cycle plot35%30%25%20%15%10%5%0% Month 2 Month 3 Month 4 Month 5 Retention Retention Retention Retention
  • 48. 35%30%25% Signups in April 2011 26% Still Active in June20% 101 retained - 290 lost.
  • 49. 5. BREAKDOWN OF A VARIABLE“What age groups are buying our stuff? What countriesare we big in?”Examples:Who are our customers?Whats our awareness like in each demographic?What browsers are people using these days?
  • 50. BAD PIE CHART America Ireland U.K. Canada Australia Spain France
  • 51. YOU COULD ADD THE DATA... America 9% 15% Ireland15% U.K. 23%9% Canada 11% 18% Australia Spain France
  • 52. SORTED BAR CHART30.000%22.500%15.000%7.500% 0% Ireland U.K. America Spain Canada Australia
  • 53. LYING WITH GROUPINGSThe 100K to 200k is where we need to tax!
  • 54. LYING WITH GROUPINGS Or maybe not...
  • 55. L Y I N G W I T H G RO U P I N G S O! "#$% &?http://motherjones.com/kevin-drum/2011/05/fun-charts-making-rich-look-poor
  • 56. LYING WITH ROTATIONS
  • 57. LYING WITH DIMENSIONS
  • 58. BAD: AREA PLOT B A E D C
  • 59. BAD: AREA PLOT B A E D CWhich would you pick?
  • 60. BAD: AREA PLOTA - B = How “big” is this?
  • 61. BAD: AREA PLOT B A E D C
  • 62. BAD UNIT PLOT
  • 63. 5. BREAKDOWN OF A VARIABLE“Bar charts aren’t sexy, but they rely on aninnate skill, following a line. ”
  • 64. If you had to fight one of them...
  • 65. 4th TakeawayIf you had to fight one of them...
  • 66. 6. BREAKDOWN OVER TIME“How has the composition changed over thelast year?”Examples:How has the browser market changed?Has our revenue sources shifted recently?
  • 67. STACKED BAR CHART70000525003500017500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December Ireland U.K America
  • 68. STACKED BAR CHART70000525003500017500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December A($!&)* +$,-$" &. J/01? u l y ? America peaked in J
  • 69. STACKED BAR CHART70000525003500017500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December A($!&)* s U . K &. d o n e ? How ha +$,-$" . J/01?
  • 70. LYING WITH DIMENSIONS 70000 52500 35000Jan Feb 17500 Mar April May June July August September October 0 November December Lots more yellow pixels here now...
  • 71. LET’S TRY A LINE CHART50000375002500012500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December Ireland U.K America
  • 72. LINE CHART OF SAME DATA?50000375002500012500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December A($!&)* #. 23$ 4+. 5K .$6$! 73*.8$"? Same data. Different story.
  • 73. BAR CHARTS AGAIN?50000375002500012500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December Ireland U.K America
  • 74. BAR CHARTS AGAIN?50000375002500012500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December
  • 75. BAR CHARTS AGAIN?50000375002500012500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December
  • 76. BAR CHARTS AGAIN?50000375002500012500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December
  • 77. INTERACTIVE, REMEMBER?50000375002500012500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December You can adapt based on Interctions
  • 78. STACKED BAR CHART70000525003500017500 0 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December Why is it so hard to follow the U.K here?
  • 79. If it was easy, we’d all be great at billiards
  • 80. INTRO KNOW YOUR AUDIENCETIME REMAINING KNOW YOUR DOMAIN KNOW YOUR DATA KNOW YOUR VISUALS KNOW YOUR STYLE CLOSING POINTS FIN TOPIC
  • 81. Visuals communicate 2 things. Category Quantity
  • 82. Line length Line width Colour intensity WAYS TO VISUALISE QUANTITY Size Quantity Speed
  • 83. Line length Line width Colour intensity WAYS TO VISUALISE QUANTITY Size Quantity Speed
  • 84. Line length Line width Colour intensity WAYS TO VISUALISE QUANTITY Size Quantity Speed5th Takeaway
  • 85. Le type Colr SpeHOW TO VISUALISE CATEGORYLocn
  • 86. HOW TO USE ALL THIS?You’ve just taken over a hotel. You’rehanded the accounts. Excel hell. Wheredo we start?
  • 87. Q: Are we making any money? Profit is the delta between costs and revenue. Let’s see that for the year. Profit and loss€9,000.00€6,750.00€4,500.00€2,250.00 €0-€2,250.00-€4,500.00-€6,750.00-€9,000.00 Jan Feb Mar April May June July August September October November December
  • 88. Q: What makes us money?Let’s compare the percentage of revenuegenerated by each category.50%40%30%20%10% Rms Wdgs B Gym/Spa Rtaurt Buss Cfc
  • 89. Q: What sort of prices do we charge per room?Let’s look at the price range the median value€175€150€100 €75 €50 King suite Junior Suite Deluxe Room Standard Room Hostel
  • 90. Design to support analyst queries...MIDWEST HOTELZREPORT TYPE ROOM TYPE PERIOD GUEST TYPE REVENUE ROOMS & EXTRAS KING SUITES LAST YEAR ALL GUESTS PROFIT LOYALTY INCIDENTALS GUEST REPORT WEDDINGS CONFERENCES
  • 91. Another example.What the hell is going on in Europe?
  • 92. Credit: S. Few & Tom Watkins
  • 93. INTRO KNOW YOUR AUDIENCETIME REMAINING KNOW YOUR DOMAIN KNOW YOUR DATA KNOW YOUR VISUALS KNOW YOUR STYLE CLOSING POINTS FIN TOPIC
  • 94. A WORD ON CONTEXT
  • 95. This is a car.
  • 96. This is a Nuclear power station.
  • 97. This is a space shuttle
  • 98. This is none of those things...
  • 99. Chances are this is where your user is
  • 100. The point is, we’re not always fighting for attention.
  • 101. Sales Report Jan 2012ORDERS CHANGE ACCOUNTS CHANGE SITE LIVE12,247 0.32% 7,343 4.32% PAYMENT LIVE FULFILLMENT ONRevenue per product40302010 Books Electronics Magazines Appliances e-goods OtherTop productsProduct Orders $ Revenue
  • 102. Sales Report Jan 2012ORDERS CHANGE ACCOUNTS CHANGE SITE LIVE12,247 0.32% 7,343 4.32% PAYMENT LIVE FULFILLMENT ONRevenue per product40302010 Books Electronics Magazines Appliances e-goods OtherTop products Let’s use this strawmanProduct Orders $ Revenue
  • 103. Let’s take 3 points from Tufte
  • 104. Chart junk: the stuff that doesn’t changewhen the data changes
  • 105. Data Ink Ratio: what percentage of your inkshows data
  • 106. Smallest Effective Difference: the least youcan do to highlight
  • 107. Smallest Effective Difference: the least youcan do to highlight These colours would get very loud. Unnecessarily so.
  • 108. Smallest Effective Difference: the least youcan do to highlight These are far quieter.
  • 109. Sales Report Jan 2012 ORDERS CHANGE ACCOUNTS CHANGE SITE LIVE 12,247 0.32% 7,343 4.32% PAYMENT LIVE FULFILLMENT ON Revenue per product 40 30 20 10 Books Electronics Magazines Appliances e-goods Other Top products Product Orders $ Revenue The girl with the dragon tattoo 11 88.50G r a d i e n tInception a d o w s , c o l o r s , g r i d l i n e s . 9A l l 72.50 n - c o n t e n t s, sh no The girl who kicked the hornets nest 15 54.05
  • 110. Sales Report Jan 2012ORDERS CHANGE ACCOUNTS CHANGE SITE LIVE12,247 0.32% 7,343 4.32% PAYMENT LIVE FULFILLMENT ONRevenue per product40302010 Books Electronics Magazines Appliances e-goods OtherTop productsProduct Orders $ RevenueThe girl with the dragon tattoo 11 88.50Inception L e t ’ s k i l l t h e g r a d i e n t9s 72.50The girl who kicked the hornets nest 15 54.05
  • 111. Sales Report Jan 2012ORDERS CHANGE ACCOUNTS CHANGE SITE LIVE12,247 0.32% 7,343 4.32% PAYMENT LIVE FULFILLMENT ONRevenue per product40302010 Books Electronics Magazines Appliances e-goods OtherTop productsProduct Orders $ RevenueThe girl with the dragon tattoo 11 88.50Inception 9 72.50 Let’s kill the coloursThe girl who kicked the hornets nest 15 54.05
  • 112. HTML has a<strong>tag but no<weak> tag.As a result, weforget to thinkabout what’s lessimportant on thescreen.— Ryan Singer
  • 113. Sales Report Jan 2012 ORDERS CHANGE ACCOUNTS CHANGE SITE LIVE 12,247 0.32% 7,343 4.32% PAYMENT LIVE FULFILLMENT ON Revenue per product 40 30 20 10 Books Electronics Magazines Appliances e-goods Other Top products Product Orders $ Revenue The girl with the dragon tattoo 11 88.50 Inception 9 72.50Let’s adjust the shading. The girl who kicked the hornets nest 15 54.05
  • 114. Sales Report Jan 2012 ORDERS CHANGE ACCOUNTS CHANGE SITE LIVE 12,247 0.32% 7,343 4.32% PAYMENT LIVE FULFILLMENT ON Revenue per product 40 30 20 10 Books Electronics Magazines Appliances e-goods Other Top products Product Orders $ Revenue The girl with the dragon tattoo 11 88.50L e t ’ s a d d Inceptionn e c e s s a r y d i f f e r e n c e s the 9 72.50 The girl who kicked the hornets nest 15 54.05
  • 115. Sales Report Jan 2012 ORDERS CHANGE ACCOUNTS CHANGE SITE LIVE 12,247 0.32% 7,343 4.32% PAYMENT LIVE FULFILLMENT ON Revenue per product 40 30 20 10 Books Electronics Magazines Appliances e-goods Other Top products Product Orders $ Revenue The girl with the dragon tattoo 11 88.50F r o m h e r eInception c o u l d b e g i n t o s t y l e we 9 72.50
  • 116. This isn’t about visual design
  • 117. SALES REPORT MAY 2012ORDERS ACCOUNTS SITE12,247 0.4% 2,323 1.4% PAYMENT FULFILLMENTRevenue per product403020 10 e-goods Books Electronics Appliances Other MagazinesTop productsProduct Orders $ RevenueThe girl with the dragon tattoo 11 88.50
  • 118. SALES REPORT MAY 2012ORDERS ACCOUNTS12,247 0.4% 2,323 1.4% PA FULFILRevenue per product40
  • 119. 4 Points on Visual Design1. Remove Chart Junk2. Maximise your data ink ratio3. Use the “least effective difference” to highlight4. Remember to quieten down less important parts.
  • 120. 4 Points on Visual Design1. Remove Chart Junk2. Maximise your data ink ratio3. Use the “least effective difference” to highlight4. Remember to quieten down less important parts. 6th Takeaway
  • 121. INTRO KNOW YOUR AUDIENCETIME REMAINING KNOW YOUR DOMAIN KNOW YOUR DATA KNOW YOUR VISUALS KNOW YOUR STYLE CLOSING POINTS FIN TOPIC
  • 122. 1. VISUALS SHOULD SAY SOMETHING The worst visualisations are the ones you look at just think “Heh.”
  • 123. Looks great, but makes very little sense.
  • 124. 2. DASHBOARDS & VISUALS EVOLVE Revisit them as your data increases
  • 125. VANITY DASHBOARDS
  • 126. START WITH THE BASICS
  • 127. ADD INSIGHT AS YOU NEED IT
  • 128. ADD A YEARLY VIEW, AFTER A YEAR
  • 129. INCLUDE INSIGHTS & ACTIONS
  • 130. CONSIDER ADDING PROJECTIONS
  • 131. GET INSIGHTS INTO ENGAGEMENT What types of users do we have?
  • 132. INSIGHTS INTO ENGAGEMENT2 main clusters it appears.
  • 133. INSIGHTS INTO BUSINESS MODELS How’s that Freemium model working out for us?
  • 134. 3. PRESENTING AN ARGUMENT It’s okay to add visuals if your goal is more than the factual presentation of information
  • 135. The world is not filled withprofessional statisticians.Many of us would like a quick glancejust to get a good idea of something.If a graph is made easier tounderstand by such irrelevancies asa pile of oil cans or cars, then I sayall the better.— Don Norman
  • 136. 15105 0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Get your data first.
  • 137. Bring the fancy shit afterwards.
  • 138. Usability is not everything. If usabilityengineers designed a nightclub, it wouldbe clean, quiet, brightly lit, with lots ofplaces to sit down, plenty of bartenders,menus written in 18-point sans-serif,and easy-to-find bathrooms. But nobodywould be there. They would all be downthe street at Coyote Ugly pouring beer oneach other.— Joel Spolsky
  • 139. 4. THEY’RE NOT ALL FIRST TIMERS Like chess players understand chessboards, people can learn to understand visualisations
  • 140. This isn’t immediately understandable for everyone.
  • 141. For those used to it, it’s perfect.
  • 142. 5. IMPLEMENTATION TOOLS HTML for the win.
  • 143. Highcharts is excellent and worth the money
  • 144. Flotr2 is new, but popular
  • 145. D3 is Immense.
  • 146. D3 is Immense.
  • 147. Rickshaw (based on D3) is powerful
  • 148. HTML Charting Libraries1. Highcharts2. D33. Rickshaw4. Flotr 2
  • 149. HTML Charting Libraries1. Highcharts2. D33. Rickshaw4. Flotr 2 7th Takeaway
  • 150. 6. REFERENCES Where can I read more?
  • 151. BooksStephen Few - “Dashboard Design” & “Now you see it”Brian Suda - “Designing with Data”Edward Tufte - The first two.BlogsStephen Few -> http://perceptualedge.comIntercom (me) -> http://blog.intercom.io
  • 152. INTRO KNOW YOUR AUDIENCETIME REMAINING KNOW YOUR DOMAIN KNOW YOUR DATA KNOW YOUR VISUALS KNOW YOUR STYLE CLOSING POINTS FIN TOPIC
  • 153. Thanks everyone! – @destraynor