One of the many hurdles in eliminating poverty and hunger in the developing world involves dealing with corruption. In this presentation I will discuss several topics including what is corruption, where are some areas of corruption in the developing world, what are the effects on the corruption , and what is being done to eliminate and prevent corruption in the future.
Corruption is defined as “the abuse of authority for private gain”(Tucker,2009). Corruption can be a road block for economic development, and it can take many forms. From misappropriating aid given by relief agencies, bribery, and acts of extortion these forms of corruption can be a very quick deterrent to progress in the developing world.Corruption is defined in two different levels; petty corruption and grand corruption. Petty corruption involves lower level civil servants being bribed to help clients get special privileges. Grand corruption deals with big business getting special treatment from government figures higher in stature (Okonjo-Iweala, 2007).Regardless of the stature, petty or grand, corruption has caused significant problems for the developing world. In most developing countries corruption is very widespread and varies from government contracts to everyday public services and basic human rights (Hors,2000). In Kenya a recent poll indicated that a person can expect pay a bribe every two weeks for common events such as hospital admission (Lancet, 2005). Corruption has become second nature to many in the developing world, it is quite simply a part of everyday life.Although it is impossible to get an exact number in regards to magnitude of the corruption (Abler, 2009) the World bank has calculated that the amount of money generated by the corruption that is occurring is absolutely astounding. The developing world receives around $100 billion dollars in aid every year to help combat hunger and poverty issues. Corrupt and unjust practices, in the same areas that receive aid, generate approximately $900 billion dollars a year. Nine times the amount of aid given to eliminate hunger and poverty is being generated in the developing world, only it is not being used to help eliminate the problems surrounding these countries (Adusei, 2009). If even a portion of that money was reinvested into the well-being of the developing world I believe that a significant amount of progress would be seen in controlling and possibly eliminating poverty and hunger.
Political corruption in India can be summed up in this quote from Mahatma Gandhi in 1939. As we can see corruption, political corruption, in the developing world in not new development. It has been part of the culture for quite awhile.
Corruption leads to many effects on the people residing in the countries of the developing world. Whether it’s a lack of human development, extreme poverty, disease and hunger, or a fundamental lack of education for one’s people all of these effects can be linked to corruption (Gloster-Coates & Quest, 2005).Corruption has a profound impact on many aspects of the poor in the developing world and it all leads to one outcome for them, inequity. Corruption often leads to low quality services and products being sold at higher prices (Abler, 2007). Products and services at a high price restrict the poor from being able to afford even the basic necessities such as food and shelter. In India 26% of the population (over 1 billion people total in India) live below the poverty line. Any efforts to raise the standard of living or create food security for these individuals is limited by the corruption that takes place. Out of the $3.75 million spent to provide food to those in need 67% is leaked to the black market instead (Nagarajan, 2001). In areas like Africa corruption has diverted resources from there intended use, corrupted values in people and leaders, and led to many unjust practices instead of positive ones (Okonjo-Iweala,2007). The bottom like is that corruption damages a countries development and is very inequitable.Those who are corrupt are causing malfeasance by their effort for personal gain. Their actions cause significant harm to the poor and hungry who cannot afford to buy the higher priced food. The sick are harmed because they do not have access to money or medicine for some of the common ailments such as HIV/Aids or TB. This is something that seems to get lost in the actions of the corrupt; committing these crimes and causing people to suffer and die seems like it would be hard to live with on your conscience.
Organizations internationally have recognized corruption as a problem and have enacted rules for developing and developed nations to follow. Programs have been implemented to ensure fair contracting practices and eliminating misappropriation due to corruption.Aid organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the UN have started requiring members to pass and uphold laws against corrupt practices(Heinemann, 2006).Another way corruption is being addressed is by bringing international and media attention. By raising public awareness of corruption maybe more people can step in and help (Johnson,2002). Other efforts include establishing checks and balances in developing world governments. Setting forth measures for financial transparency and a general change in the prevailing thought that corruption is not an acceptable practice (Johnson,2002). All of these efforts lead to the same end result, helping those in need. Eliminating corruption, or at least impeding it somewhat, will allow the money and aid to be delivered where it can do the most good for the most people. This utilitarian view of doing the most good for the most people will help with food security, education, health, and many other aspects of everyday life in the developing world.
Political corruption and hunger in the developing world
Political corruption and hunger in the developing world<br />Presentation By Destery Hildenbrand<br />
Introduction<br />Define corruption<br />Areas of corruption<br />Internal effects<br />International aid<br />Effects of corruption on hunger<br />Poor always suffer the most<br />Future Prevention<br />International assistance<br />
What is Corruption?<br /><ul><li>“Abuse of authority for private gain” (Tucker, 2009)</li></ul>Prominent since the 1990’s<br />Globally recognized<br />Different levels<br />Petty Corruption<br />Grand Corruption<br />Prevalence and scope<br />Kenya bribes<br />Aid in vs. corrupt money out<br />
Areas of Corruption<br />International Aid<br />Political agendas<br />Black market<br />40% of India's economic output (Nagarajan, 2001)<br />Not taxes = No money for social development<br />Internal effects<br />Public services<br />Underdevelopment<br />
Areas of Corruption Cont.<br /><ul><li>Zimbabwe
Support corrupt leaders</li></ul>The plight of Zimbabwe under the rule of Robert Mugabe. In Zimbabwe corruption is at a very high level.<br />Click movie To play<br />
Areas of Corruption Cont.<br />I would go to the length of giving the whole congress a decent burial, rather than put up with the corruption that is rampant." --- Mahatma Gandhi May 1939<br />
Corruption and Hunger<br />Corruption = High food prices = Hunger<br />Aid efforts fail<br />Poor Hit Hardest<br />
What can be done<br />Policies and law<br />Fair contracting<br />Raise awareness<br />International Media<br />Transparency<br />
Works Cited<br />1600 Pennsylvania Avenue - Hypocrisy Watch Robert Mugabe.Perf. David Shuster. MSNBC. 2009.<br />"A glimmer of hope for Africa." Lancet (June 2005).<br />Adusei, Lord Aikins. Switzerland: A Parasite Feeding on Poor African and Third World Countries? Wednesday June 2009. 7th October 2009 <http://www.modernghana.com/news/222415/1/switzerland-a-parasite-feeding-on-poor-african-and.html>.<br />Braimah, Sulemana. Why Foreign Aid has Failed to Develop Africa. 27 May 2009. 7th October 2009 <http://povertyworlddevelopment.suite101.com/article.cfm/why_foreign_aid_has_failed_to_develop_africa>.<br />Elliot, john. "India scandal won't spark reforms." 23rd January 2009. CNN.com. 7th October 2009 <http://money.cnn.com/2009/01/23/news/international/satyam_scandal.fortune/index.htm>.<br />Gloster-Coates, Patricia and Linda Quest. "KLEPTOCRACY: CURSE OF DEVELOPMENT." International Social Science Review (2005): p3-19.<br />Heineman, Ben W and Fritz Heimann. "The Long War Against Corruption." Foreign Affairs (2006): 75-86.<br />Hors, Irène. Fighting corruption in the developing countries. April 2000. 7th October 2009 <http://www.oecdobserver.org/news/fullstory.php/aid/291/Fighting_corruption_in_the_developing_countries.html>.<br />Johnson, Dan. "Progress Against Corruption." Futurist (2002): P12.<br />Muponda, Gilbert. "Corruption driving Zimbabwe's inflation." 1st December 2008. newzimbabwe.com. 7th October 2009 <http://www.newzimbabwe.com/pages/inflation181.17413.html>.<br />Norgaard, kim. Aid group: Missing cash hits Zimbabwe's malaria fight. 3rd November 2008. 7th October 2009 <http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/africa/11/03/zimbabwe.malaria.money.corruption/index.html>.<br />Okonjo-Iweala, Ngozi. Corruption in a Developing Country Context. 25th July 2007. 8th October 2009 <http://www.globalpolicy.org/component/content/article/172/30301.html>.<br />Upadhyay, R. "Political Corruption in India: An Analysis." 30th March 2003. South Asia Analysis Group. 8th October 2009 <http://www.southasiaanalysis.org/%5Cpapers3%5Cpaper219.htm>.<br />Vittal, Nagarajan. "Corruption and the State India, Technology, and Transparency." Harvard International Review 23.3 (Fall2001): p20.<br />
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